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Index Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs". [1]

140 relations: 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf, 'Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As, 'Amr ibn al-'As, Aban bin Uthman bin Affan, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abdallah ibn Amir, Abdallah ibn Sa'd, Abu Bakr, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Affan ibn Abi al-'As, Afghanistan, Aghlabids, Agriculture, Ahnaf ibn Qais, Aisha, Al-Andalus, Al-Baqi', Al-Fitna Al-Kubra, Al-Tabari, Al-Walid ibn Uqba, Ali, Allowance (money), Amu Darya, Ansari (nesba), Arab–Byzantine wars, Arabian Peninsula, Armenia, Army, Arwa bint Kurayz, Balochistan, Banu Abd-Shams, Banu Tamim, Banu Umayya, Barnaby Rogerson, Basra, Battle of Hamra al-Asad, Battle of Oxus River, Battle of the Masts, Bernard Lewis, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Civil war, Constantinople, Copts, Coup d'état, Cyprus, Dhu al-Hijjah, Dower, Emirate of Bari, ..., Emirate of Crete, Emirate of Sicily, Ethiopia, Ethiopian Empire, Exarchate of Africa, Farewell Pilgrimage, Fars Province, Fred Donner, Greater Khorasan, Gregory the Patrician, Hasan ibn Ali, Hephthalite Empire, Heraclius, Hijri year, Historian, History of Islam, History of the Prophets and Kings, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Qutaybah, Iran, Islam, Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, Jews, Jubayr ibn Mut'im, List of monarchs of Persia, List of Sahabah, Lycia, Mahr, Marwan I, Mecca, Medina, Mediterranean Sea, Monophysitism, Muawiya, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa, Muhammad ibn Maslamah, Muslim world, Na'ila bint al-Furafisa, Orphan, Oxford University Press, Paganism, Pakistan, Persian language, Politics, Pre-Islamic Arabia, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Quraysh, R. V. C. Bodley, Rashidun, Rashidun Caliphate, Rhodes, Ridda wars, Riyadh, Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri, Sahabah, Salary, Sasanian Empire, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Scholarly method, Sea, Shushtar, Siege of Herat (652), Spain, Sunni Islam, Syria, Ta'if, Talhah, The event of Ghadir Khumm, The Succession to Muhammad, Timing of Sahabah becoming Muslims, Transoxiana, Turkish language, Turkmenistan, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Hakim bint Abdul Muttalib, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, University of Zurich, Usama ibn Zayd, Widow, Wilferd Madelung, Yazdegerd III, Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan, Zayd ibn Harithah, Zayd ibn Thabit, Zubayr ibn al-Awam. Expand index (90 more) »

'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf

'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf (عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (c.581 CE – c.654 CE) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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'Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As

'Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As (died 684 CE/65 AH, the son of 'Amr ibn al-'As of Banu Sahm) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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'Amr ibn al-'As

'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.

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Aban bin Uthman bin Affan

Aban bin Uthman bin Affan (died 105 A.H / 723 CE) was a Muhaddith, Faqīh, Mufassir, and Muslim historian.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr

`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (عبد الله بن الزبير ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692) was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr.

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Abdallah ibn Amir

Abdallah ibn Amir (عبدالله بن عامر) was a governor of Busra (647–656) and a notably successful military general during the reign of Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan.

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Abdallah ibn Sa'd

ʿAbdallāh ibn Saʿd ibn Abī Sarḥ; (عبدالله بن سعد بن أبي السرح) was the milk brother of Uthman.

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Abu Bakr

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.

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Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah

Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ (أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Affan ibn Abi al-'As

Affan ibn Abi al-As is the ancestor of a Sahaba.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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The Aghlabids (الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ahnaf ibn Qais

Al-Ahnaf Ibn Qays was a Muslim general who lived during the time of prophet Muhammad.

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‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.

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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Jannaṫ al-Baqī‘ (lit) is a cemetery in Medina, the Hijazi region of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Al-Fitna Al-Kubra

Al Fitna Al Kubra (The Great Upheaval) is a book by Islamic scholar Taha Husain.

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Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.

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Al-Walid ibn Uqba

Walid ibn Uqba (وليد بن عقبة) was one of the companions of Muhammad.

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Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.

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Allowance (money)

An allowance is an amount of money given or allotted usually at regular intervals for a specific purpose.

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Amu Darya

The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.

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Ansari (nesba)

Al-Ansari or simply "Ansari" is a surname found mainly in Arab states of the Persian Gulf and other Arab and South Asian countries.

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Arab–Byzantine wars

The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the East Roman or Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.

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Arwa bint Kurayz

Arwa bint Kurayz (أروى بنت كريز) was the mother of Uthman ibn Affan, a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and the third of the Sunni Rashidun or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.

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Banu Abd-Shams

Banu Abd Shams refers to a clan within the Meccan tribe of Quraysh.

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Banu Tamim

The tribe of Banu Tamim (بـنـو تـمـيـم) or Bani Tamim (بـني تـمـيـم) is one of the main tribes of Arabia.

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Banu Umayya

The Banu Umayya (بنو أمية), also known as the Umayyads (الأمويون / بنو أمية al-Umawiyyun), were a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams.

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Barnaby Rogerson

Barnaby Rogerson (born 17 May 1960) is a British author, television presenter and publisher.

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Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Battle of Hamra al-Asad

The Battle of Hamra al-Assad (غزوة حمراء الأسد), was a Ghazawat, a battle in which the Islamic prophet Muhammad took part.

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Battle of Oxus River

The Battle of Oxus River was a significant battle in the 7th century, fought between the combined armies of the Sassanid and Göktürk Empires against the Muslim Arab army that had overrun Persia.

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Battle of the Masts

The Battle of the Masts (Arabic: معركة ذات الصواري, romanized Ma‘rakat Dhāt al-Ṣawārī) or Battle of Phoenix was a crucial naval battle fought in 654 (A.H. 34) between the Muslim Arabs, led by Abu'l-Awar and the Byzantine fleet under the personal command of Emperor Constans II.

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Bernard Lewis

Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Civil war

A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dhu al-Hijjah

Dhu'l-Hijjah or alternatively Zulhijja (ذو الحجة; properly transliterated, also called Zil-Hajj) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.

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Dower is a provision accorded by law, but traditionally by a husband or his family, to a wife for her support in the event that she should become widowed.

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Emirate of Bari

The Emirate of Bari was a short-lived Islamic state ruled by non-Arab mawali.

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Emirate of Crete

The Emirate of Crete (called Iqritish or Iqritiya in Arabic) was a Muslim state that existed on the Mediterranean island of Crete from the late 820s to the Byzantine reconquest of the island in 961.

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Emirate of Sicily

The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.

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Exarchate of Africa

The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered at Carthage, Tunisia, which encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean.

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Farewell Pilgrimage

The Farewell Pilgrimage (Arabic: حجة الوداع) was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage Muhammad, prophet of Islam, participated in 632 CE (10 AH).

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Fars Province

Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.

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Fred Donner

Fred McGraw Donner (born 1945) is a scholar of Islam and Professor of Near Eastern History at the University of Chicago.

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Gregory the Patrician

Gregory the Patrician (Γρηγόριος, Flavius Gregorius, died 647) was a Byzantine Exarch of Africa (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria).

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Hasan ibn Ali

Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.

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Hephthalite Empire

The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.

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Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.

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Hijri year

The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.

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A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.

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History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

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History of the Prophets and Kings

The History of the Prophets and Kings (تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk), more commonly known as Tarikh al-Tabari (تاريخ الطبري) or Tarikh-i Tabari (تاریخ طبری) is an Arabic-language historical chronicle written by the Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923).

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Husayn ibn Ali

Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.

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Ibn Kathir

Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.

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Ibn Qutaybah

Abū Muhammad Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī or simply Ibn Qutaybah (Ibn Qutaybah; 828 – 13 November 889 CE / 213 – 15 Rajab 276 AH) was a renowned Islamic scholar of Persian origin.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Jacobite Syrian Christian Church

The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church also known as the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church or the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, is an Oriental Orthodox Church based in the Indian state of Kerala, and is an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jubayr ibn Mut'im

Jubayr ibn Mut‘im (جبير بن مطعم) (d. http://dictionary.al-islam.com/Arb/Dicts/SelDict.asp?DI.

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List of monarchs of Persia

This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

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List of Sahabah

Aṣ-ṣaḥābah (الصحابة, "The Companions") were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who had met or had seen him at the time of when he was alive as well as wanting to intentionally see him.

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Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 Trm̃mis; Λυκία, Lykía; Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, and Burdur Province inland.

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In Islam, a mahr (in مهر; مهريه; Mehir also transliterated mehr, meher, mehrieh or mahriyeh) is a mandatory payment, in the form of money or possessions paid by the groom, or by groom's father, to the bride at the time of marriage, that legally becomes her property.

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Marwan I

Marwān ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams (مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية), commonly known as Marwan I (ca. 623–626 — April/May 685) was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling for less than a year in 684–685, and founder of its Marwanid ruling house, which remained in power until 750.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.

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Mu‘āwīyya or Muawiyah or Muaawiya (معاوية) is a male Arabic given name of disputed meaning.

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Muawiyah I

Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa

Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa (Arabic: محمد بن أبي حذيفة) was the son of Abu Hudhayfa ibn 'Utba and Sahla bint Suhail.

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Muhammad ibn Maslamah

Muhammad ibn Maslamah (محمد بن مسلمة الأنصاري) (c.591-c.666) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Na'ila bint al-Furafisa

Nāʾila bint al-Furāfiṣa (نائلة بنت الفرافصة) was the wife of Uthman, the third Caliph of the Islamic Empire.

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An orphan (from the ορφανός orphanós) is someone whose parents have died, unknown, or have permanently abandoned them.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Pre-Islamic Arabia

Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s.

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Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).

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The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.

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R. V. C. Bodley

Ronald Victor Courtenay Bodley, MC (3 March 1892 – 26 May 1970) was a British Army officer, author and journalist.

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The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.

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Ridda wars

The Ridda Wars (Arabic: حروب الردة), also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633, just after Muhammad died.

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Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.

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Ruqayyah bint Muhammad

Ruqayyah bint Muhammad (رقية بنت محمد) (c.601 - 624) is regarded as the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadija.

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Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri

Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri (6 June 1943 – 1 December 2006) was an Indian writer.

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The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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A salary is a form of payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas

Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās (سعد بن أبي وقاص) was of the companions of the Islamic prophet.

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Scholarly method

The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.

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A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.

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Shushtar (شوشتر; also Romanized as Shūshtar and Shūstar, and Shooshtar) is a city and capital of Shushtar County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

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Siege of Herat (652)

The Siege of Herat was part of the Islamic conquest of Persia which was commanded by Ahnaf ibn Qais.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).

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Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (طلحة بن عبيدالله) (594-656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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The event of Ghadir Khumm

The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic and Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) is an event that took place in March 632.

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The Succession to Muhammad

The Succession to Muhammad is a book by Wilferd Madelung published by the Cambridge University Press in 1997.

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Timing of Sahabah becoming Muslims

Among Muslims, the timing of Sahabah becoming Muslims is of importance.

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Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Umm Hakim bint Abdul Muttalib

Umm Hakim bint Abdul Muttalib was an aunt of Muhammad.

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Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad

Umm Kulthum (أم كلثوم) (603–630) is considered to be the third daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.

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University of Zurich

The University of Zurich (UZH, Universität Zürich), located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students.

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Usama ibn Zayd

Usama bin Zayd (أسامة بن زيد) was the son of Zayd ibn Harithah, Muhammad's freed slave, whom he adopted as his son.

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A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.

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Wilferd Madelung

Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam.

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Yazdegerd III

Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.

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Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan

Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan (Yazīd bin Abī Sufyān) was one of the companions (ṣaḥābah) of Muhammad.

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Zayd ibn Harithah

Zayd ibn Harithah (زيد بن حارثة) (c. 581 – 629 CE) was a companion of Muhammad who was at one stage regarded as his (adoptive) son.

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Zayd ibn Thabit

According to Islamic traditions, Zayd ibn Thabit (زيد بن ثابت) was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was from the ansar (helpers).

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Zubayr ibn al-Awam

Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (594–656) was a companion of Muhammad and a commander in the Rashidun army.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uthman

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