138 relations: A System of Logic, A Theory of Justice, Act utilitarianism, Adam Smith, Agency (philosophy), Altruism (ethics), An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, Animal Liberation (book), Animal rights, Animal rights movement, Annals of the Parish, Appeal to consequences, Applied ethics, Aristippus, Aristotelian Society, Aristotle, Augustine of Hippo, Average and total utilitarianism, Biodiversity, Bounded rationality, Buddhism, Cato Institute, Chinese philosophy, Christian Wolff (philosopher), Classical liberalism, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Consequentialism, Cost–benefit analysis, Daniel Dennett, Das Kapital, David Braybrooke, David Hume, David Pearce (philosopher), Decision analysis, Decision theory, Deep ecology, Derek Parfit, Effective altruism, Empathy, Epicurus, Equal consideration of interests, Equivocation, Ethical egoism, Ethics of eating meat, Eudaimonia, Evil, Fallacy of composition, Felicific calculus, Form follows function, Frances Kamm, ..., Francis Hutcheson (philosopher), Fraser's Magazine, Fred Feldman (philosopher), G. E. Moore, Global catastrophic risk, Global Happiness Organization, Gross National Happiness, Han Feizi, Happiness, Hastings Rashdall, Hedonism, Henry Sidgwick, How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, Immanuel Kant, Intention, J. J. C. Smart, Jeremy Bentham, John Bowring, John Galt (novelist), John Gay (philosopher), John Harsanyi, John Rawls, John Stuart Mill, Jonathan Dancy, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Leslie Stephen, List of utilitarians, Martin Farquhar Tupper, Mere addition paradox, Michael Otsuka, Modern Moral Philosophy, Mohism, Moral character, Morality, Mouvement Anti-Utilitariste dans les Sciences Sociales, Naturalistic fallacy, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicomachean Ethics, Ninian Smart, Personalism, Peter Singer, Pierre Étienne Louis Dumont, Pleasure principle (psychology), Pope John Paul II, Princeton University Press, Prioritarianism, Probabilistic logic, R. M. Hare, Relative utilitarianism, Richard Brandt, Richard D. Ryder, Robert Merrihew Adams, Roger Chao, Roger Crisp, Rule utilitarianism, SAGE Publications, Satisficing, Sentience, Social Research (journal), Socrates, Speciesism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State consequentialism, Straw man, The Methods of Ethics, The New School, The Theory of Good and Evil, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Nagel, Thomas Rawson Birks, Three Mile Island accident, Toby Ord, Tyler Cowen, Uncertainty, Utilitarian bioethics, Utilitarian cake-cutting, Utilitarianism (book), Utility, Utility monster, Vice, Well-being, Wild animal suffering, William and Mary Quarterly, William Paley, Work-to-rule. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive is an 1843 book by English philosopher John Stuart Mill.
A Theory of Justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by John Rawls, in which the author attempts to solve the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society) by utilising a variant of the familiar device of the social contract.
Act utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics which states that a person's act is morally right if and only if it produces the best possible results in that specific situation.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.
Altruism (also called the ethic of altruism, moralistic altruism, and ethical altruism) is an ethical doctrine that holds that the moral value of an individual's actions depend solely on the impact on other individuals, regardless of the consequences on the individual itself.
An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (EPM) is a book by Scottish enlightenment philosopher David Hume.
Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals is a 1975 book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
The animal rights movement, sometimes called the animal liberation movement, animal personhood, or animal advocacy movement, is a social movement which seeks an end to the rigid moral and legal distinction drawn between human and non-human animals, an end to the status of animals as property, and an end to their use in the research, food, clothing, and entertainment industries.
Annals of the Parish (full title: Annals of the parish: or, The chronicle of Dalmailing; during the ministry of the Rev. Micah Balwhidder, written by himself) is an 1821 novel of Scottish country life by John Galt.
Appeal to consequences, also known as argumentum ad consequentiam (Latin for "argument to the consequences"), is an argument that concludes a hypothesis (typically a belief) to be either true or false based on whether the premise leads to desirable or undesirable consequences.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the analysis of particular moral issues in private and public life.
Aristippus of Cyrene (Ἀρίστιππος ὁ Κυρηναῖος; c. 435 – c. 356 BCE) was the founder of the Cyrenaic school of Philosophy.
The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy, more generally known as the Aristotelian Society, was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880, at 17 Bloomsbury Square.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Utilitarianism usually states that maximising the quality of conscious experience is important; indeed it is generally the basis of its consequentialist approach to ethics.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf,; also known as Wolfius; ennobled as Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754) was a German philosopher.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Claude Adrien Helvétius (26 January 1715 – 26 December 1771) was a French philosopher, freemason and littérateur.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes called benefit costs analysis (BCA), is a systematic approach to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions, activities, functional business requirements or projects investments); it is used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
David Braybrooke (October 18, 1924 – August 7, 2013) was a political philosopher and professor emeritus at both Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada and the University of Texas at Austin.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Pearce is co-founder of the World Transhumanist Association, currently rebranded and incorporated as Humanity+, Inc., and a prominent figure within the transhumanism movement.
Decision analysis (DA) is the discipline comprising the philosophy, theory, methodology, and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas.
Derek Antony Parfit, FBA (11 December 1942 – 1 January 2017) was a British philosopher who specialised in personal identity, rationality, and ethics.
Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that uses evidence and reasoning to determine the most effective ways to benefit others.
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
"Equal consideration of interests" is a moral principle that states that one should both include all affected interests when calculating the rightness of an action and weigh those interests equally.
In logic, equivocation ('calling two different things by the same name') is an informal fallacy resulting from the use of a particular word/expression in multiple senses throughout an argument leading to a false conclusion.
Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.
The question of whether it is right to eat non-human animals (henceforth "animals") is among the most prominent topics in food ethics.
Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
The fallacy of composition arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole (or even of every proper part).
The felicific calculus is an algorithm formulated by utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) for calculating the degree or amount of pleasure that a specific action is likely to cause.
Form follows function is a principle associated with 20th-century modernist architecture and industrial design which says that the shape of a building or object should primarily relate to its intended function or purpose.
Frances M. Kamm is an American philosopher specialising in normative and applied ethics.
Francis Hutcheson (8 August 1694 – 8 August 1746) was an Irish philosopher born in Ulster to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became known as one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country was a general and literary journal published in London from 1830 to 1882, which initially took a strong Tory line in politics.
Fred Feldman (born Newark, New Jersey, 1941) is an American philosopher who specializes in ethical theory.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale, even crippling or destroying modern civilization.
Global Happiness Organization (GHO) is an international non-profit organization, founded under the name "Charity International".
Gross National Happiness (also known by the acronym: GNH) is a philosophy that guides the government of Bhutan.
The Han Feizi is an ancient Chinese text attributed to foundational political philosopher, "Master" Han Fei.
In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.
Hastings Rashdall, FBA (24 June 1858, London – 9 February 1924, Worthing) was an English philosopher, theologian, and historian.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Henry Sidgwick (31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist; he held the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy from the year 1883 until his death.
How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time is a 2008 book by Iain King.
Iain Benjamin King is a British writer.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Intention is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future.
John Jamieson Carswell "Jack" Smart AC (16 September 1920 – 6 October 2012) was an Australian philosopher and academic, and was appointed as an Emeritus Professor by the Australian National University.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Sir John Bowring, KCB (Chinese translated name: 寶寧, 寶靈 (for Putonghua speakers) or 包令 (for Cantonese)) (Thai: พระยาสยามมานุกูลกิจ สยามมิตรมหายศ) (17 October 1792 – 23 November 1872) was an English political economist, traveller, writer, literary translator, polyglot, and the fourth Governor of Hong Kong.
John Galt (2 May 1779 – 11 April 1839) was a Scottish novelist, entrepreneur, and political and social commentator.
John Gay (1699–1745), a cousin of the poet John Gay, was an English philosopher, biblical scholar and Church of England clergyman.
John Charles Harsanyi (Harsányi János Károly; May 29, 1920 – August 9, 2000) was a Hungarian-American economist.
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Jonathan Peter Dancy, FBA (born 8 May 1946) is a British philosopher, who has written on ethics and epistemology.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Sir Leslie Stephen (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic, historian, biographer, and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.
This is an incomplete list of advocates of utilitarianism and/or consequentialism.
Martin Farquhar Tupper (17 July 1810 in London – November 1889 in Albury, Surrey) was an English writer, and poet, and the author of Proverbial Philosophy.
The mere addition paradox, also known as the repugnant conclusion, is a problem in ethics, identified by Derek Parfit and discussed in his book Reasons and Persons (1984).
Michael Otsuka (born 1964) is a left-libertarian political philosopher and Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Logic & Scientific Method at the London School of Economics since 2013, and a member of LSE's Court of Governors.
"Modern Moral Philosophy" is an article on moral philosophy by G. E. M. Anscombe, originally published in the journal Philosophy, vol.
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.
Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individual's stable moral qualities.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
The Mouvement anti-utilitariste dans les sciences sociales (Anti-utilitarian Movement in the Social Sciences) is a French intellectual movement.
In philosophical ethics, the term "naturalistic fallacy" was introduced by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his 1903 book Principia Ethica.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
Roderick Ninian Smart (6 May 1927 – 9 January 2001) was a Scottish writer and university educator.
Personalism is a philosophical school of thought searching to describe the uniqueness of 1) God as Supreme Person or 2) a human person in the world of nature, specifically in relation to animals. One of the main points of interest of personalism is human subjectivity or self-consciousness, experienced in a person's own acts and inner happenings—in "everything in the human being that is internal, whereby each human being is an eyewitness of its own self". Other principles.
Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.
Pierre Étienne Louis Dumont (18 July 1759 – 29 September 1829), known as Étienne Dumont, sometimes anglicised as Stephen Dumont, was a Genevan political writer.
In Freudian psychoanalysis, the pleasure principle (Lustprinzip) is the instinctive seeking of pleasure and avoiding of pain in order to satisfy biological and psychological needs.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Prioritarianism or the priority view is a view within ethics and political philosophy that holds that the goodness of an outcome is a function of overall well-being across all individuals with extra weight given to worse-off individuals.
The aim of a probabilistic logic (also probability logic and probabilistic reasoning) is to combine the capacity of probability theory to handle uncertainty with the capacity of deductive logic to exploit structure of formal argument.
Richard Mervyn Hare (21 March 1919 – 29 January 2002), usually cited as R. M. Hare, was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983.
Let X be a set of possible `states of the world' or `alternatives'; society wishes to choose some state from X. Let I be a finite set, representing a collection of people.
Richard Booker Brandt (17 October 1910 – 10 September 1997) was an American philosopher working in the utilitarian tradition in moral philosophy.
Richard Hood Jack Dudley Ryder (born 1940) is a British writer, psychologist, and animal rights advocate.
Robert Merrihew Adams (born September 8, 1937), known to intimates as "Bob", is an American analytic philosopher of metaphysics, religion and morality.
Roger Chao, FRGS, is an Australian explorer, mountain climber, philosopher and ethicist.
Roger Stephen Crisp (born 23 March 1961) is fellow and tutor in philosophy at St. Anne’s College, Oxford.
Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that says an action is right as it conforms to a rule that leads to the greatest good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance".
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.
Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.
Social Research is a quarterly academic journal of the social sciences, published by The New School for Social Research, the graduate social science division of The New School.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Speciesism involves the assignment of different values, rights, or special consideration to individuals solely on the basis of their species membership.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Mohist consequentialism, also known as state consequentialism, is a consequentialist ethical theory which evaluates the moral worth of an action based on how it contributes to the basic goods of a state, through social order, material wealth, and population growth.
A straw man is a common form of argument and is an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.
The Methods of Ethics is a book on ethics first published in 1874 by the English philosopher Henry Sidgwick.
The New School is a private non-profit research university centered in Manhattan, New York City, USA, located mostly in Greenwich Village.
The Theory of Good and Evil is a 1907 book about ethics by the English philosopher Hastings Rashdall, in which the author expounds a theory he calls "ideal utilitarianism".
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937) is an American philosopher and University Professor of Philosophy and Law Emeritus at New York University, where he taught from 1980 to 2016.
Thomas Rawson Birks (28 September 1810 – 19 July 1883) was an English theologian and controversialist, who figured in the debate to try to resolve theology and science.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
Toby David Godfrey Ord (born 18 July 1979) is an Australian philosopher.
Tyler Cowen (born January 21, 1962) is an American economist, who is an economics professor at George Mason University, where he holds the Holbert C. Harris chair in the economics department.
Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".
Utilitarian bioethics is a branch of utilitarian ethics and bioethics that recommends directing medical resources where they will have most long-term effect for good.
Utilitarian cake-cutting is a rule for dividing a heterogeneous resource, such as a cake or a land-estate, among several partners with different cardinal utility functions.
John Stuart Mill's book Utilitarianism is a classic exposition and defence of utilitarianism in ethics.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
The utility monster is a thought experiment in the study of ethics created by philosopher Robert Nozick in 1974 as a criticism of utilitarianism.
Vice is a practice, behaviour, or habit generally considered immoral, sinful, criminal, rude, taboo, depraved, or degrading in the associated society.
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.
Wild animal suffering is the suffering experienced by nonhuman animals in nature through causes such as disease, injury, starvation, natural disasters, and killings by other animals.
The William and Mary Quarterly is a quarterly history journal published by the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture.
William Paley (July 1743 – 25 May 1805) was an English clergyman, Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian.
Work-to-rule is an industrial action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of their contract, and precisely follow all safety or other regulations, which may cause a slowdown or decrease in productivity, as they are no longer working during breaks or during unpaid extended hours and weekends (checking email, for instance).
Criticism of utilitarianism, Criticisms of utilitarianism, Ethical utilitarian, GGGN, Greatest good for the greatest number, Social utility, Utalitarianism, Utilitarian, Utilitarian ethics, Utilitarian theory of property, Utilitarianist, Utilitarianistic, Utilitarians, Utilitarism, Utilitarists.