68 relations: Altai Mountains, An Lushan, An Lushan Rebellion, Artux, Astana, Özmiş Khagan, Basmyl, Baurchuk Art Tekin, Bayanchur Khan, Bezeklik Caves, Buddhism, Chang'an, Chigils, China, Emperor Suzong of Tang, Ethnic groups in Chinese history, Gansu, Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom, Gaochang, Göktürks, Genghis Khan, Gobi Desert, Guazhou County, Guo Ziyi, History of the Uyghur people, International Studies Quarterly, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Karakorum, Karluks, Kashgar, Kutlug I Bilge Kagan, List of Turkic dynasties and countries, Luoyang, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Manichaeism, Mongol Empire, New Book of Tang, Old Book of Tang, Old Turkic language, Old Uyghur alphabet, Old Uyghur language, Ordos Desert, Ordu-Baliq, Otuken, Phenotype, Qocho, Second Turkic Khaganate, Selenga River, Shaanxi, Shatuo, ..., Shiwei, Silk Road, Sogdia, Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan, Tang dynasty, Tangut people, Tengrism, Toquz Oghuz, Turgesh, Turkestan, Turkic peoples, Turpan, Uyghur language, Wuwei, Gansu, Xiongnu, Yagma, Yenisei Kyrgyz, Zhetysu. Expand index (18 more) » « Shrink index
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
An Lushan (703 – 29 January 757) was a general in the Tang dynasty and is primarily known for instigating the An Lushan Rebellion.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
Artux, Atush or Atushi (Xiao'erjing: اَتُشِ;; ارتىش, Артыш, Artış) is a county-level city in Xinjiang.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Özmiş Khagan was the last khagan (ruler) of the Second Turkic Khaganate (Göktürks).
The Basmyls (Basmyl; Basmals, Basmils, Basmïl) were a 7th- to 8th-century nomadic tribe who mostly inhabited the Dzungaria region in the northwest of modern-day China.
Baurchuk Art Tekin (known also as Idikut Baurchuk, Idikut Barchuq) was a ruler, with a title of Idikut, of the Buddhist Uyghur Kara-Khoja Kingdom (856-1389) in Beshbalik (near present-day Urumqi), Kara-Khoja (near present-day Turpan, known also as Idikut-Shahri) and Kumul between 1208 and 1235.
Bayanchur Khan (known also as Moyanchur Khan),E.g., Bo Yang Edition of the Zizhi Tongjian, vol.
The Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves is a complex of Buddhist cave grottos dating from the 5th to 14th century between the cities of Turpan and Shanshan (Loulan) at the north-east of the Taklamakan Desert near the ancient ruins of Gaochang in the Mutou Valley, a gorge in the Flaming Mountains, China.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
The Chigil (Chihil, and also Jigil, Djikil, Chiyal) were a Turkic tribe known from the 7th century CE as living around Issyk Kul lake area.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Emperor Suzong of Tang (19 October 711 – 16 May 762; r. 756 – 762), personal name Li Heng, né Li Sisheng (李嗣升), known as Li Jun (李浚) from 725 to 736, known as Li Yu (李璵) from 736 to 738, known briefly as Li Shao (李紹) in 738, was an emperor of the Tang dynasty and the son of Emperor Xuanzong.
Ethnic groups in Chinese history refer to various or presumed ethnicities of significance to the history of China, gathered through the study of Classical Chinese literature, Chinese and non-Chinese literary sources and inscriptions, historical linguistics, and archaeological research.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom, also referred to as the Hexi Uyghurs, was established in 894 around Gan Prefecture in modern Zhangye.
Gaochang (Old Uyghur: قۇچۇ, Qocho), also called Karakhoja, Qara-hoja, Kara-Khoja, or Karahoja (قاراغوجا in Uyghur), is the site of a ruined, ancient oasis city on the northern rim of the inhospitable Taklamakan Desert in present-day Xinjiang, China.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.
Guazhou County, formerly (until 2006) Anxi County, is a county in the northwest of Gansu province, the People's Republic of China.
Guo Ziyi (Kuo Tzu-i; Traditional Chinese: 郭子儀, Simplified Chinese: 郭子仪, Hanyu Pinyin: Guō Zǐyí, Wade-Giles: Kuo1 Tzu3-i2) (697 – July 9, 781), formally Prince Zhōngwǔ of Fényáng (汾陽忠武王), was the Tang dynasty general who ended the An Lushan Rebellion and participated in expeditions against the Uyghur Khaganate) and Tibetan Empire. He was regarded as one of the most powerful Tang generals before and after the Anshi Rebellion. After his death he was immortalized in Chinese mythology as the God of Wealth and Happiness (Lu Star of Fu Lu Shou). Guo Ziyi was a reportedly a Nestorian Christian.
Uyghur nationalist historians in the People's Republic of China posit that the Uyghur people is millennia-old, and can be divided into four distinct phases: Pre-Imperial (300 BC – AD 630), Imperial (AD 630–840), Idiqut (AD 840–1200), and Mongol (AD 1209–1600), with perhaps a fifth modern phase running from the death of the Silk Road in AD 1600 until the present.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.
Karakorum (Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум Kharkhorum) was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries.
The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Old Turkic:, Qarluq, Persian: خَلُّخ (Khallokh), Arabic قارلوق "Qarluq") were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kutlug I Bilge Peilo Kagan, also known by his throne name Qutlugh Bilge Köl Kaghan (骨咄禄毗伽阙可汗, gudulupigaquekehan), and in Chinese sources the personal name of Guli Peiluo (骨力裴罗, or Ku-li p'ei-lo), was the Kaghan of Uyghur Khaganate, the successor state of the Turkic Khaganate.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari (محمود بن الحسين بن محمد الكاشغري - Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī; Mahmûd bin Hüseyin bin Muhammed El Kaşgari, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd; مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, Mehmud Qeshqiri, Мәһмуд Қәшқири) was an 11th-century Kara-Khanid scholar and lexicographer of the Turkic languages from Kashgar.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.
Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.
The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan and Gansu that is an ancestor of the modern Yugur language.
The Old Uyghur language was a Turkic language which was spoken in the Kingdom of Qocho from the 9th–14th centuries and in Gansu.
The Ordos Desert, also known as the Muu-us or Bad Water Desert,Donovan Webster.
Ordu-Baliqalso spelled Ordu Balykh, Ordu Balik, Ordu-Balïq, Ordu Balig, Ordu Baligh (meaning "city of the court", "city of the army"), also known as Mubalik and Karabalghasun, was the capital of the first Uyghur Khaganate.
Ötüken (Old Turkic: 𐰇𐱅𐰚𐰤: 𐰘𐰃𐰽 Ötüken yïš, "Ötüken forest", 𐰇𐱅𐰚𐰤:𐰘𐰼, Ötüken jer, "Land of Ötüken") is a legendary capital city in Turkic mythology and Tengrism.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Qocho (Mongolian Uihur "id."), also known as Idiqut, ("holy wealth"; "glory") was a Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843.
The Second Turkic Khaganate (682-744) was a nomadic confederation or steppe empire in Mongolia.
The Selenga River (Selenge River, Mongolian: Сэлэнгэ мөрөн, Selenge mörön; Сэлэнгэ гол / Сэлэнгэ мүрэн, Selenge gol / Selenge müren; Селенга́) is a major river in Mongolia and Buryatia, Russia.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shatuo (or, also: Shato, Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart Zuev Yu.A., "Horse Tamgas from Vassal Princedoms (Translation of Chinese composition "Tanghuyao" of 8-10th centuries)", Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences, Alma-Ata, I960, p. 127 (In Russian)) were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century.
Shiwei was an umbrella term for the Food (or Work or Catastrophe) Council Mongols and Tungusic peoples that inhabited far-eastern Mongolia, northern Inner Mongolia, northern Manchuria and the area near the Okhotsk Sea beach.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
Hazrat Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan Ghazi (حضرت سلطان ستوق بغرا خان غازي) (سۇلتان سۇتۇق بۇغراخان (also spelled Satuk; died 955) was a Kara-Khanid Khan; in 934, he was one of the first Turkic rulers to convert to Islam, which prompted his Kara-Khanid subjects to convert. There are different historical accounts of the Satuq's life with some variations. Sources include Mulhaqāt al-Surāh (Supplement to the "Surah") by Jamal Qarshi (b. 1230/31) who quoted an earlier 11th-century text Tarikh-i Kashghar (History of Kashgar) by Abū-al-Futūh 'Abd al-Ghāfir ibn al-Husayn al-Alma'i, an account by Ottoman historian known as the Munajjimbashi, as well as a fragment of a manuscript in Chagatai, Tazkirah Bughra Khan (Memory of Bughra Khan).
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).
Tengrism, also known as Tengriism or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, poly- and monotheismMichael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
Toquz Oghuz (Old Turkic: Toquz Oγuz) was a political alliance of nine Turkic tribes in Inner Asia, during the early Middle Ages.
The Türgesh, Turgish or Türgish (Old Turkic: Türügesh, 突騎施/突骑施, Pinyin: tūqíshī, Wade–Giles: t'u-ch'i-shih) were a Turkic tribal confederation of Dulu Turks believed to have descended from the Turuhe tribe situated along the banks of the Tuul River.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
Wuwei is a prefecture-level city in northwest central Gansu province.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
The Yagmas, or Yaghmas, were a medieval tribe of Turkic people that came to the forefront of history after the disintegration of the Western Turkic Kaganate.
The Yenisei Kyrgyz, also known as the Ancient Kyrgyz or the Khyagas (Khakas), were an ancient Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.
Zhetysu or Semirechye (Jetisu', Жетісу, pronounced meaning "seven rivers"; also transcribed Zhetisu, Jetisuw, Jetysu, Jeti-su, Jity-su, Жетысу, Джетысу etc. and Yedi-su in Turkish, هفتآب Haft-āb in Persian) is a historical name of a part of Central Asia, corresponding to the southeastern part of modern Kazakhstan.
Culture of Uyghur Khanate, Hui-ho, Huige, Huigu, Huihu, Orkhon Uyghur, Toquz Oghuz Country, Uighur Empire, Uighur Kaganate, Uighur Kaghanate, Uighur khaghan, Uighur khaghans, Uigur Kaganate, Uyghur Empire, Uyghur Kaganate.