307 relations: A, A (Cyrillic), Ablative case, Accusative case, Affricate consonant, Afghanistan, Agglutination, Agglutinative language, Albania, Albert Andersson (missionary), Aleph, Alimujiang Yimiti, Altishahr, Alveolar consonant, Anna Mässrur, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic script, Arabic script in Unicode, Assimilation (phonology), Australia, Autonomous prefecture, Ḫāʾ, Äynu language, É, Ë, Ö, Ü, Že, Ə, Ɵ, B, Back vowel, Be (Cyrillic), Belgium, Bet (letter), Branching (linguistics), Cambridge, Canada, Causative, Central Asia, Ch (digraph), Chagatai language, Che (Cyrillic), Che (Persian letter), China, China Central Television, China Radio International, Chinese language, ..., Close vowel, Common Turkic languages, Consonant, Consonant voicing and devoicing, Continuous and progressive aspects, Cyrillic script, D, Dalet, Dative case, Daur people, Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk, De (Cyrillic), Definiteness, Dental consonant, Dungan language, Dungan people, E, East–West Center, Ef (Cyrillic), El (Cyrillic), Elision, Elsevier, Em (Cyrillic), En (Cyrillic), En with descender, English language, Epenthesis, Er (Cyrillic), Es (Cyrillic), Ethnic minorities in China, Extinct language, F, Father Hendricks, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, G, Gaf, Gösta Raquette, Ge (Cyrillic), Genitive case, George W. Hunter (missionary), Gerard Clauson, German language, Germany, Gh (digraph), Gha, Ghayn, Ghayn (Cyrillic), Gimel, Glottal consonant, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical tense, Guma, Pishan County, Gunnar Jarring, Gustaf Ahlbert, H, H with descender, Hami, Harrassowitz Verlag, Harvard University, He (letter), Hotan, I, I (Cyrillic), Ili Turki language, Indonesia, International Phonetic Alphabet, Isaac Jacob Schmidt, Islam, Islamic literature, J, Johannes Avetaranian, John Törnquist, Josef Mässrur, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Julius Klaproth, K, K with descender, Ka (Cyrillic), Ka with descender, Kaph, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Karluk languages, Karluks, Kashgar, Kazakh language, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan, Kha (Cyrillic), Kurdish alphabets, Kutadgu Bilig, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyzstan, L, Labial consonant, Lamedh, Language contact, Language death, Languages of China, Laryngeal consonant, Latin script, Lawrence, Kansas, Lexicon, Lingua franca, List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan, List of Latin-script digraphs, Literary language, Loanword, Locative case, London, Lop dialect, M, Magazine, Magnus Bäcklund, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Mandarin Chinese, Mass media, Mem, Mid vowel, Middle Turkic languages, Mongolia, Musa Sayrami, Mutual intelligibility, N, Nasal consonant, New York City, Newspaper, Ng (Arabic letter), Nils Fredrik Höijer, Nominative case, Noun, Noun class, Nun (letter), Nur Luke, O, O (Cyrillic), Oblast, Oe (Cyrillic), Official language, Open vowel, P, Pakistan, Palatal consonant, Passive voice, Past tense, Pe (Cyrillic), Pe (letter), Pe (Persian letter), Pentaglot Dictionary, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Phoneme, Phonetic transcription, Phonology, Postalveolar consonant, Present tense, Publishing, Q, Qing dynasty, Qoph, R, Radio Free Asia, Resh, Robert Barkley Shaw, Roundedness, Routledge, Ruoqiang Town, Russian language, Russians, S, Salt Lake City, Saudi Arabia, Schwa (Cyrillic), Seattle, Sergey Malov, Sh (digraph), Sha (Cyrillic), Shamanism, Shha, Shin (letter), Short I, Sibe people, Siberian Turkic languages, Sonorant, Standard Chinese, Standard language, Stina Mårtensson, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Sven Hedin, Sweden, Syllable, T, Tadhkirah, Taiwan, Tajik language, Tajikistan, Tajiks of Xinjiang, Tangut language, Taw, Te (Cyrillic), Tehran, Television channel, Trill consonant, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, U, U (Cyrillic), Ue (Cyrillic), Umlaut (linguistics), United Kingdom, United States, University of Kansas, University of Utah, University of Washington Press, Uvular consonant, Uyghur Arabic alphabet, Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet, Uyghur Latin alphabet, Uyghur New Script, Uyghurs, Uzbek language, Uzbekistan, V, Ve (Cyrillic), Velar consonant, Verb, Voice (grammar), Vowel harmony, Vowel length, Vowel reduction, W, Washington, D.C., Waw (letter), Western China, Western Yugur language, Wiesbaden, Wu'erkaixi, X, Xinjiang, Y, Yaqup Istipan, Yarkant County, Yūsuf Balasaguni, Ye (Cyrillic), Yodh, Z, Z with descender, Zayin, Ze (Cyrillic), Zhe (Cyrillic), Zhje. Expand index (257 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albert Andersson (8 February 1865 – 11 March 1915) was a Swedish missionary to Chinese Turkestan (modern day Xinjiang) with the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
Alimujiang Yimiti (Uyghur: Alimjan Yimit) is an Uyghur house church clergyman.
Altishahr (Traditional spelling: آلتی شهر, Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet: Алтә-шәһәр, Uyghur Latin alphabet: Altä-shähär or Altishähär, Modern Uyghur alphabet: ئالتە شەھەر) is a historical name for the Tarim Basin region used in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Anna Nyström-Mässrur (9 December 1849-December 1913) was a Swedish missionary.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
As of Unicode 11.0, the Arabic script is contained in the following blocks.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Autonomous prefectures are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities.
(خ, transliterated as (DIN-31635), (Hans Wehr), (ALA-LC) or (ISO 233)), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is based on the ح. It represents the sound or in Modern Standard Arabic.
Äynu (also Aini, Ejnu, Abdal) is a Turkic cryptolect spoken in western China known in various spelling as Aini, Aynu, Ainu, Eyni or by the Uyghur Abdal (ئابدال), in Russian sources Эйну́, Айну, Абдал, by the Chinese as Ainu.
É, é (e-acute) is a letter of the Latin alphabet.
Ë, ë (e-diaeresis) is a letter in the Albanian, Kashubian, Emilian-Romagnol and Ladin alphabets.
Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis.
Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel.
Že, or žayn/žāy (ژ), is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet, based on zayn (ز) with two additional diacritic dots.
Ə ə, also called schwa or inverted e, is an additional letter of the Latin alphabet, used in the Azerbaijani language and in the hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ dialect of Halkomelem.
Barred o (capital: Ɵ, lowercase: ɵ) is a letter in several Latin-script alphabets.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Be (Б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.
Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.
Che or Cha (Ч ч; italics: Ч ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Che, or čīm (چ), is a letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet, used to represent, and which derives from (ج) by the addition of two dots.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Central Television (formerly Beijing Television), commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the predominant state television broadcaster in the People's Republic of China.
China Radio International (CRI) is a state-owned international radio broadcaster of the People's Republic of China.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Common Turkic or Shaz Turkic is a taxon in some of the classifications of the Turkic languages which includes all languages except the Oghur languages.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In phonology, voicing (or sonorization) is a sound change where a voiceless consonant becomes voiced due to the influence of its phonological environment; shift in the opposite direction is referred to as devoicing or desonorization.
The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Dalet (also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath, Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order).
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
The Daur people (Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур/Daguur;; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are a Mongolic-speaking ethnic group in northeastern China.
The Turkic scholar Mahmud Kashgari studied the Turkic languages of his time and wrote the first comprehensive dictionary of Turkic languages, ديوان لغات الترك, i.e., "Compendium of the languages of the Turks") in 1072-74.Kemal H. Karpat, Studies on Turkish Politics and Society:Selected Articles and Essays, (Brill, 2004), 441. It was intended for use by the Caliphs of Baghdad, who were controlled by the Seljuk Turks. Mahmud al-Kashgari's comprehensive dictionary, later edited by the Turkish historian, Ali Amiri,Ali Amiri, R. Mantran, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R. Gibb, J.H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht, (E.J. Brill, 1986), 391. contains specimens of old Turkic poetry in the typical form of quatrains of (Perso-Arabic literature, dördəm, رباعیات rubāiyāt; dörtlük), representing all the principal genres: epic, pastoral, didactic, lyric, and elegiac. His book also included the first known map of the areas inhabited by Turkic peoples. This map is housed at the National Library in Istanbul.Roudik, Peter, The History of the Central Asian Republics, (Greenwood Press, 2007), 175.
De (Д д; italics: Д д) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
Dungan (Хуэйзў, Xuejzw xwɛitsu, Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ;; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Дунгане, Dungane; Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The East–West Center (EWC), or the Center for Cultural and Technical Interchange Between East and West, is an education and research organization established by the U.S. Congress in 1960 to strengthen relations and understanding among the peoples and nations of Asia, the Pacific, and the United States.
Ef (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative, like the pronunciation of in "fill".
El (Л л; italics: Л л) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Em (М м; italics: М м) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En with descender (Ң ң; italics: Ң ң) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Es (С с; italics: С с) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Father Hendricks (March 17, 1846 in Venlo – June 22, 1906 in Kashgar) was a Dutch Roman Catholic missionary.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Gaf, or gāf, may be the name of different Perso-Arabic letters, all representing.
Gustaf Rikard Raquette (also spelled Gustav) (7 Feb. 1871-1945) was a missionary with the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden (in Swedish 'Svenska Missions Förbundet') to Central Asia Raquette was born on 7 February 1871 in Tolfta Parish, Uppsala County.
Ghe or Ge (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
George W. Hunter MBE (Chinese name: 胡进洁) (31 July 1861 – 20 December 1946) was a Scottish Protestant Christian missionary of the China Inland Mission who worked in China and Turkestan.
Sir Gerard Leslie Makins Clauson (28 April 1891 – 1 May 1974) was an English civil servant, businessman, and Orientalist best known for his studies of the Turkic languages.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gh is a digraph found in many languages.
The letter Ƣ (minuscule: ƣ) has been used in the Latin orthographies of various, mostly Turkic languages, such as Azeri or the Jaꞑalif orthography for Tatar.
The Arabic letter غ (غين or) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.
Ghayn (Ғ ғ; italics: Ғ ғ) also known as Ge with stroke, or as Ayn (in Kazakh), is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Unicode this letter is called "Ghe with stroke". It is used in the Bashkir, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Uzbek and Tajik languages, where it represents the voiced uvular fricative. Despite having a similar shape, it is not related to the Latin letter F (F f) or the Greek letter Digamma (Ϝ ϝ). In Kazakh and Tofa, this letter may also represent the voiced velar fricative. In Nivkh, ғ represents, while is represented by ӻ, which looks like ғ with a hook. The Khakas language also uses ғ. In earlier, Arabic-alphabet-based orthographies for some of these languages, the same sound was written with the letter ﻍ (ġayn/ghain).
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Guma (Goma) Town (Pinyin: Gùmǎ Zhèn, Uyghur: گۇما بازىرى, Гома), also known as Pishan Town (Chinese: 皮山镇; pinyin: Píshān) (written 皮亢 Pikang in the Weilüe) is an ancient oasis town on the main caravan route between Khotan and Karghalik and, in Han times, the route left from here to go to Arachosia (Kandahar) through Hunza.
Gunnar Valfrid Jarring (12 October 1907 – 29 May 2002) was a Swedish diplomat and Turkologist.
Gustaf Ahlbert (26 January 1884 – 1943) was a Swedish missionary and linguist.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
right H with descender (Ⱨ ⱨ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from H with the addition of a small descender.
Hami, also known as Kumul, is a prefecture-level city in eastern Xinjiang, China.
Harrassowitz Verlag is a German academic publishing house, based in Wiesbaden.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.
Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
I (И и; italics: И и) is a letter used in almost all Cyrillic alphabets.
Ili Turki is a Turkic language spoken primarily in China.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Isaac Jacob Schmidt (October 4, 1779 – August 27, 1847) was an Orientalist specializing in Mongolian and Tibetan.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Johannes Avetaranian (Erzurum, Ottoman Empire, June 30, 1861 – Wiesbaden, Weimar Republic, nowadays Germany on December 11, 1919), born Muhammad Shukri (Mehmet Şükri), was, according to his autobiography, a Turkish descendent of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
John Törnquist (17 November 1876 – 1937) was a Swedish missionary.
Josef Mässrur (born Ghäsim Khan) (also sometimes spelled Josef Messrur) was a Christian Persian missionary to Chinese Turkestan with the Mission Union of Sweden.
The Journal of the American Oriental Society is a quarterly academic journal published by the American Oriental Society since 1843.
Julius Heinrich Klaproth (11 October 1783 – 28 August 1835) was a German linguist, historian, ethnographer, author, orientalist and explorer.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Latin letter K with descender (capital: Ⱪ, minuscule: ⱪ; sometimes falsely rendered as k̡ or ķ) is a Latin letter.
Ka (К к; italics: К к) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ka with descender (Қ қ; italics: Қ қ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in a number of non-Slavic languages spoken on the territory of the former Soviet Union, including.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.
The Karluk (Qarluq) Turkic, Uzbek and/or Uyghur Turkic or Southeastern Common Turkic languages, also referred to as the Karluk languages, are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family that developed from the varieties once spoken by Karluks.
The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Old Turkic:, Qarluq, Persian: خَلُّخ (Khallokh), Arabic قارلوق "Qarluq") were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Kurdish languages are written in either of two alphabets: a Latin alphabet introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan (Celadet Alî Bedirxan) in 1932 (Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the ''Hawar'' magazine), and a Persian alphabet-based Sorani alphabet, named for the historical Soran Emirate of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Kutadgu Bilig, or Qutadğu Bilig (proposed Middle Turkic), is a Karakhanid work from the 11th century written by Yusūf Khāṣṣ Ḥājib of Balasagun for the prince of Kashgar.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
The languages of China are the languages that are spoken in China.
Laryngeal consonants (a term often used interchangeably with guttural consonants) are consonants with their primary articulation in the larynx.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lawrence is the county seat of Douglas County and sixth largest city in Kansas.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lop, also known as Lopnor or Lopnur is a language spoken in Lop County in Xinjiang, China.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
Magnus Bäcklund (12 December 1866 – 26 June 1903) was a Swedish missionary to Chinese Turkestan with the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden.
Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari (محمود بن الحسين بن محمد الكاشغري - Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī; Mahmûd bin Hüseyin bin Muhammed El Kaşgari, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd; مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, Mehmud Qeshqiri, Мәһмуд Қәшқири) was an 11th-century Kara-Khanid scholar and lexicographer of the Turkic languages from Kashgar.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm, Hebrew Mēm, Aramaic Mem, Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic Mīm.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle Turkic refers to a phase in the development of the Turkic language family, covering much of the Middle Ages (c. 900–1500 CE).
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Mullā Mūsa Sayrāmī (lat, lat; 1836–1917) was a historian from Xinjiang, known for his account of the events in that region in the 19th century, in particular the Dungan Rebellion of 1864-1877.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from kāf with the addition of three dots above the letter.
Nils Fredrik Höijer (1857 – 20 November 1925) was a Swedish missionary to Central Asia.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.
Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn, Hebrew Nun, Aramaic Nun, Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn (in abjadi order).
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
O (О о; italics: О о) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Oe or barred O (Ө ө; italics: Ө ө) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.
Pe (П п; italics: П п) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
Pe (پ) is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet for.
The Pentaglot Dictionary (Chinese: 御製五體清文鑑, Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian; the term 清文, Qingwen, "Qing language", was another name for the Manchu language in Chinese), also known as the Manchu Polyglot Dictionary, was a dictionary of major imperial languages compiled in the late Qianlong era of the Qing dynasty (also said to be compiled in 1794).
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Radio Free Asia (RFA) is a private, nonprofit international broadcasting corporation that broadcasts and publishes online news, information, and commentary to listeners in East Asia while "advancing the goals of U.S. foreign policy." Founded in the 1950s as an anti-communist propaganda operation, RFA is currently funded by the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), an independent agency of the United States government responsible for all non-military, international broadcasting sponsored by the U.S. government (such as Radio Free Europe), which appoints the board of RFA.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
Robert Barkley Shaw (12 July 1839 – 15 June 1879) was a British explorer and diplomat.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Ruoqiang Town (Uyghur: Чакилик: Qakilik or Charkliq) is a town in Ruoqiang County, Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in southeastern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Schwa (Ә ә; italics: Ә ә) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Sergey Efimovich Malov (Серге́й Ефи́мович Ма́лов; 28 January 1880, Kazan - 6 September 1957, Leningrad) was a Russian Turkologist who made important contributions to the documentation of archaic and contemporary Turkic languages, classification of the Turkic alphabets, and the deciphering of the Turkic Orkhon script.
Sh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of S and H.
Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shha (Һ һ; italics: Һ һ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).
Short I or Yot (Й й; italics: Й й) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Sibe or Xibo are a Tungusic people living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin (bordering North Korea) and Shenyang in Liaoning.
The Siberian Turkic or Northeastern Common Turkic languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Stina Mårtensson (3 June 1882 – 1962) was a Swedish missionary.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
Sven Anders Hedin, KNO1kl RVO,Wennerholm, Eric (1978) Sven Hedin - En biografi, Bonniers, Stockholm (19 February 1865 – 26 November 1952) was a Swedish geographer, topographer, explorer, photographer, travel writer, and illustrator of his own works.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Tadhkirah (تذكرة, also transliterated Tazkera, Tadkera, Tazkirah, etc.) is an Arabic term for "memorandum" or "admonition".
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Chinese Tajiks or Mountain Tajiks in China (Sarikoli:, Tujik), including Sarikolis (majority) and Wakhis (minority) in China, are an extension of the Pamiri ethnic group that lives in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.
Tangut (also Xīxià or Hsi-Hsia or Mi-nia) is an ancient northeastern Tibeto-Burman language once spoken in the Western Xia, also known as the Tangut Empire.
Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw, Hebrew Tav, Aramaic Taw, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order).
Te (Т т; italics: Т т) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
A television channel is a broadcast frequency or virtual number over which a television station or television network is distributed.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ue or Straight U (Ү ү; italics: Ү ү) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In linguistics, umlaut (from German "sound alteration") is a sound change in which a vowel is pronounced more like a following vowel or semivowel.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas.
The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet is an Arabic alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in China.
The Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet (cyr. Уйғур Сирил Йезиқи, lat. Uyghur Siril Yëziqi or USY) is a Cyrillic-derived alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in Kazakhstan and former CIS countries.
The Uyghur Latin alphabet (Уйғур Латин Йезиқи, Uyghur Latin Yëziqi, ULY) is an auxiliary alphabet for the Uyghur language based on the Latin script.
Uyghur Yëngi Yëziqi (abbreviated UYY; literally Uyghur New Script) or Uyƣur Yengi Yeziⱪi (literally new script; lat, Йеңи Йезиқи, Yëngi Yëziqi;; sometimes falsely rendered as Yengi Yeziķ or Yengi Yezik̡), is a Latin alphabet, with both Uniform Turkic Alphabet and Pinyin influence, used for writing the Uyghur language during 1965~1982, primarily by Uyghurs living in China, although the use of Uyghur Ereb Yëziqi is much more widespread.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
Western China (or rarely) is the west of China.
Western Yugur (Western Yugur: yoɣïr lar (Yugur speech) or yoɣïr śoz (Yugur word)) is the Turkic language spoken by the Yugur people.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
Örkesh Dölet (Uyghur: ئۆركەش دۆلەت; alternatively transliterated Uerkesh Davlet), commonly known as Wu'erkaixi (from the Chinese spelling of his name), is a Chinese dissident of Uyghur heritage known for his leading role during the Tiananmen protests of 1989.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Yaqup Istipan (Uyghur:ﻳﺎﻗﯘﭖ ﺋﯩﺴﺘﯩﭙﺎﻥ) was a Uyghur author.
Yarkant County or Yeken County (lit. Cliff cityP. Lurje, “”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin.
Yusuf Khass Hajib Balasaguni (يوسف خاصّ حاجب; Yūsuf Khāṣṣ Ḥājib Balasağuni; Жүсіп Баласағұни; يۈسۈپ خاس ھاجىپ; Жусуп Баласагын) was an 11th-century Central Asian Uyghur poet, statesman, vizier, and philosopher from the city of Balasaghun, the capital of the Kara-Khanid Khanate in modern-day Kyrgyzstan.
Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
(minuscule: ⱬ, Unicode codepoints U+2C6B and U+2C6C, respectively) is a Latin letter Z with a descender.
Zayin (also spelled zain or zayn or simply zay) is the seventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Zayin, Hebrew 'Zayin, Yiddish Zoyen, Aramaic Zain, Syriac Zayn ܙ, and Arabic Zayn or Zāy ز. It represents the sound.
Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zhje or Zhe with descender (Җ җ; italics: Җ җ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.