268 relations: Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, Activism, Airport, Alliance 90/The Greens, Ambassador of Conscience Award, American Humanist Association, Amnesty International, Angela Merkel, Anti-consumerism, Antikódy, Anton Chekhov, Artist-in-residence, Austrian Decoration for Science and Art, Barack Obama, Barcelona, Barrandov Terraces, Basic Books, Belarus Free Theatre, Bill Clinton, Bořek Šípek, Bourgeoisie, Bribery, Brno, Brooklyn, Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, Catastrophe (play), Chain smoking, Charter 77, Civic Democratic Alliance, Civic Democratic Party (Czech Republic), Civic Forum, Civil resistance, Club of Madrid, College of Europe, Colostomy, Columbia University, Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted, Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, Conglomerate (company), Constitution of the Czech Republic, CrossCurrents, Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, Czech literature, Czech News Agency, Czech Republic, Czech Social Democratic Party, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czechoslovak parliamentary election, 1990, Czechs, ..., Dagmar Havlová, Daniel Herman, David Cameron, Delhi, Direct democracy, Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Dmitry Medvedev, Dominik Duka, Dublin, Ela, Hela and The Hitch, Enlargement of NATO, Entrepreneurship, Environmentalism, Erasmus Prize, Espionage, European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation, European institutions in Strasbourg, European Parliament, European Union, Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia, Federal Assembly (Czechoslovakia), First Czechoslovak Republic, Forum 2000, Four Freedoms Award, France, Frank Zappa, Freedom Collection, Gandhi Peace Prize, Georgia (country), Geuzenpenning, Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute, Government of India, Green Party (Czech Republic), Green politics, Gustáv Husák, Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award, Havel's Place, Honorary appointments to the Order of Canada, Hrad (politics), HTML, Human Rights Foundation, Humanitarian bombing, Humanitarianism, Innsbruck, Intellectual, Iryna Herashchenko, Ivan Martin Jirous, Jan Stráský, John Keane (political theorist), John W. Kluge Center, Josef Tošovský, Journal of Democracy, Jumber Jikia, Karel Schwarzenberg, Kiev, King Lear, Lajos Kossuth, Largo desolato, Leaving (2011 film), Leaving (play), Lech Wałęsa, Legion of Honour, Leinster House, Letters to Olga, Liberal International, Liberec, Library of Congress, List of bishops and archbishops of Prague, List of peace activists, List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia, List of Presidents of the Czech Republic, London Review of Books, Lou Reed, Lung cancer, Madeleine Albright, Manifesto, Margaret Thatcher, Margaret Warner, Marián Čalfa, Mikheil Saakashvili, Milan Hlavsa, Milan Horáček, Milan Kundera, Military service, Miloš Macourek, Miloš Zeman, Miloslav Petrusek, Mladá fronta DNES, Moral authority, NATO, Největší Čech, New York City, Nobel Peace Prize, Nonviolent resistance, Oireachtas, Olga Havlová, Orange Tree Theatre, Order of Al-Hussein bin Ali, Order of Brilliant Star, Order of Canada, Order of Isabella the Catholic, Order of Liberty, Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary, Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, Order of Rio Branco, Order of the Bath, Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, Order of the Liberator General San Martín, Order of the Southern Cross, Order of the State of Republic of Turkey, Order of the Three Stars, Order of the White Double Cross, Order of the White Eagle (Poland), Order of the White Lion, Order of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Order of Vytautas the Great, Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, Oslo Freedom Forum, PBS, PBS NewsHour, PDF, Petr Nečas, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Liberty Medal, Pivovar Krakonoš, Plymouth Church (Brooklyn), Prague, Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, Prague Society for International Cooperation, Prague Spring, Prague underground (culture), President of the Czech Republic, President of the United States, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Princess of Asturias Awards, Prix mondial Cino Del Duca, Prize For Freedom, Project Syndicate, Prospect (magazine), Psychedelic rock, Public Against Violence, Quadriga (award), Radio Prague, Raoul Wallenberg, Reason (magazine), Revolutions of 1989, Rowman & Littlefield, Royal Society of Literature, Samizdat, Samuel Beckett, Sciences Po, Service ribbon, St. George's Order of Victory, St. Martin's Press, St. Vitus Cathedral, Stagehand, State funeral, StB, Strašnice Crematorium, Sudeten Germans, Tbilisi, Temptation (play), The Brick Theater, The Cherry Orchard, The Christian Century, The Garden Party (play), The Guardian, The Increased Difficulty of Concentration (play), The Memorandum, The Nation, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, The New York Times Magazine, The Pig, or Václav Havel's Hunt for a Pig, The Plastic People of the Universe, The Power of the Powerless, The Public Theater, The Velvet Underground, Theatre Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, Theatre of the Absurd, Trutnov, Ukraine, United States Capitol, United States Congress, University of California, Irvine, Vaněk plays, Václav Havel Airport Prague, Václav Havel Prize for Creative Dissent, Václav Havel Tribute Concert, Václav Junek, Václav Klaus, Velvet Revolution, Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, Vinohrady Cemetery, Vinohrady Theatre, Vlaardingen, Vladimír Špidla, Vladimír Morávek, Vladimir Putin, Vlčice, Vojtěch Filip, Walter Capps, Warsaw Pact, Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Washington, D.C., Wenceslas Square, William Shakespeare, Wilma Theater (Philadelphia), Winston Churchill, World Future Society, World War II, Yevhen Nyshchuk, 100 Greatest Britons, 14th Dalai Lama, 21-gun salute. 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The Académie des sciences morales et politiques (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences) is a French learned society.
The Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (Akademie múzických umění v Praze, AMU) is a university in the centre of Prague, Czech Republic, specialising in the study of music, dance, drama, film, television and multi-media.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
The Ambassador of Conscience Award is Amnesty International's most prestigious human rights award.
The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
Anti-consumerism is a sociopolitical ideology that is opposed to consumerism, the continual buying and consuming of material possessions.
Antikódy (Anticodes) is a book of experimental poems and calligrammes by Václav Havel.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.
Artist-in-residence programs and other residency opportunities exist to invite artists, academicians, curators, to reside within the premises of an institution.
The Austrian Decoration for Science and Art (Österreichisches Ehrenzeichen für Wissenschaft und Kunst) is a state decoration of the Republic of Austria and forms part of the national honours system of that country.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Barrandov Terraces (Czech: Barrandovské terasy) is a complex of buildings in the southern part of Prague, Czech Republic.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
Belarus Free Theatre is a Belarusian underground theatre group.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Bořek Šípek (14 June 1949 – 13 February 2016) was a Czech architect and designer.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
The Campaign for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (CUNPA) is a global network of more than 300 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and 1,500 current and former parliamentarians from around 150 countries devoted to establishing a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly.
Catastrophe is a short play by Samuel Beckett, written in French in 1982 at the invitation of A.I.D.A. (Association Internationale de Défense des Artistes) and “irst produced in the Avignon Festival (21 July 1982) … Beckett considered it ‘massacred.’” It is one of his few plays to deal with a political theme and, arguably, holds the title of Beckett's most optimistic work.
Chain smoking is the practice of smoking several cigarettes in succession, sometimes using the ember of a finished cigarette to light the next.
Charter 77 (Charta 77 in Czech and in Slovak) was an informal civic initiative in communist Czechoslovakia from 1976 to 1992, named after the document Charter 77 from January 1977.
The Civic Democratic Alliance (Občanská demokratická aliance, ODA) was a conservative-liberal political party in the Czech Republic, active between 1989 (founded shortly after the Velvet revolution) and 2007.
The Civic Democratic Party (Občanská demokratická strana, ODS) is a liberal-conservative political party in the Czech Republic.
The Civic Forum (Czech: Občanské fórum, OF) was a political movement in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia, established during the Velvet Revolution in 1989.
Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
The Club de Madrid is an independent non-profit organization created to promote democracy and change in the international community.
The College of Europe (Collège d'Europe) is an elite, independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with the main campus in Bruges, Belgium and a smaller campus in Warsaw, Poland.
A colostomy is a surgical procedure in which an opening (stoma) is formed by drawing the healthy end of the large intestine or colon through an incision in the anterior abdominal wall and suturing it into place.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted (Výbor na obranu nespravedlivě stíhaných; as a result the acronym VONS is used) was a Czechoslovak dissident organization founded largely by Charter 77 signatories.
The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, KSČM) is a communist party in the Czech Republic.
A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.
The Constitution of the Czech Republic (Ústava České republiky) is the supreme law of the Czech Republic.
CrossCurrents is a quarterly academic journal published by the Association for Religion and Intellectual Life (before 1990, it was published by the Convergence).
After the fall of communism in 1989, Czechoslovakia adopted the official name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (Czech/Slovak: Česká a Slovenská Federativní/Federatívna Republika, ČSFR) during the period from 23 April 1990 until 31 December 1992, when the country was dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language.
The Czech News Agency (Česká tisková kancelář), abbreviated to ČTK, is a national public service news agency in the Czech Republic.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD) is a social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic.
Czech Technical University in Prague (České vysoké učení technické v Praze, ČVUT) is one of the largest universities in the Czech Republic, and is one of the oldest institutes of technology in Central Europe.
Federal elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 8 and 9 June 1990,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p471 alongside elections for the Czech and Slovak Assemblies.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Dagmar Havlová (born Dagmar Veškrnová on 22 March 1953 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech actress.
Daniel Herman (born 28 April 1963) is a Czech politician who served as 14th Minister of Culture of the Czech Republic in Bohuslav Sobotka's Cabinet from 2014 to 2017.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
Dominik Jaroslav Duka (born 26 April 1943, Hradec Králové, Bohemia and Moravia (now Czech Republic)) is the 36th Archbishop of Prague and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Ela, Hela, and the Hitch is a play by Václav Havel.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
The Erasmus Prize is an annual prize awarded by the board of the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation to individuals or institutions that have made exceptional contributions to culture, society, or social science in Europe and the rest of the world.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
The European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation (also ECTR) is a non-governmental organization that was established in Paris, France on October 7, 2008 to monitor tolerance in Europe.
There are a range of European institutions in Strasbourg (France), the oldest of which dates back to 1815.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II was part of a series of evacuations and expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe during and after World War II.
The Federal Assembly was the federal parliament of Czechoslovakia from January 1, 1969 to the dissolution of Czechoslovakia on December 31, 1992.
The first Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Československá republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.
Forum 2000 is a foundation and conference of the same name held in Prague, Czech Republic.
The Four Freedoms Award is an annual award presented to those men and women whose achievements have demonstrated a commitment to those principles which US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt proclaimed in his historic speech to United States Congress on January 6, 1941, as essential to democracy: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American musician, composer, activist and filmmaker.
Freedom Collection is a repository documenting the continued struggle for human freedom and liberty around the world.
The International Gandhi Peace Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded annually by the Government of India.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Geuzenpenning ('Beggar Medal') is a Dutch award given to persons or organizations who have fought for democracy and against dictatorship, racism and discrimination.
The Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute (GDI) is an independent think-tank and the oldest organisation of its kind in Switzerland.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Green Party (Strana zelených) is a political party in the Czech Republic.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.
Gustáv Husák (10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991) was a Slovak politician, president of Czechoslovakia and a long-term Secretary General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1969–1987).
The Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award is given annually to honor individuals who have dedicated their lives to public service.
Havel's Place is a public art project, which creates a series of memorial places dedicated to the last president of Czechoslovakia and the first president of the Czech Republic, Václav Havel.
The order's constitution permits the appointment of five honorary members of the Order of Canada per year.
The term Hrad ("castle") is used as shorthand for the political groups that were centered on the President of Czechoslovakia, and later President of the Czech Republic.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
The Human Rights Foundation (HRF) is a non-profit organization that promotes and protects human rights globally, with a focus on closed societies.
Humanitarian bombing is a phrase referring to the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (24 March – 10 June 1999) during the Kosovo War used by its opponents as an ironic oxymoron in response to the stated goal of NATO to protect Kosovo Albanians, and later about other military interventions stressing human rights reasons.
Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans, in order to better humanity for moral, altruistic and logical reasons.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.
Iryna Volodymyrivna Herashchenko (Ірина Володимирівна Геращенко) is a politician and journalist of Ukraine.
Ivan Martin Jirous (23 September 1944 – 9 November 2011) was a Czech poet and dissident, best known as the artistic director of the Czech psychedelic rock group The Plastic People of the Universe, and later one of the key figures of the Czech underground during the communist regime.
Jan Stráský (born 24 December 1940 in Plzeň) is a Czech politician, who served as the last Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia in 1992.
John Keane is Professor of Politics at the University of Sydney and at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin In 1989 he founded the Centre for the Study of Democracy (CSD) in London.
The John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress invites and welcomes scholars to the Library of Congress to conduct research and interact with policymakers and the public.
Josef Tošovský (born 28 September 1950) is a Czech economist and former governor of Czech National Bank (from 1993 to 2000).
The Journal of Democracy is a quarterly academic journal established in 1990 and an official publication of the National Endowment for Democracy's International Forum for Democratic Studies.
Jumber Jikia (ჯუმბერ ჯიქია; b. 1950) is a sculptor from Georgia.
Karel Schwarzenberg (born 10 December 1937) is a Czech politician, former leader of the TOP 09 party and its candidate for President of the Czech Republic in the 2013 election.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare.
Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva (Slovak: Ľudovít Košút, archaically English: Louis Kossuth) 19 September 1802 – 20 March 1894) was a Hungarian nobleman, lawyer, journalist, politician, statesman and Governor-President of the Kingdom of Hungary during the revolution of 1848–49. With the help of his talent in oratory in political debates and public speeches, Kossuth emerged from a poor gentry family into regent-president of Kingdom of Hungary. As the most influential contemporary American journalist Horace Greeley said of Kossuth: "Among the orators, patriots, statesmen, exiles, he has, living or dead, no superior." Kossuth's powerful English and American speeches so impressed and touched the most famous contemporary American orator Daniel Webster, that he wrote a book about Kossuth's life. He was widely honored during his lifetime, including in Great Britain and the United States, as a freedom fighter and bellwether of democracy in Europe. Kossuth's bronze bust can be found in the United States Capitol with the inscription: Father of Hungarian Democracy, Hungarian Statesman, Freedom Fighter, 1848–1849.
Largo Desolato is a semi-autobiographical play by Václav Havel about a political dissident, Leopold Nettles (originally in Czech Kopřiva), who fears being sent to prison for his writing.
Leaving (Odcházení) is a 2011 Czech drama film written and directed by Václav Havel, based on his play of the same name.
Leaving (Czech - Odcházení) is a 2007 tragicomedic play by Václav Havel.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
Leinster House (Teach Laighean) is the seat of the Oireachtas, the parliament of Ireland.
Letters to Olga (Czech:Dopisy Olze) is a book of compiled letters written by Czech playwright, dissident, and future president, Václav Havel to his wife Olga Havlová during his nearly four-year imprisonment from May 1979 to March 1983.
Liberal International (LI) is a political international federation for liberal political parties.
Liberec (Reichenberg) is a city in the Czech Republic.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The following is a list of bishops and archbishops of Prague.
This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.
The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
This is a list of Presidents of the Czech Republic, a political office that was created in 1993 following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.
Lewis Allan Reed (March 2, 1942 – October 27, 2013) was an American musician, singer, and songwriter.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat.
A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Margaret Garrard Warner (born February 12, 1950) is a senior correspondent for The PBS NewsHour.
Marián Čalfa (born 7 May 1946, in Trebišov) was a Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia during and after the Velvet Revolution, as well as de facto acting President for 19 days, and was a key facilitator of the smooth transfer of power from Communist rule to a new democratic representation.
Mikheil Saakashvili (მიხეილ სააკაშვილი, Mixeil Saak'ašvili; Міхеіл Саакашвілі, Michejil Saakašwili; born 21 December 1967) is a Georgian and Ukrainian politician.
Milan "Mejla" Hlavsa (Prague, March 6, 1951 – January 5, 2001) was the founder, chief songwriter, and original bassist of the Czech band Plastic People of the Universe, which was part of the inspiration for the anti-establishment movement Charter 77.
Milan Horáček (born 30 October 1946 in Velké Losiny, then in Czechoslovakia), is a Czech-born German politician, a founding member of the German Green Party, a former member of the Bundestag (1983–1985) and a former Member of the European Parliament (2004–2009).
Milan Kundera (born 1 April 1929) is a Czech-born French writer who went into exile in France in 1975, and became a naturalised French citizen in 1981.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
Miloš Macourek (2 December 1926, Kroměříž – 30 September 2002, Prague) was a Czech poet, playwright, author and screenwriter.
Miloš Zeman (born 28 September 1944) is a Czech politician serving as the third and current President of the Czech Republic since 8 March 2013.
Miloslav Petrusek (15 September 1936 – 19 August 2012) was a prominent Czech sociologist who served as a dean of Faculty of Social Sciences at Charles University in Prague between 1992–1997, as well as the prorector for academic affairs of the university in 1997–2000.
Mladá fronta Dnes (Young Front Today), also known as MF DNES or simply Dnes (Today), is a daily newspaper in the Czech Republic.
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Největší Čech (The Greatest Czech) is the Czech spin-off of the BBC ''Greatest Britons'' show; a television poll of the populace to name the greatest Czech in history.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent.
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.
Olga Havlová, born Šplíchalová (July 11, 1933 in Prague – January 27, 1996 in Prague) was the first wife of Václav Havel, the last President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.
The Orange Tree Theatre is a 180-seat theatre at 1 Clarence Street, Richmond in south-west London, which was built specifically as a theatre in the round.
The Order of al-Hussein bin Ali is the highest knighthood order of the Kingdom of Jordan.
Order of Brilliant Star is a civilian order of the Republic of China recognizing outstanding contributions to the development of the nation.
The Order of Canada (Ordre du Canada) is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada.
The Order of Isabella the Catholic (Orden de Isabel la Católica) is a Spanish civil order in which membership is granted in recognition of services that benefit the country.
The Order of Liberty, or the Order of Freedom (Ordem da Liberdade), is a Portuguese honorific civil order that distinguishes relevant services to the cause of democracy and freedom, in the defense of the values of civilization and human dignity.
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the only federal decoration of Germany.
The Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Ordine al merito della Repubblica Italiana) was founded as the senior order of knighthood by the second President of the Italian Republic, Luigi Einaudi in 1951.
The Hungarian Order of Merit (Magyar Érdemrend) is the second highest State Order of Hungary.
The Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (Орден князя Ярослава Мудрого) is an award of Ukraine.
The Order of Rio Branco (Ordem de Rio Branco) is an honorific order of Brazil instituted by decree 51.697 of February 5, 1963.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (Maarjamaa Risti teenetemärk, sometimes translated as the Order of the Cross of St. Mary’s Land) was instituted by the President of Estonia, Lennart Meri, in 1995 to honour the independence of the Estonian state.
The Order of the Liberator General San Martin (Orden del Libertador General San Martín) is the highest decoration in Argentina.
The National Order of the Southern Cross (Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul) is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822.
The Order of the State of Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Nişanı) is the highest state order awarded to foreign nationals by the President of the Republic of Turkey.
Order of the Three Stars (Triju Zvaigžņu ordenis) is an order awarded for meritorious service to Latvia.
The Order of the White Double Cross (Rad Bieleho dvojkríža) is the highest state decoration of the Republic of Slovakia.
The Order of the White Eagle (Order Orła Białego) is Poland's highest order awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits.
The Order of the White Lion (Řád Bílého lva) is the highest order of the Czech Republic.
The Order of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (Řád Tomáše Garrigua Masaryka) is an Order of the Czech Republic and the former Czechoslovakia.
The Order of Vytautas the Great is the Lithuanian Presidential Award.
The Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and Letters) is an Order of France, established on 2 May 1957 by the Minister of Culture, and its supplementary status to the Ordre national du Mérite was confirmed by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963.
Oslo Freedom Forum (OFF) is a series of global conferences run by the New York-based non-profit Human Rights Foundation under the slogan “Challenging Power.” OFF was founded in 2009 as a one-time event and has taken place annually ever since.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The PBS NewsHour is an American daily evening television news program that is broadcast on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), airing seven nights a week on more than 350 of the public broadcaster's member stations.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Petr Nečas (born 19 November 1964) is a Czech former politician who served as 9th Prime Minister of the Czech Republic and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party from 2010 to 2013, and as Member of the Chamber of Deputies (MP) from 1993 to 2013.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Liberty Medal is an annual award administered by the National Constitution Center of the United States to recognize leadership in the pursuit of freedom.
Pivovar Krakonoš is one of the oldest breweries in the Czech Republic founded in 1582 and located in Trutnov town.
Plymouth Church is a historic church located at 57 Orange Street between Henry and Hicks Streets in the Brooklyn Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City; the Church House has the address 75 Hicks Street.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (also known as the Prague Declaration), which was signed on 3 June 2008, was a declaration initiated by the Czech government and signed by prominent European politicians, former political prisoners and historians, among them former Czech President Václav Havel and future German President Joachim Gauck, which called for "Europe-wide condemnation of, and education about, the crimes of communism." To date, the most visible proposal set forth by the declaration was the adoption of the European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism (known as the International Black Ribbon Day in some countries), adopted by the European Union and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, as the official international remembrance day for victims of totalitarian regimes.
The Prague Society for International Cooperation is an organization dedicated to business, politics and academia in Central Europe.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Prague underground was an underground culture developed in Prague, Czechoslovakia in the late 1960s and 1970s during the Czechoslovak normalization.
The President of the Czech Republic is the elected formal head of state of the Czech Republic and the commander-in-chief of the Military of the Czech Republic.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.
The Chairman of the Government of the Czech Republic (Czech: Předseda vlády České republiky), normally referred to in English as the Prime Minister, is the head of the Government of the Czech Republic.
The Princess of Asturias Awards (Premios Princesa de Asturias, Premios Princesa d'Asturies), formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981–2014 (Premios Príncipe de Asturias) are a series of annual prizes awarded in Spain by the Princess of Asturias Foundation (previously the Prince of Asturias Foundation) to individuals, entities or organizations from around the world who make notable achievements in the sciences, humanities, and public affairs.
The Prix mondial Cino Del Duca (Cino Del Duca World Prize) is an international literary award.
The Prize For Freedom is an annual prize presented by the Liberal International since 1985.
Project Syndicate is an international media organization that publishes and syndicates commentary and analysis on a variety of important global topics.
Prospect is a monthly British general interest magazine, specialising in politics, economics and current affairs.
Psychedelic rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, which is centred around perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs.
Public Against Violence (Verejnosť proti násiliu, VPN) was a political movement established in Bratislava, Slovakia in November 1989.
Quadriga was an annual German award sponsored by Netzwerk Quadriga gGmbH, a non-profit organization based in Berlin.
Radio Prague (Český rozhlas 7 - Radio Praha) is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic.
Raoul Gustaf Wallenberg (born 4 August 1912, death date unknown)He is presumed to have died in 1947, although the circumstances of his death are not clear and this date has been disputed.
Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Society of Literature (RSL) is a learned society founded in 1820, by King George IV, to "reward literary merit and excite literary talent".
Samizdat was a form of dissident activity across the Eastern bloc in which individuals reproduced censored and underground publications by hand and passed the documents from reader to reader.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
The Paris Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred as Sciences Po, is a highly selective French university (legally a grande école).
A service ribbon, medal ribbon, or ribbon bar is a small ribbon, mounted on a small metal bar equipped with an attaching device, which is generally issued for wear in place of a medal when it is not appropriate to wear the actual medal.
Saint George's Order of Victory (წმინდა გიორგის სახელობის გამარჯვების ორდენი, ts'minda giorgis sakhelobis gamarjvebis ordeni) is an honor awarded by the government of Georgia, which comes second in rank to the Order of National Hero.
The Metropolitan Cathedral of Saints Vitus, Wenceslaus and Adalbert (metropolitní katedrála svatého Víta, Václava a Vojtěcha) is a Roman Catholic metropolitan cathedral in Prague, the seat of the Archbishop of Prague.
A stagehand is a person who works backstage or behind the scenes in theatres, film, television, or location performance.
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance.
State Security (Státní bezpečnost, Štátna bezpečnosť) or StB / ŠtB, was a plainclothes communist secret police force in former Czechoslovakia from 1945 to its dissolution in 1990.
Strašnice Crematorium (in Krematorium Strašnice) is the largest crematory in Europe in terms of area.
German Bohemians, later known as the Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of the state of Czechoslovakia.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Temptation is a Faustian play written by Czech playwright Václav Havel in 1985 that premiered in Austria on 22 May 1986 in the Burgtheater in Vienna.
The Brick Theater is a 70-seat state-of-the-art theater located at 579 Metropolitan Ave near the corner of Lorimer St in Williamsburg, Brooklyn.
The Cherry Orchard (translit) is the last play by Russian playwright Anton Chekhov.
The Christian Century is a Christian magazine based in Chicago, Illinois.
The Garden Party (Zahradní slavnost) is a 1963 play by Václav Havel.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Increased Difficulty of Concentration is a play by Václav Havel.
The Memorandum is a 1965 play by Václav Havel.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.
The Pig, or Václav Havel's Hunt for a Pig is the final work by Václav Havel, co-authored by Vladimír Morávek.
The Plastic People of the Universe (PPU) is a Czech rock band from Prague.
The Power of the Powerless (Moc bezmocných) is an expansive political essay written in October 1978 by the Czech dramatist, political dissident and later politician, Václav Havel.
The Public Theater is a New York City arts organization founded as the Shakespeare Workshop in 1954 by Joseph Papp, with the intention of showcasing the works of up-and-coming playwrights and performers.
The Velvet Underground was an American rock band formed in 1964 in New York City by singer/guitarist Lou Reed, multi-instrumentalist John Cale, guitarist Sterling Morrison, and drummer Angus MacLise (replaced by Moe Tucker in 1965).
The Theatre Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (DAMU) is one of the three faculties of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (alongside the Film and TV school and the Music Faculty).
The Theatre of the Absurd (théâtre de l'absurde) is a post–World War II designation for particular plays of absurdist fiction written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1950s, as well as one for the style of theatre which has evolved from their work.
Trutnov (Trautenau) is a city in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, Orange County, California, United States, and one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system.
The Vaněk plays are a set of plays to which the character Ferdinand Vaněk is central.
Václav Havel Airport Prague (Letiště Václava Havla Praha), formerly Prague Ruzyně International Airport (Mezinárodní letiště Praha-Ruzyně),, is the international airport of Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic.
Václav Havel Prize for Creative Dissent is an award established in 2012 by the New York City-based Human Rights Foundation (HRF).
Tribute to Václav Havel (Czech: Pocta Václavu Havlovi) was an event held in memory of Václav Havel, the last Czechoslovak and the first Czech President, writer, playwright and human rights activist.
Václav Junek (born June 17, 1951) is a Czech businessman.
Václav Klaus (born 19 June 1941) is a Czech economist and politician who served as the second President of the Czech Republic from 2003 to 2013.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation is a non-profit educational organization in the United States, authorized by a unanimous Act of Congress in 1993 for the purpose of educating Americans about the ideology, history and legacy of communism.
Vinohrady Cemetery (in Vinohradský hřbitov) is a large cemetery in Vinohrady in Prague 10 which contains Strašnice Crematorium.
Vinohrady Theatre (Divadlo na Vinohradech) is a theatre in Vinohrady, Prague.
Vlaardingen is a city in South Holland in the Netherlands.
Vladimír Špidla (born 22 April 1951) is a Czech politician who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from July 2002 to June 2004 and as European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities from November 2004 to February 2010.
Vladimír Morávek (born 9 April 1965 in Moravský Krumlov) is a Czech theatre, film and television director, screenwriter and actor.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vlčice (Wildschütz) is a village and municipality in Trutnov District in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic.
Vojtěch Filip (born 13 January 1955) is a Czech politician and leader of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM).
Walter Holden Capps (May 5, 1934 – October 28, 1997) was an American politician.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wenceslas Square (Czech:, colloquially Václavák) is one of the main city squares and the centre of the business and cultural communities in the New Town of Prague, Czech Republic.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
The Wilma Theater is a non-profit theater company located at 265 S. Broad Street at the corner of Spruce Street in the Avenue of the Arts area of Center City, Philadelphia.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World Future Society (WFS), founded in 1966, is recognized as the largest, most influential, and longest-running community of futurists and future thinkers in the world.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yevhen Mykolayovych Nyshchuk (Євген Миколайович Нищук) is Ukrainian theater and cinema actor, Merited Artist of Ukraine and the Minister of Culture of Ukraine.
The 100 Greatest Britons was a television series broadcast by the BBC in 2002.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
A 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized of the customary gun salutes that are performed by the firing of cannons or artillery as a military honor.