61 relations: Acidosis, Acrosome, Active transport, Ancestral sequence reconstruction, ATP hydrolysis, ATP synthase, ATPase, Band 3, Bicarbonate, Biocatalysis, C-terminus, Carbonic anhydrase, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cochlea, Collecting duct system, Cytoplasm, Dissociation (chemistry), Dominance (genetics), Egg, Endolymph, Endosome, Enterococcus hirae, Enzyme, Eukaryote, F-ATPase, Golgi apparatus, Homeostasis, Horizontal gene transfer, Inner ear, Insect, Kidney, Lipid bilayer, Lysosome, Macrophage, Manduca sexta, Membrane, Metastasis, Midgut, Myopathy, X-linked, with excessive autophagy, Na+/K+-ATPase, Neoplasm, Neutrophil, Norepinephrine, Oligomycin, Organelle, Osteoclast, Osteopetrosis, PH, Polymerase chain reaction, ..., Protease, Proton pump, Renal tubular acidosis, Reverse transcriptase, Sensorineural hearing loss, Spermatozoon, Stoichiometry, Transport protein, Urine, Vacuole, Yeast. Expand index (11 more) » « Shrink index
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa (sperm cells) of many animals including humans.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) – also known as ancestral gene/sequence reconstruction/resurrection – is a technique used in the study of molecular evolution.
ATP hydrolysis is the catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released by splitting these bonds, for example in muscles, by producing work in the form of mechanical energy.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
Band 3 anion transport protein, also known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1) or band 3 or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), is a protein that is encoded by the SLC4A1 gene in humans.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Biocatalysis is catalysis in living (biological) systems.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Enterococcus hirae is a species of Enterococcus.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
F-ATPase, also known as F-Type ATPase (also called ATP synthase), is an ATPase found in bacterial plasma membranes, in mitochondrial inner membranes (in oxidative phosphorylation, where it is known as Complex V), and in chloroplast thylakoid membranes.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Manduca sexta is a moth of the family Sphingidae present through much of the American continent.
A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop.
X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy (XMEA) is a rare childhood onset disease characterized by slow progressive vacuolation and atrophy of skeletal muscle.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Oligomycins are macrolides created by Streptomyces that can be poisonous to other organisms.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue.
Osteopetrosis, literally "stone bone", also known as marble bone disease, Albers-Schönberg disease is an extremely rare inherited disorder whereby the bones harden, becoming denser, in contrast to more prevalent conditions like osteoporosis, in which the bones become less dense and more brittle, or osteomalacia, in which the bones soften.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane.
Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that involves an accumulation of acid in the body due to a failure of the kidneys to appropriately acidify the urine.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss, or deafness, in which the root cause lies in the inner ear or sensory organ (cochlea and associated structures) or the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
A transport protein (variously referred to as a transmembrane pump, transporter, escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.