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VX (nerve agent)

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VX is an extremely toxic synthetic chemical compound in the organophosphorus class, specifically, a thiophosphonate. [1]

135 relations: Acetic acid, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Active site, Al-Qaeda, Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory, Alcatraz Island, Angolan Civil War, Anniston Army Depot, Area denial weapon, Artistic license, Asphyxia, Assassination of Kim Jong-nam, Atlantic City, New Jersey, Atropine, Aum Shinrikyo, Autoinjector, BBC News, Binary chemical weapon, BLU-80/B Bigeye bomb, Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical compound, Chemical synthesis, Chemical warfare, Chemical weapon, Chemical weapon proliferation, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chirality, Choline, Cholinesterase, Council on Foreign Relations, Cuba, Cuban intervention in Angola, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Deseret Chemical Depot, Diazepam, Dugway sheep incident, Enantiomer, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Ester, Ethanol, Excitotoxicity, Fonofos, Gerhard Schrader, Glutamic acid, Google Books, Halabja chemical attack, Imperial Chemical Industries, ..., Incineration, Intracardiac injection, Intramuscular injection, Iraq, Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System, Kim Jong-nam, Kim Jong-un, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Kurgan Oblast, List of Rainbow Codes, M23 chemical mine, M55 (rocket), Malaysia, Mark I NAAK, Matsumoto sarin attack, Mechanism of action, Median lethal dose, Methylation, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, Miosis, Motor neuron, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscular system, N,N-Diisopropylaminoethanol, Nerve agent, Nervous system, Neuromuscular junction, Neuromuscular-blocking drug, Newport Chemical Depot, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Novichok agent, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction, O-Ethyl methylphosphonothioic acid, Operation CHASE, Organic peroxide, Organophosphate, Organophosphorus compound, Partition coefficient, Pesticide, Phosphonate, Phosphonite, Phosphorus, Phosphorus trichloride, Pine Bluff Arsenal, Porton Down, Pralidoxime, Program Executive Office, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives, QL (chemical), Racemic mixture, Red blood cell, Rhinorrhea, Royal Society of Chemistry, Russia and weapons of mass destruction, Saddam Hussein, San Francisco, Sarcoplasm, Sarin, Scuttling, Shchuchy, Shoko Asahara, Sodium hydroxide, Solvolysis, Sudan, The Guardian, The Rock (film), The Times of Israel, Thoracic diaphragm, Tokyo subway sarin attack, Tomomitsu Niimi, Transesterification, Translational research, Umatilla Chemical Depot, United Nations Special Commission, United States Army Chemical Materials Activity, United States Department of Defense, United States Government Publishing Office, USSTRATCOM Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction, Vapor pressure, VG (nerve agent), Volatility (chemistry), VR (nerve agent), Washington, D.C., Weapon of mass destruction, XM736 8-inch projectile. Expand index (85 more) »

Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.

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Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

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Active site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

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Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.

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Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory

The Al-Shifa (الشفاء, Arabic for "healing") pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum North, Sudan, was constructed between 1992 and 1996 with components imported from Germany, India, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States.

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Alcatraz Island

Alcatraz Island is located in San Francisco Bay, offshore from San Francisco, California, United States.

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Angolan Civil War

The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.

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Anniston Army Depot

Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) is a major United States Army facility for the production and repair of ground combat vehicles, overhaul of Small Arms Weapon Systems and the storage of chemical weapons, a.k.a. the Anniston Chemical Activity.

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Area denial weapon

An area denial weapon or Anti Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) is a device or a strategy used to prevent an adversary from occupying or traversing an area of land, sea or air.

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Artistic license

Artistic license (also known as art license, historical license, dramatic license, poetic license, narrative license, licentia poetica, creative license, or simply license) is a colloquial term, sometimes a euphemism, used to denote the distortion of fact, alteration of the conventions of grammar or language, or rewording of pre-existing text made by an artist in the name of art.

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Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.

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Assassination of Kim Jong-nam

The assassination of Kim Jong-nam occurred on 13 February 2017 when two women attacked him with VX nerve agent, a lethal chemical weapon, at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Malaysia.

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Atlantic City, New Jersey

Atlantic City is a resort city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known for its casinos, boardwalk, and beaches.

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Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.

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Aum Shinrikyo

, formerly, is a Japanese doomsday cult founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984.

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An autoinjector (or auto-injector) is a medical device designed to deliver a dose of a particular drug.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Binary chemical weapon

Binary chemical weapons or munitions are chemical weapons which contain the toxic agent in its active state as chemical precursors which are significantly less toxic than the agent.

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BLU-80/B Bigeye bomb

The BLU-80/B BIGEYE bomb was a developmental U.S. air-launched binary chemical weapon.

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Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant

The Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) is a chemical weapons destruction facility undergoing systemization, or testing.

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Chemical & Engineering News

Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

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Chemical weapon proliferation

Many nations continue to research and/or stockpile chemical weapon agents despite numerous efforts to reduce or eliminate them.

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Chemical Weapons Convention

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.

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Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.

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Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.

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In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.

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Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cuban intervention in Angola

In November 1975, on the eve of Angola's independence, Cuba launched a large-scale military intervention in support of the leftist People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) against United States-backed interventions by South Africa and Zaire in support of two right-wing independence movements competing for power in the country, the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).

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Defense Threat Reduction Agency

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) is an agency within the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and is the official Combat Support Agency for countering weapons of mass destruction (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosives).

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Deseret Chemical Depot

The Deseret Chemical Depot was a U.S. Army chemical weapon storage area located in Utah, 60 miles (100 km) southwest of Salt Lake City.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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Dugway sheep incident

The Dugway sheep incident, also known as the Skull Valley sheep kill, was a 1968 sheep kill that has been connected to United States Army chemical and biological warfare programs at Dugway Proving Ground in Utah.

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In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).

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Enzymatic hydrolysis

Enzymatic hydrolysis is a process in which enzymes facilitate the cleavage of bonds in molecules with the addition of the elements of water.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.

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Fonofos is an organothiophosphate insecticide primarily used on corn.

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Gerhard Schrader

Gerhard Schrader (25 February 1903 – 10 April 1990) was a German chemist specializing in the discovery of new insecticides, hoping to make progress in the fight against hunger in the world.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Google Books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.

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Halabja chemical attack

The Halabja chemical attack (Kurdish: Kîmyabarana Helebce کیمیابارانی ھەڵەبجە), also known as the Halabja Massacre or Bloody Friday, was a massacre against the Kurdish people that took place on March 16, 1988, during the closing days of the Iran–Iraq War in the Kurdish city of Halabja in Iraq.

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Imperial Chemical Industries

Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.

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Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.

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Intracardiac injection

Intracardiac injections are injections that are given directly into the heart muscles or ventricles.

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Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System

Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) was the U.S. Army's first chemical munitions disposal facility.

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Kim Jong-nam

Kim Jong-nam (10 May 1971 – 13 February 2017) was the eldest son of North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

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Kim Jong-un

Kim Jong-un (born 8 January 1983) is a North Korean politician serving as leader of North Korea since 2011 and Leader of the Workers' Party of Korea since 2012.

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Kuala Lumpur International Airport

Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) (Malay: Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Kuala Lumpur) is Malaysia's main international airport and one of the major airports in Southeast Asia and worldwide.

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Kurgan Oblast

Kurgan Oblast (Курга́нская о́бласть, Kurganskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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List of Rainbow Codes

The Rainbow Codes were a series of code name used to disguise the nature of various British military research projects.

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M23 chemical mine

The M23 is a United States steel cased chemical landmine.

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M55 (rocket)

The M55 rocket was a chemical weapon developed by the United States in the 1950s.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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In the United States military, the Mark I NAAK, or MARK I Kit, ("Nerve Agent Antidote Kit") is a dual-chamber autoinjector: Two anti-nerve agent drugs—atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride—each in injectable form, constitute the kit.

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Matsumoto sarin attack

The Matsumoto sarin attack was an attempted assassination perpetrated by members of the Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult in Matsumoto, in Japan's Nagano prefecture, on the night of June 27, 1994.

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Mechanism of action

In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.

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Median lethal dose

In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.

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In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

The Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (MIIS), formerly known as the Monterey Institute of International Studies, is an American graduate school within Middlebury College, a private university located in Middlebury, Vermont.

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Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.

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Motor neuron

A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.

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Muscular system

The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.

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Nerve agent

Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neuromuscular junction

A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.

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Neuromuscular-blocking drug

Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.

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Newport Chemical Depot

The Newport Chemical Depot, previously known as the Wabash River Ordnance Works and the Newport Army Ammunition Plant, was a bulk chemical storage and destruction facility that was operated by the United States Army.

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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

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Novichok agent

Novichok (Новичо́к, "newcomer"/ "newbie") is a series of nerve agents developed by the Soviet Union and Russia between 1971 and 1993.

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Nuclear Threat Initiative

The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization founded in 2001 by former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn and philanthropist Ted Turner in the United States, which works to prevent catastrophic attacks and accidents with weapons of mass destruction and disruption – nuclear, biological, radiological, chemical, and cyber.

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Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction

As the fall of the Soviet Union appeared imminent, the United States and their allies began to worry about the concept that the nuclear weapons held in smaller countries by the Soviet Union could fall or would fall into enemy hands.

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O-Ethyl methylphosphonothioic acid

O-Ethyl methylphosphonothioic acid (EMPTA) is an organophosphate compound.

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Operation CHASE

Operation CHASE (an acronym for "Cut Holes And Sink 'Em") was a United States Department of Defense program for the disposal of unwanted munitions at sea from May 1964 until the early 1970s.

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Organic peroxide

Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).

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Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.

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Organophosphorus compound

Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus.

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Partition coefficient

In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Phosphonates and phosphonic acids are organophosphorus compounds containing C−PO(OH)2 or C−PO(OR)2 groups (where R.

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Phosphonites are organophosphorus compounds with the formula P(OR)2R.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Phosphorus trichloride

Phosphorus trichloride is a chemical compound of phosphorus and chlorine, having the chemical formula PCl3.

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Pine Bluff Arsenal

The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) is a US Army installation located in Jefferson County, Arkansas, just northwest of the city of Pine Bluff.

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Porton Down

Porton Down is a United Kingdom science park, situated just northeast of the village of Porton near Salisbury, in Wiltshire, England.

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Pralidoxime (2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride) or 2-PAM, usually as the chloride or iodide salts, belongs to a family of compounds called oximes that bind to organophosphate-inactivated acetylcholinesterase.

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Program Executive Office, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives

The Program Executive Office, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (PEO ACWA) is responsible for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles stored at the Blue Grass Army Depot, Kentucky and the U.S. Army Pueblo Chemical Depot, Colorado.

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QL (chemical)

Isopropyl aminoethylmethyl phosphonite (NATO designation QL), also known as O-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O'-ethyl methylphosphonite, is a precursor chemical to the nerve agent VX.

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Racemic mixture

In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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Russia and weapons of mass destruction

According to the Federation of American Scientists, an organization that assesses nuclear weapon stockpiles, as of 2017, the Russian Federation possesses 7,300 total nuclear warheads, of which 4,500 are strategically operational.

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Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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Sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a myocyte (muscle fiber).

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Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.

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Scuttling is the deliberate sinking of a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull.

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Shchuchy (Щу́чий; masculine), Shchuchya (Щу́чья; feminine), or Shchuchye (Щу́чье; neuter) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.

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Shoko Asahara

is the founder of the Japanese doomsday cult group Aum Shinrikyo.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Solvolysis is a type of nucleophilic substitution (SN1) /(SN2) or elimination, where the nucleophile is a solvent molecule.

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The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Rock (film)

The Rock is a 1996 American action thriller film directed by Michael Bay, produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer, and written by David Weisberg and Douglas S. Cook.

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The Times of Israel

The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.

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Thoracic diaphragm

For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

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Tokyo subway sarin attack

The Tokyo subway sarin attack (was an act of domestic terrorism perpetrated on March 20, 1995, in Tokyo, Japan, by members of the cult movement Aum Shinrikyo. Aum Shinrikyo was a religious movement and doomsday cult led by Shoko Asahara. The group believed in a doctrine revolving around a syncretic mixture of Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Christian and Hindu beliefs, especially relating to the Hindu god Shiva. They believed that Armageddon is inevitable in the form of a global war involving the United States and Japan; that non-members were doomed to eternal hell, but that they could be saved if they were killed by cult members; and that only members of the cult would survive the apocalypse, and would afterwards build the Kingdom of Shambhala. The group had already carried out several assassinations and terrorist attacks using sarin, including the Matsumoto sarin attack nine months earlier. They had also produced several other nerve agents, including VX. The cult had attempted to produce botulinum toxin and had perpetrated several failed acts of bioterrorism. Asahara had been made aware of a police raid scheduled for March 22 and had planned the Tokyo subway attack in order to hinder police investigations into the cult and perhaps to spark the global apocalypse. In five coordinated attacks, the perpetrators released sarin on three lines of the Tokyo Metro (then part of the Tokyo subway) during rush hour, killing 12 people, severely injuring 50, and causing temporary vision problems for nearly 1,000 others. The attack was directed against trains passing through Kasumigaseki and Nagatachō, Tokyo, home of the Japanese government. In the raid following the attack, police arrested many senior members of the cult. Police activity continued throughout the summer, eventually arresting over 200 members, including Asahara himself. Thirteen of the senior Aum management have been sentenced to death, with many others given prison sentences up to life. The attack shocked the Japanese, who had widely thought their nation to be free from crime and unrest. It was the deadliest incident to occur in Japan since the end of World War II until the Myojo 56 building fire on September 1, 2001. The attack remains the deadliest terrorist incident in Japan, and Aum Shinrikyo remain the only group in Japan to have utilized biological and chemical weapons.

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Tomomitsu Niimi

is a former Aum Shinrikyo member convicted for his participation in the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway and a number of other crimes.

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In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.

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Translational research

Translational research – often used interchangeably with translational medicine or translational science or bench to bedside – is an effort to build on basic scientific research to create new therapies, medical procedures, or diagnostics.

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Umatilla Chemical Depot

The Umatilla Chemical Depot, (UMCD) based in Umatilla, Oregon, was a U.S. Army installation in the United States that stored chemical weapons.

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United Nations Special Commission

United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was an inspection regime created by the United Nations to ensure Iraq's compliance with policies concerning Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction after the Gulf War.

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United States Army Chemical Materials Activity

The United States Army Chemical Materials Activity (CMA) is a separate reporting activity of the United States Army Materiel Command (AMC).

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Government Publishing Office

The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.

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USSTRATCOM Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction

The USSTRATCOM Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (SCC-WMD) is a United States Strategic Command center built in cooperation with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

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Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.

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VG (nerve agent)

VG (IUPAC name: O,O-diethyl S- phosphorothioate) (also called Amiton or Tetram) is a "V-series" nerve agent chemically similar to the better-known VX nerve agent.

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Volatility (chemistry)

In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.

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VR (nerve agent)

VR (Russian VX, Soviet V-gas, Substance 33, R-33, Agent "November") is a "V-series" unitary nerve agent closely related (isomer) to the better-known VX nerve agent.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Weapon of mass destruction

A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.

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XM736 8-inch projectile

The XM-736 8-inch projectile was a binary howitzer round that was designed to carry the nerve agent VX.

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Redirects here:

'VX nerve agent', Nerve agent VX, Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, S-(2-(bis(1-methylethyl)amino)ethyl) O-ethyl ester, Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, s-(2-(bis(1-methylethyl)amino)ethyl)O-ethyl ester, Purple Possum, VX Gas, VX agent, VX gas, VX gases, VX nerve agent, VX nerve gas, VX2, Vx Gas, Vx gas.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VX_(nerve_agent)

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