96 relations: Adaptive immune system, Adverse effect, Alzheimer's disease, Andrew Wakefield, Anthrax, Antibody, Antigen, Artificial induction of immunity, Autism, Autism spectrum, Ayurveda, Benjamin Jesty, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Cancer, Cattle, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cephalonia, Chickenpox, Chios, Circassia, Clopton Havers, Constantinople, Cowpox, Disease, East India Company, Edward Jenner, Efficacy, Emil von Behring, Eradication of infectious diseases, Feline vaccination, Gastrointestinal tract, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, H5N1 clinical trials, Haemophilus influenzae, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Herd immunity, HIV/AIDS, Immune system, Immunity (medical), Immunization, Immunization during pregnancy, Immunogen, Infection, Inoculation, International Society for Infectious Diseases, JAMA (journal), James Phipps, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lance Calkin, ..., Legal liability, Liberty, List of vaccine topics, Longqing Emperor, Louis Pasteur, Louis-Léopold Boilly, Martin Lister, Maurice Hilleman, Measles, Meningitis, Ming dynasty, MMR vaccine, MMR vaccine controversy, Mucosal immunology, Mumps, Passive immunity, Pathogen, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Pneumonia, Polio vaccine, Poliomyelitis, Poliomyelitis eradication, Public health, Rabies, Royal Society, Rubella, Sanskrit, Smallpox, Smallpox vaccine, Somalia, Tetanus, The BMJ, The Lancet, Transdermal, Vaccination Act, Vaccination and religion, Vaccination of dogs, Vaccine, Vaccine controversies, Vaccine court, Vaccine trial, Voltaire, Whooping cough, World Health Organization, World Immunization Week, Yetminster. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Andrew Jeremy Wakefield (born 1957) is a discredited former British doctor who became an anti-vaccine activist.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Artificial induction of immunity is the artificial induction of immunity to specific diseases – making people immune to disease by means other than waiting for them to catch the disease.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Benjamin Jesty (c. 1736 – 16 April 1816) was a farmer at Yetminster in Dorset, England, notable for his early experiment in inducing immunity against smallpox using cowpox.
Berkeley is a small town and parish in Gloucestershire, England.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Cephalonia or Kefalonia (Κεφαλονιά or Κεφαλλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (Κεφαλληνία), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece and the 6th larger island in Greece after Crete, Evoia, Lesvos, Rhodes and Chios.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.
Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا, Çerkesya) is a region in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
Clopton Havers (24 February 1657 – April 1702) was an English physician who did pioneering research on the microstructure of bone.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Cowpox is an infectious disease caused by the cowpox virus.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
Emil von Behring (Emil Adolf von Behring), born as Emil Adolf Behring (15 March 1854 – 31 March 1917), was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin.
Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.
Programs supporting regular feline vaccination have contributed both to the health of cats and to public health.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi for short; previously the GAVI Alliance, and before that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization) is a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunisation in poor countries.
H5N1 clinical trials are clinical trials concerning H5N1 vaccines, which are intended to provide immunization to influenza A virus subtype H5N1.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period.
An immunogen is an antigen or any substance that may be specifically bound by components of the immune system (antibody, lymphocytes).
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
The International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID), established in 1986, is a non-profit organization that works to control infectious disease outbreaks and improve the care of patients afflicted with these conditions.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
James Phipps (1788 – 25 April 1853) was the first person given the cowpox vaccine by Edward Jenner.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (baptised 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) (née Pierrepont) was an English aristocrat, letter writer and poet.
George Lance Calkin (22 June 1859 – 10 October 1936) was a British painter.
In law, liable means "esponsible or answerable in law; legally obligated." Legal liability concerns both civil law and criminal law and can arise from various areas of law, such as contracts, torts, taxes, or fines given by government agencies.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
This is a list of vaccine-related topics.
The Longqing Emperor (4March 15375July 1572), personal name Zhu Zaiji (朱載坖), was the 13th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China from 1567 to 1572.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Louis-Léopold Boilly (5 July 1761 – 4 January 1845) was a French painter and draftsman.
Martin Lister FRS (12 April 1639 – 2 February 1712) was an English naturalist and physician.
Maurice Ralph Hilleman (August 30, 1919 – April 11, 2005) was an American microbiologist who specialized in vaccinology and developed over 40 vaccines, an unparalleled record of productivity.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The MMR vaccine (also known as the MPR vaccine after the Latin names of the diseases) is an immunization vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles).
The MMR vaccine controversy started with the 1998 publication of a fraudulent research paper in The Lancet linking the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.
Mucosal immunology is the study of immune system responses that occur at mucosal membranes of the intestines, the urogenital tract and the respiratory system, i.e., surfaces that are in contact with the external environment.
Mumps is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus.
Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Poliomyelitis eradication refers to a permanent elimination of all cases of poliomyelitis (polio) infection around the world.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
The UK Vaccination Acts of 1840, 1853, 1867 and 1898 were a series of legislative Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom regarding the vaccination policy of the country.
Vaccination and religion have interrelations of varying kinds.
Programs supporting regular vaccination of dogs have contributed both to the health of dogs and to the public health.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vaccine controversies have occurred since almost 80 years before the terms vaccine and vaccination were introduced, and continue to this day.
The Office of Special Masters of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, popularly known as "vaccine court", administers a no-fault system for litigating vaccine injury claims.
A vaccine trial is a clinical trial that aims at establishing the safety and efficacy of a vaccine prior to it being licensed.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World Immunization Week is a global public health campaign to raise awareness and increase rates of immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases around the world.
Yetminster is a village and civil parish in the English county of Dorset.