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Vacuum tube

Index Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. [1]

276 relations: AC/DC receiver design, Acorn tube, All American Five, Aluminium oxide, Amplifier, Amplitude modulation, Analog-to-digital converter, Anode, Argon, Audio frequency, Audion, Audiophile, Automatic gain control, Backward-wave oscillator, Bakelite, Barium, Barium oxide, Battery (vacuum tube), Battery eliminator, Batteryless radio, BBC, Beam deflection tube, Beam tetrode, Bernard D. H. Tellegen, Biasing, Bipolar junction transistor, Black-body radiation, Bluetooth, Bogey value, Borosilicate glass, British Valve Association, C battery, Calcium oxide, Capacitance, Cathode, Cathode bias, Cathode ray tube, Cavity magnetron, Ceramic, Chrominance, Ciphertext, Cold cathode, Colossus computer, Compactron, Computer, Consumer Technology Association, Control grid, Convection, Crookes tube, Crystal detector, ..., Crystal radio, CT scan, Cunife, Demodulation, Detector (radio), Dielectric heating, Diffusion, Diffusion pump, Digital electronics, Diode, Direct current, Display device, Double diode triode, Dry cell, Dynatron oscillator, Dynode, Edison and Swan Electric Light Company, Eimac, Electric arc, Electric battery, Electric current, Electric discharge in gases, Electric light, Electrode, Electrolytic capacitor, Electromagnetic pulse, Electron, Electron microscope, Electron-beam lithography, Electronic oscillator, Electronic switch, Electronics, ENIAC, Eric Tigerstedt, Eugen Goldstein, Fernico, Ferranti Mark 1, Fetron, Field electron emission, Field emitter array, Field-emission display, Flat panel display, Fleming valve, Flip-flop (electronics), Fluorescent lamp, Frederick Guthrie, Free-electron laser, Frequency mixer, Fritz Langford-Smith, Galvanometer, Gas-filled tube, Geiger–Müller tube, Geissler tube, General Electric, General Electric Company, General Post Office, Geomagnetic storm, Getter, Glass-to-metal seal, Glow discharge, Glowing plate, Guitar amplifier, Gyrotron, H. J. Round, Heath Robinson (codebreaking machine), Heinrich Geißler, Helium, Hot cathode, Huntsville, Alabama, Iconoscope, Ignitron, Image intensifier, Incandescent light bulb, Induction heating, Inert gas, Information, Inrush current, Integrated circuit, Interlock (engineering), Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Irving Langmuir, JFET, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, John Ambrose Fleming, Jukebox, Klystron, Kovar, Krytron, KT66, KT88, LC circuit, Lead–acid battery, Lee de Forest, Liquid scintillation counting, List of battery sizes, List of vacuum tube computers, List of vacuum tubes, Local oscillator, Loewe 3NF, Lorenz cipher, Magic eye tube, Mains electricity, Mains hum, Marconi Company, Marconi-Osram Valve, Mean free path, Mean time between failures, Mechanical computer, Mercury (element), Microchannel plate detector, Microphonics, Microwave, Microwave oven, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25, Miller effect, Mullard–Philips tube designation, Negative resistance, Neon, Neutrodyne, Nikola Tesla, Nixie tube, Nuclear explosion, Nuclear weapon, Nuvistor, Operating temperature, Oscilloscope, Oxygen, Particle accelerator, Pascal (unit), Pentagrid converter, Pentode, Phenol formaldehyde resin, Phosphor, Photoelectric effect, Photomultiplier, Photon, Phototube, Plate electrode, Power supply, Preamplifier, Process control, Product detector, Public address system, Purified water, Radar, Radio frequency, Raster scan, RCA, Rectifier, Relay, RETMA tube designation, RMA tube designation, Robert von Lieben, Russian tube designations, Satellite, Schenectady, New York, Scintillation counter, Secondary emission, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, Semiconductor, Silicate, Silicon, Silicon controlled rectifier, Silicon dioxide, Single-sideband modulation, Solid-state electronics, Sound recording and reproduction, Sound reinforcement system, Sound-on-film, Spark-gap transmitter, Strontium oxide, Submarine communications cable, Superheterodyne receiver, Suppressor grid, Telephone, Tetrode, Theory of relativity, Thermionic emission, Thermistor, Thimble, Thomas Edison, Thorium, Thyratron, Thyristor, Tommy Flowers, Top cap, Transconductance, Transformer, Transistor, Traveling-wave tube, Triode, Tube caddy, Tube socket, Tube sound, Tube tester, Tungsten, Tungsten carbide, Tunnel diode, Ultra high frequency, UNIVAC I, Vacuum, Vacuum fluorescent display, Vacuum pump, Valve, Valve amplifier, Valve transmitters, Very high frequency, Video camera tube, Videocassette recorder, Voltage doubler, Voltage-regulator tube, WAAY-TV, Walter H. Schottky, Whirlwind I, Wi-Fi, Wire, Wolfgang Gaede, X-ray, X-ray tube, Zetatron, Zirconium, 12AX7, 6L6, 6SN7, 8974. Expand index (226 more) »

AC/DC receiver design

An AC/DC receiver design is a style of power supply of vacuum tube radio or television receivers that eliminated the bulky and expensive mains transformer.

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Acorn tube

The 955 is typical of the acorn designs, named for the glass cap holding the terminals with the main part of the tube extending from it. An acorn tube, or acorn valve, refers to any member of a family of VHF/UHF vacuum tubes starting just before World War II.

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All American Five

The term All American Five (abbreviated AA5) is a colloquial name for mass-produced, superheterodyne radio receivers that used five vacuum tubes in their design.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

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Amplitude modulation

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.

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Analog-to-digital converter

In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.

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An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Audio frequency

An audio frequency (abbreviation: AF) or audible frequency is characterized as a periodic vibration whose frequency is audible to the average human.

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The Audion was an electronic detecting or amplifying vacuum tube invented by American electrical engineer Lee de Forest in 1906.

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An audiophile is a person who is enthusiastic about high-fidelity sound reproduction.

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Automatic gain control

Automatic gain control (AGC), also called automatic volume control (AVC), is a closed-loop feedback regulating circuit in an amplifier or chain of amplifiers, the purpose of which is to maintain a suitable signal amplitude at its output, despite variation of the signal amplitude at the input.

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Backward-wave oscillator

A backward wave oscillator (BWO), also called carcinotron (a trade name for tubes manufactured by CSF, now Thales) or backward wave tube, is a vacuum tube that is used to generate microwaves up to the terahertz range.

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Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is the first plastic made from synthetic components.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Barium oxide

Barium oxide, BaO, is a white hygroscopic non-flammable compound.

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Battery (vacuum tube)

In the early days of electronics, vacuum tube (called valves in British contexts) devices (such as radios) were powered by batteries.

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Battery eliminator

A battery eliminator is a device powered by an electrical source other than a battery, which then converts the source to a suitable DC voltage that may be used by a second device designed to be powered by batteries.

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Batteryless radio

A batteryless radio is a radio receiver which does not require the use of a battery to provide it with electrical power.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Beam deflection tube

Beam deflection tubes, sometimes known as sheet beam tubes, are vacuum tubes with an electron gun, a beam intensity control grid, a screen grid, sometimes a suppressor grid, and two electrostatic deflection electrodes on opposite sides of the electron beam, that can direct the rectangular beam to either of two anodes in the same plane.

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Beam tetrode

A beam tetrode, sometimes called a "beam power tube", is a type of tetrode vacuum tube (or 'valve') with auxiliary beam-focusing plates designed to augment power-handling capability and help reduce unwanted emission effects.

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Bernard D. H. Tellegen

Bernard D.H. Tellegen (24 June 1900 – 30 August 1990) was a Dutch electrical engineer and inventor of the pentode and the gyrator.

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Biasing in electronics means establishing predetermined voltages or currents at various points of an electronic circuit for the purpose of establishing proper operating conditions in electronic components.

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Bipolar junction transistor

|- align.

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Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).

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Bogey value

In manufacturers' specifications for electronic devices, a bogey device (or bogie device) - especially a vacuum tube- is one that has all characteristics equal to the published values, in other words that its parameters all lie in the centre of their bell curve distributions.

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Borosilicate glass

Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.

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British Valve Association

The British radio and Valve manufacturers Association (BVA) was a cartel of valve manufacturers in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) that was designed to protect their interests from foreign competition.

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C battery

The C' battery (or R14 battery) is a standard size of dry cell battery typically used in medium-drain applications such as toys, flashlights, and musical instruments.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.

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A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.

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Cathode bias

In electronics, cathode bias (self-bias, automatic bias) is a technique used with vacuum tubes to make the direct current (dc) cathode voltage positive in relation to the negative side of the plate voltage supply by an amount equal to the magnitude of the desired grid bias voltage.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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Cavity magnetron

The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Chrominance (chroma or C for short) is the signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture, separately from the accompanying luma signal (or Y for short).

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In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.

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Cold cathode

A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament.

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Colossus computer

Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.

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Compactrons are a type of thermionic valve, or vacuum tube, which contain multiple electrode structures packed into a single enclosure.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Consumer Technology Association

The Consumer Technology Association (CTA), formerly Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), is a standards and trade organization for the consumer electronics industry in the United States.

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Control grid

The control grid is an electrode used in amplifying thermionic valves (vacuum tubes) such as the triode, tetrode and pentode, used to control the flow of electrons from the cathode to the anode (plate) electrode.

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Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

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Crookes tube

A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube) is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.

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Crystal detector

A crystal detector is an obsolete electronic component in some early 20th century radio receivers that used a piece of crystalline mineral as a detector (demodulator) to rectify the alternating current radio signal to extract the audio modulation which produced the sound in the earphones.

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Crystal radio

A crystal radio receiver, also called a crystal set, is a simple radio receiver, popular in the early days of radio.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cunife is an alloy of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), and in some cases cobalt (Co).

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Demodulation is extracting the original information-bearing signal from a carrier wave.

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Detector (radio)

In radio, a detector is a device or circuit that extracts information from a modulated radio frequency current or voltage.

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Dielectric heating

Dielectric heating, also known as electronic heating, RF (radio frequency) heating, and high-frequency heating, is the process in which a radio frequency alternating electric field, or radio wave or microwave electromagnetic radiation heats a dielectric material.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Diffusion pump

Diffusion pumps use a high speed jet of vapor to direct gas molecules in the pump throat down into the bottom of the pump and out the exhaust.

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Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

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A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Display device

A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).

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Double diode triode

A double diode triode is a type of electronic vacuum tube once widely used in radio receivers.

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Dry cell

A dry cell is a type of battery, commonly used for portable electrical devices.

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Dynatron oscillator

In electronics, the dynatron oscillator, invented in 1918 by Albert Hull at General Electric, is an obsolete vacuum tube electronic oscillator circuit which uses a negative resistance characteristic in early tetrode vacuum tubes, caused by a process called secondary emission.

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A dynode is an electrode in a vacuum tube that serves as an electron multiplier through secondary emission.

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Edison and Swan Electric Light Company

The Edison and Swan Electric Light Company Limited was a manufacturer of incandescent lamp bulbs and other electrical goods.

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Eimac is a trade mark of Eimac Products, part of the Microwave Power Products Division of Communications & Power Industries.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric discharge in gases

Electric discharge in gases occurs when electric current flows through a gaseous medium due to ionization of the gas.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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Electrolytic capacitor

An electrolytic capacitor (e-cap) is a polarized capacitor whose anode or positive plate is made of a metal that forms an insulating oxide layer through anodization.

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Electromagnetic pulse

An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Electron-beam lithography

Electron-beam lithography (often abbreviated as e-beam lithography) is the practice of scanning a focused beam of electrons to draw custom shapes on a surface covered with an electron-sensitive film called a resist (exposing).

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Electronic oscillator

An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.

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Electronic switch

In electronics, an electronic switch is an electronic component or device that can switch an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

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Eric Tigerstedt

Eric Magnus Campbell Tigerstedt (August 14, 1887 – April 20, 1925) was one of the most significant inventors in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century and has been called the "Thomas Edison of Finland".

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Eugen Goldstein

Eugen Goldstein (5 September 1850 – 25 December 1930) was a German physicist.

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Fernico describe a family of metal alloys made primarily of iron, nickel and cobalt.

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Ferranti Mark 1

The Ferranti Mark 1, also known as the Manchester Electronic Computer in its sales literature, and thus sometimes called the Manchester Ferranti, was the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.

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The Fetron was a range of solid-state, plug-compatible replacements for vacuum tubes (valves).

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Field electron emission

Field electron emission (also known as field emission (FE) and electron field emission) is emission of electrons induced by an electrostatic field.

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Field emitter array

A field emitter array (FEA) is a particular form of large-area field electron source.

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Field-emission display

A field-emission display (FED) is a flat panel display technology that uses large-area field electron emission sources to provide electrons that strike colored phosphor to produce a color image.

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Flat panel display

Flat-panel displays are electronic viewing technologies used to enable people to see content (still images, moving images, text, or other visual material) in a range of entertainment, consumer electronics, personal computer, and mobile devices, and many types of medical, transportation and industrial equipment.

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Fleming valve

The Fleming valve, also called the Fleming oscillation valve, was a thermionic valve or vacuum tube invented in 1904 by Englishman John Ambrose Fleming as a detector for early radio receivers used in electromagnetic wireless telegraphy.

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Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

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Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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Frederick Guthrie

Prof Frederick Guthrie FRS FRSE (15 October 1833 – 21 October 1886) was a British physicist and chemist and academic author.

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Free-electron laser

A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.

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Frequency mixer

In electronics, a mixer, or frequency mixer, is a nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two signals applied to it.

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Fritz Langford-Smith

Fritz Langford-Smith (29 June 1904 – 3 December 1966) was an Australian electrical engineer.

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A galvanometer is an electromechanical instrument used for detecting and indicating electric current.

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Gas-filled tube

A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.

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Geiger–Müller tube

The Geiger–Müller tube or G–M tube is the sensing element of the Geiger counter instrument used for the detection of ionizing radiation.

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Geissler tube

A Geissler tube is an early gas discharge tube used to demonstrate the principles of electrical glow discharge, similar to modern neon lighting.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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General Electric Company

The General Electric Company, or GEC, was a major UK-based industrial conglomerate involved in consumer and defence electronics, communications, and engineering.

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General Post Office

The General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier.

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Geomagnetic storm

A geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field.

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A getter is a deposit of reactive material that is placed inside a vacuum system, for the purpose of completing and maintaining the vacuum.

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Glass-to-metal seal

Glass-to-metal seals are a very important element of the construction of vacuum tubes, electric discharge tubes, incandescent light bulbs, glass encapsulated semiconductor diodes, reed switches, pressure tight glass windows in metal cases, and metal or ceramic packages of electronic components.

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Glow discharge

A glow discharge is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a gas.

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Glowing plate

When a vacuum tube circuit malfunctions and draws excessive current, the anode ("plate") may overheat, sometimes causing a visible red or orange glow.

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Guitar amplifier

A guitar amplifier (or amp) is an electronic device or system that strengthens the weak electrical signal from a pickup on an electric guitar, bass guitar, or acoustic guitar so that it can produce sound through one or more loudspeakers, which are typically housed in a wooden cabinet.

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A gyrotron is a high-power linear-beam vacuum tube which generates millimeter-wave electromagnetic waves by the cyclotron resonance of electrons in a strong magnetic field.

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H. J. Round

Captain Henry Joseph Round (2 June 1881 – 17 August 1966) was an English engineer and one of the early pioneers of radio.

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Heath Robinson (codebreaking machine)

Heath Robinson was a machine used by British codebreakers at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park during World War II in Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.

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Heinrich Geißler

Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geißler (26 May 1814 in Igelshieb – 24 January 1879) was a skilled glassblower and physicist, famous for his invention of the Geissler tube, made of glass and used as a low pressure gas-discharge tube.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Hot cathode

In vacuum tubes and gas-filled tubes, a hot cathode or thermionic cathode is a cathode electrode which is heated to make it emit electrons due to thermionic emission.

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Huntsville, Alabama

Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.

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The Iconoscope (from the Greek: εἰκών "image" and σκοπεῖν "to look, to see") was the first practical video camera tube to be used in early television cameras.

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An ignitron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a controlled rectifier and dating from the 1930s.

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Image intensifier

An image intensifier or image intensifier tube is a vacuum tube device for increasing the intensity of available light in an optical system to allow use under low-light conditions, such as at night, to facilitate visual imaging of low-light processes, such as fluorescence of materials in X-rays or gamma rays (X-ray image intensifier), or for conversion of non-visible light sources, such as near-infrared or short wave infrared to visible.

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Incandescent light bulb

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).

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Induction heating

Induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object (usually a metal) by electromagnetic induction, through heat generated in the object by eddy currents.

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Inert gas

An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.

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Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

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Inrush current

Inrush current, input surge current, or switch-on surge is the maximal instantaneous input current drawn by an electrical device when first turned on.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Interlock (engineering)

An interlock is a feature that makes the state of two mechanisms or functions mutually dependent.

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Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Irving Langmuir

Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 – August 16, 1957) was an American chemist and physicist.

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The junction gate field-effect transistor (JFET or JUGFET) is the simplest type of field-effect transistor.

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Johann Wilhelm Hittorf

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (27 March 1824 – 28 November 1914) was a German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.

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John Ambrose Fleming

Sir John Ambrose Fleming FRS (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945), an English electrical engineer and physicist, invented the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, and also established the left-hand rule for electric motors.

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A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that will play a patron's selection from self-contained media.

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A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian,Pond, Norman H. "The Tube Guys".

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Kovar (trademark of CRS Holdings, inc., Delaware) is a nickel–cobalt ferrous alloy compositionally identical to Fernico 1, designed to have substantially the same thermal expansion characteristics as borosilicate glass (~5 × 10−6 /K between 30 and 200 °C, to ~10 × 10−6 /K at 800 °C) in order to allow a tight mechanical joint between the two materials over a range of temperatures.

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The krytron is a cold-cathode gas-filled tube intended for use as a very high-speed switch, somewhat similar to the thyratron.

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KT66 is the designator for a beam tetrode vacuum tube introduced by Marconi-Osram Valve Co.

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The KT88 is a beam tetrode/kinkless tetrode (hence "KT") vacuum tube for audio amplification.

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LC circuit

An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit, is an electric circuit consisting of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C, connected together.

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Lead–acid battery

The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.

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Lee de Forest

Lee de Forest (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor, self-described "Father of Radio", and a pioneer in the development of sound-on-film recording used for motion pictures.

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Liquid scintillation counting

Liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of activity of a sample of radioactive material which uses the technique of mixing the active material with a liquid scintillator (e.g. Zinc sulfide), and counting the resultant photon emissions.

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List of battery sizes

This article lists the sizes, shapes, and general characteristics of some common primary and secondary battery types in household and light industrial use.

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List of vacuum tube computers

Vacuum tube computers, now termed first generation computers, are programmable digital computers using vacuum tube logic circuitry.

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List of vacuum tubes

This is a list of vacuum tubes or thermionic valves, and low-pressure gas-filled tubes, or discharge tubes.

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Local oscillator

In electronics, a local oscillator (LO) is an electronic oscillator used with a mixer to change the frequency of a signal.

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Loewe 3NF

The Loewe 3NF was an early attempt to combine several functions in one electronic device.

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Lorenz cipher

The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42a and SZ42b were German rotor stream cipher machines used by the German Army during World War II.

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Magic eye tube

A magic eye tube or tuning indicator, in technical literature called an electron-ray indicator tube, is a vacuum tube which gives a visual indication of the amplitude of an electronic signal, such as an audio output, radio-frequency signal strength, or other functions.

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Mains electricity

Mains electricity (as it is known in the UK; US terms include grid power, wall power, and domestic power) is the general-purpose alternating-current (AC) electric power supply.

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Mains hum

Mains hum, electric hum, or power line hum is a sound associated with alternating current at the frequency of the mains electricity.

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Marconi Company

The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987.

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Marconi-Osram Valve

M-OV (Marconi-Osram Valve Company) was a British manufacturer of thermionic valves (vacuum tubes).

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Mean free path

In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.

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Mean time between failures

Mean time between failures (MTBF) is the predicted elapsed time between inherent failures of a mechanical or electronic system, during normal system operation.

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Mechanical computer

A mechanical computer is built from mechanical components such as levers and gears, rather than electronic components.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Microchannel plate detector

A micro-channel plate (MCP) is a planar component used for detection of single particles (electrons, ions and neutrons) and low intensity impinging radiation (ultraviolet radiation and X-rays).

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Microphonics or microphony describes the phenomenon wherein certain components in electronic devices transform mechanical vibrations into an undesired electrical signal (noise).

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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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Microwave oven

A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.

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Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-25; NATO reporting name: Foxbat) is a supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft that was among the fastest military aircraft to enter service.

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Miller effect

In electronics, the Miller effect accounts for the increase in the equivalent input capacitance of an inverting voltage amplifier due to amplification of the effect of capacitance between the input and output terminals.

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Mullard–Philips tube designation

In Europe, the principal method of numbering vacuum tubes ("thermionic valves") was the nomenclature used by the Philips company and its subsidiaries Mullard in the UK, Valvo(de, it) in Germany, Radiotechnique (Miniwatt-Dario brand) in France, and Amperex in the United States, from 1934 on.

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Negative resistance

In electronics, negative resistance (NR) is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the device's terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it.

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Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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The Neutrodyne radio receiver, invented in 1922 by Louis Hazeltine, was a particular type of tuned radio frequency (TRF) receiver, in which the instability-causing inter-electrode capacitance of the triode RF tubes is cancelled out or "neutralized".

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Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

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Nixie tube

A Nixie tube, or cold cathode display, is an electronic device for displaying numerals or other information using glow discharge.

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Nuclear explosion

A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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The nuvistor is a type of vacuum tube announced by RCA in 1959.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Pentagrid converter

The pentagrid converter is a type of radio receiving valve (vacuum tube) with five grids used as the frequency mixer stage of a superheterodyne radio receiver.

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A pentode is an electronic device having five active electrodes.

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Phenol formaldehyde resin

Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.

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A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

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Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.

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Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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A phototube or photoelectric cell is a type of gas-filled or vacuum tube that is sensitive to light.

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Plate electrode

A plate, usually called anode in Britain, is a type of electrode that forms part of a vacuum tube.

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Power supply

A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load.

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A preamplifier (preamp or "pre") is an electronic amplifier that converts a weak electrical signal into an output signal strong enough to be noise-tolerant and strong enough for further processing, or for sending to a power amplifier and a loudspeaker.

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Process control

Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.

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Product detector

A product detector is a type of demodulator used for AM and SSB signals.

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Public address system

A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment.

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Purified water

Purified water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

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Raster scan

A raster scan, or raster scanning, is the rectangular pattern of image capture and reconstruction in television.

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The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.

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A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.

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A relay is an electrically operated switch.

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RETMA tube designation

The Radio Electronics Television Manufacturers' Association was formed in 1953, as a result of mergers with other trade standards organisations, such as the RMA.

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RMA tube designation

In the years 1942-1944, the Radio Manufacturers Association used a descriptive nomenclature system for industrial, transmitting, and special-purpose vacuum tubes.

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Robert von Lieben

Robert von Lieben (September 5, 1878, Vienna – February 20, 1913, Vienna) was an Austrian physicist whose work contributed to the development of valve amplifiers.

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Russian tube designations

Vacuum tubes produced in the former Soviet Union and in present-day Russia carry their own unique designations.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Schenectady, New York

Schenectady is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat.

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Scintillation counter

A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.

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Secondary emission

Secondary emission in physics is a phenomenon where primary incident particles of sufficient energy, when hitting a surface or passing through some material, induce the emission of secondary particles.

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Semi-Automatic Ground Environment

The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE, a name selected to mean "wise") was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon controlled rectifier

A silicon controlled rectifier or semiconductor-controlled rectifier is a four-layer solid-state current-controlling device.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Single-sideband modulation

In radio communications, single-sideband modulation (SSB) or single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation (SSB-SC) is a type of modulation, used to transmit information, such as an audio signal, by radio waves.

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Solid-state electronics

Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).

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Sound recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.

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Sound reinforcement system

A sound reinforcement system is the combination of microphones, signal processors, amplifiers, and loudspeakers in enclosures all controlled by a mixing console that makes live or pre-recorded sounds louder and may also distribute those sounds to a larger or more distant audience.

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Sound-on-film is a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same strip of film carrying the picture.

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Spark-gap transmitter

A spark-gap transmitter is a device that generates radio frequency electromagnetic waves using a spark gap.

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Strontium oxide

Strontium oxide or strontia, SrO, is formed when strontium reacts with oxygen.

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Submarine communications cable

A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.

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Superheterodyne receiver

A superheterodyne receiver, often shortened to superhet, is a type of radio receiver that uses frequency mixing to convert a received signal to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF) which can be more conveniently processed than the original carrier frequency.

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Suppressor grid

A suppressor grid is a grid used in a thermionic valve (also called vacuum tube) to suppress secondary emission.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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A tetrode is a vacuum tube (called valve in British English) having four active electrodes.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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Thermionic emission

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier.

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A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistors.

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A thimble is a small hard pitted cup worn for protection on the finger that pushes the needle in sewing.

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Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.

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Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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A thyratron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a high-power electrical switch and controlled rectifier.

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A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials.

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Tommy Flowers

Thomas Harold Flowers, MBE (22 December 1905 – 28 October 1998) was an English engineer with the British Post Office.

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Top cap

In vacuum tube technology, a top cap is a terminal at the top of the tube envelope that connects one of the electrodes, the other electrodes being connected via the tube socket.

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Transconductance (for transfer conductance), also infrequently called mutual conductance, is the electrical characteristic relating the current through the output of a device to the voltage across the input of a device.

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A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

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A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Traveling-wave tube

A traveling-wave tube (TWT, pronounced "twit") or traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA, pronounced "tweeta") is a specialized vacuum tube that is used in electronics to amplify radio frequency (RF) signals in the microwave range.

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A triode is an electronic amplifying vacuum tube (or valve in British English) consisting of three electrodes inside an evacuated glass envelope: a heated filament or cathode, a grid, and a plate (anode).

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Tube caddy

A tube caddy is a type of carrying case used for storing and transporting vacuum tubes.

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Tube socket

Tube sockets are electrical sockets into which vacuum tubes (also known as valves) can be plugged, holding them in place and providing terminals, which can be soldered into the circuit, for each of the pins.

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Tube sound

Tube sound (or valve sound) is the characteristic sound associated with a vacuum tube amplifier (valve amplifier in British English), a vacuum tube-based audio amplifier.

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Tube tester

A tube tester is an electronic instrument designed to test certain characteristics of vacuum tubes (thermionic valves).

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Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Tungsten carbide

Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.

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Tunnel diode

A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region (up to), made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.

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Ultra high frequency

Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.

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The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Vacuum fluorescent display

A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a display device used commonly on consumer electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens.

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Vacuum pump

A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum.

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A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

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Valve amplifier

A valve amplifier or tube amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that uses vacuum tubes to increase the amplitude or power of a signal.

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Valve transmitters

Most high power transmitter amplifiers are of valve construction because of the high power required.

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Very high frequency

Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.

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Video camera tube

The video camera tube was a type of cathode ray tube used to capture the television image prior to the introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in the 1980s.

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Videocassette recorder

A videocassette recorder, VCR, or video recorder is an electromechanical device that records analog audio and analog video from broadcast television or other source on a removable, magnetic tape videocassette, and can play back the recording.

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Voltage doubler

A voltage doubler is an electronic circuit which charges capacitors from the input voltage and switches these charges in such a way that, in the ideal case, exactly twice the voltage is produced at the output as at its input.

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Voltage-regulator tube

A voltage-regulator tube (VR tube) is an electronic component used as a shunt regulator to hold a voltage constant at a pre-determined level.

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WAAY-TV is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Huntsville, Alabama, United States and serving North Alabama's Tennessee Valley.

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Walter H. Schottky

Walter Hans Schottky (23 July 1886 – 4 March 1976) was a German physicist who played a major early role in developing the theory of electron and ion emission phenomena, invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the pentode in 1919 while working at Siemens, co-invented the ribbon microphone and ribbon loudspeaker along with Dr.

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Whirlwind I

Whirlwind I was a Cold War-era vacuum tube computer developed by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory for the U.S. Navy.

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Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.

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A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal.

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Wolfgang Gaede

Wolfgang Max Paul Gaede (25 May 1878 – 24 June 1945) was a German physicist and pioneer of vacuum engineering.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray tube

An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.

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A Zetatron is a high-voltage vacuum tube device that generates a stream of neutrons.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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12AX7 (also known as ECC83) is a vacuum tube that is a miniature dual triode - 6AV6 with high voltage gain.

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6L6 is the designator for a vacuum tube introduced by Radio Corporation of America in July 1936.

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6SN7 is a dual triode vacuum tube with an 8-pin octal base.

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8974 / X-2159 is a power tetrode designed for megawatt power levels in industrial and broadcast applications.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_tube

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