254 relations: Abhayagiri vihāra, Abhayakaragupta, Abhinavagupta, Adamant, Adi-Buddha, Aeon, Alex Wayman, Alexis Sanderson, Amitābha, Amoghavajra, Amur Oblast, Analogy, Anuttarayoga Tantra, Ari Buddhism, Asanga, Astrology, Atiśa, Azhaliism, Śāntarakṣita, Śūnyatā, Śrāvakayāna, Śubhakarasiṃha, Bai people, Bardo, Bell, Bengal, Bhairava, Bodh Gaya, Bodhi, Bodhicitta, Bodhisattva, Bodhisattva vow, Borobudur, British Library, Buddha-nature, Buddhaguhya, Buddhahood, Buddhānusmṛti, Buddhism, Buddhism in Bhutan, Buddhism in Mongolia, Buddhism in Nepal, Buddhism in Russia, Buddhism in the Maldives, Buddhist meditation, Buddhist modernism, Buddhist philosophy, Buddhist Tantras, Buryatia, Cakrasaṃvara Tantra, ..., Cambodia, Cebu, Central Asia, Chakra, Charnel ground, Chöd, China, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese Esoteric Buddhism, Chita Oblast, Culture of Japan, Damaru, Deity yoga, Deva (Hinduism), Dhāraṇī, Dream yoga, Drukpa Lineage, Dunhuang, Dunhuang manuscripts, Dzogchen, East Asia, Edo period, Empowerment (Vajrayana), En no Gyōja, Extrasensory perception, Faith in Buddhism, Fierce deities, Five Tathagatas, Ganachakra, Gandavyuha, Gankyil, Gautama Buddha, Ghanta, Gorakhnath, Goryeo, Guhyasamāja Tantra, Guru, Gyuto Order, Hatha yoga, Heart Sutra, Hevajra, Hinayana, Hindu pilgrimage sites, Hippie, History of Buddhism in India, Hwaeom, I Ching, India, Indian subcontinent, Indonesian Esoteric Buddhism, Indra, Islam, Japan, Java, Je Tsongkhapa, Jingak Order, Jnana, Jogye Order, Joseon, Kalachakra, Kalmykia, Kangyur, Kapalika, Karmamudrā, Kashmir Shaivism, Kīla (Buddhism), Kūkai, Khabarovsk Krai, Korea, Korean Seon, Lama, Laos, Later Silla, Lineage (Buddhism), Longchenpa, Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra, Lotus Sutra, Louis de La Vallée-Poussin, Luzon, Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa, Madhyamaka, Mahamudra, Mahasiddha, Mahavairocana Tantra, Mahayana, Mahayana sutras, Mahayana-sutra-alamkara-karika, Mandala, Manjushri, Mantra, Matsyendranath, Medieval India, Meiji Restoration, Mental image, Messianism, Metaphor, Mikkyō, Mind Stream, Mirage, Mongols, Mudra, Murti, Myanmar, Nath, Nepal, Newar people, Ngagpa, Ngöndro, Nirvana, Nondualism, Nyingma, Obfuscation, Pala Empire, Palawan, Pali Text Society, Paranasabari, Pashupata Shaivism, Pāli Canon, Pāramitā, Philippines, Phowa, Pointing-out instruction, Prajñā (Buddhism), Prajnaparamita, Prātimokṣa, Prostration (Buddhism), Pure land, Rainbow, Ratnagotravibhāga, Ratnākaraśānti, Religion in Japan, Religious symbol, Republic, Ritual, Rongzom Chokyi Zangpo, Saṃsāra, Sacred architecture, Sakya Pandita, Sam van Schaik, Samadhi, Samatha, Samaya, Sanskrit, Sādhanā, Shailendra dynasty, Shaiva Siddhanta, Shaivism, Shingon Buddhism, Siddhaṃ script, Siddhi, Silk Road, Southeast Asia, Srivijaya, Subtle body, Sumatra, Sutrayana, Synonym, Taego Order, Tang dynasty, Tantra, Tantra techniques (Vajrayana), Tantras, Taoism, Tattvasaṃgraha Tantra, Tawang Taktshang Monastery, Ten Stages Sutra, Tendai, Tengyur, Terma (religion), Thailand, Thangka, Theravada, Theurgy, Thunderbolt, Tiantai, Tibet, Tibetan art, Tibetan Buddhism, Tokugawa shogunate, Tribal religions in India, Trisong Detsen, Trul khor, Tulku, Tummo, Tuva, Twilight language, Upaya, Vairocana, Vajra, Vajrabodhi, Vajracharya, Vajrasekhara Sutra, Vajrayana, Vajrayogini, Vamachara, Vimalamitra, Vipassanā, Word Association, Yamantaka, Yana (Buddhism), Yi Xing, Yidam, Yogachara, Yuan dynasty. Expand index (204 more) » « Shrink index
Abhayagiri Vihāra was a major monastery site of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism that was situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
Abhayākaragupta (Wylie: 'jigs-med 'byung-gnas sbas-pa) was a Buddhist monk, scholar and tantric master (vajracarya) and the abbot of Vikramasila.
Abhinavagupta (c. 950 – 1016 AD) was a philosopher, mystic and aesthetician from Kashmir.
Adamant and similar words are used to refer to any especially hard substance, whether composed of diamond, some other gemstone, or some type of metal.
In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Adi-Buddha, is the "First Buddha" or the "Primordial Buddha." The term reemerges in tantric literature, most prominently in the Kalachakra.
The word aeon, also spelled eon (in American English) and æon, originally meant "life", "vital force" or "being", "generation" or "a period of time", though it tended to be translated as "age" in the sense of "ages", "forever", "timeless" or "for eternity".
Alex Wayman (January 11, 1921 – September 22, 2004) was a Tibetologist and Indologist and worked as a professor of Sanskrit at Columbia University.
Alexis G. J. S. Sanderson (born 1948) is an indologist and Fellow of All Souls College at the University of Oxford.
Amitābha, also known as Amida or Amitāyus, is a celestial buddha according to the scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism.
Amoghavajra (अमोघवज्र;, 705–774) was a prolific translator who became one of the most politically powerful Buddhist monks in Chinese history and is acknowledged as one of the Eight Patriarchs of the Doctrine in Shingon Buddhism.
Amur Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Anuttarayoga Tantra (Sanskrit, Tibetan: bla na med pa'i rgyud), often translated as Unexcelled Yoga Tantra or Highest Yoga Tantra, is a term used in Tibetan Buddhism in the categorization of esoteric tantric Indian Buddhist texts that constitute part of the Kangyur, or the 'translated words of the Buddha' in the Tibetan Buddhist canon.
Ari Buddhism or the Ari Gaing (အရည်းဂိုဏ်း) is the name given to the religious practice common in Burma prior to Anawrahta's rise and the subsequent conversion of Bagan to Theravada Buddhism in the eleventh century.
Asaṅga (Romaji: Mujaku) (fl. 4th century C.E.) was a major exponent of the Yogacara tradition in India, also called Vijñānavāda.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
(অতীশ দীপংকর শ্রীজ্ঞান; ཇོ་བོ་རྗེ་དཔལ་ལྡན་ཨ་ཏི་ཤ།) (982 - 1054 CE) was a Buddhist Bengali religious leader and master.
Azhaliism (Chinese: 阿吒力教 Āzhālìjiào) is a Vajrayana Buddhist religion practiced among the Bai people of Yunnan, China.
(शान्तरक्षित,;, 725–788)stanford.edu: was a renowned 8th century Indian Buddhist and abbot of Nalanda.
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
Śrāvakayāna (श्रावकयान; सावकयान) is one of the three yānas known to Indian Buddhism.
Śubhakarasiṃha (637-735 CE) was an eminent Indian Buddhist monk and master of Esoteric Buddhism, who arrived in the Chinese capital Chang'an (now Xi'an) in 716 CE and translated the, better known as the Mahāvairocana Sūtra.
The Bai or Baip (Bai language: Baipho /pɛ̰˦˨xo̰˦/ (白和);; endonym pronounced) are an East Asian ethnic group.
In some schools of Buddhism, bardo (Tibetan བར་དོ་ Wylie: bar do) or antarabhāva (Sanskrit) is an intermediate, transitional, or liminal state between death and rebirth.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bhairava (Sanskrit: भैरव, lit. frightful) is a Hindu deity worshiped by Hindus.
Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Bodhi (Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi) in Buddhism traditionally is translated into English with the term enlightenment, although its literal meaning is closer to "awakening".
In Buddhism, bodhicitta, "enlightenment-mind", is the mind that strives toward awakening, empathy, and compassion for the benefit of all sentient beings.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
The Bodhisattva vow is the vow taken by Mahayana Buddhists to liberate all sentient beings.
Borobudur, or Barabudur (Candi Borobudur, Candhi Barabudhur) is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably tathāgatagarbha and buddhadhātu.
Buddhaguhya (fl. c.700 CEHodge, Stephen (2003). The Maha-Vairocana-Abhisambodhi Tantra: With Buddhaguhya's Commentary. Routledge.. P.22 Refer: (accessed: October 30, 2007)) was a Vajrayana Buddhist scholar-monk.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
Buddhānusmṛti (Sanskrit; Pali: buddhānussati), meaning "Buddha-mindfulness", is a common Buddhist practice in all Buddhist traditions which involves meditating with a Buddha, such as Gautama or Amitābha, as the meditation subject.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism is the major religion in Bhutan.
Buddhism in Mongolia derives much of its recent characteristics from Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelug and Kagyu lineages, but is distinct and presents its own unique characteristics.
Buddha was born in Shakya (Shakya) Kingdom of Kapilvastu which lies in present-day Rupandehi district, Lumbini zone of Nepal.
Historically, Buddhism was incorporated into Russian lands in the early 17th century.
Buddhism in the Maldives was the predominant religion at least until the 12th century CE.
Buddhist meditation is the practice of meditation in Buddhism and Buddhist philosophy.
Buddhist modernism (also referred to as Modern Buddhism, modernist Buddhism and Neo-Buddhism) are new movements based on modern era reinterpretations of Buddhism.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
The Buddhist Tantras are a varied group of Indian and Tibetan texts which outline unique views and practices of the Buddhist tantra religious systems.
The Republic of Buryatia (p; Buryaad Ulas) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in Asia in Siberia.
The Cakrasaṃvara Tantra (चक्रसंवर तन्त्र) or Khorlo Déchok is considered to be of the mother class of the Anuttarayoga Tantra in Vajrayana Buddhism.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cebu (Lalawigan sa Sugbu; Lalawigan ng Cebu) is a province of the Philippines located in the region, and consisting of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chakras (Sanskrit: चक्र, IAST: cakra, Pali: cakka, lit. wheel, circle) are the various focal points in the subtle body used in a variety of ancient meditation practices, collectively denominated as Tantra, or the esoteric or inner traditions of Indian religion, Chinese Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, and in postmodernity, in new age medicine, and originally psychologically adopted to the western mind through the assistance of Carl G. Jung.
A charnel ground (Devanagari: श्मशान; Romanized Sanskrit: śmaśān; Tibetan pronunciation: durtrö),Rigpa Shedra (July 2009).
Chöd (lit. 'to sever'), is a spiritual practice found primarily in the Nyingma and Kagyu schools of Tibetan Buddhism (where it is classed as Anuttarayoga Tantra).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.
Chinese Esoteric Buddhism refers to traditions of Tantra and Esoteric Buddhism that have flourished among the Chinese people.
Chita Oblast (p) was a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) in southeast Siberia, Russia.
The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric time Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.
A damaru (Tamil: உடுக்கை; ḍamaru; Tibetan ཌ་མ་རུ; Devanagari: डमरु) or damru is a small two-headed drum, used in Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism.
Deity yoga (Tibetan: lha'i rnal 'byor; Sanskrit: Devata-yoga) is a practice of Vajrayana Buddhism involving identification with a chosen deity through visualisations and rituals, and the realisation of emptiness.
Deva (Sanskrit: देव) means "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and is also one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism.
A (Devanagari: धारणी) is a Sanskrit term for a type of ritual speech similar to a mantra.
Dream Yoga or Milam (Standard Tibetan: rmi-lam or nyilam; स्वप्नदर्शन, svapnadarśana)—the Yoga of the Dream State—is a suite of advanced tantric sadhana of the entwined Mantrayana lineages of Dzogchen (Nyingmapa, Ngagpa, Mahasiddha, Kagyu and Bönpo).
The Drukpa Lineage, or simply Drukpa, sometimes called either Dugpa or "Red Hat sect" in older sources, by Alexandra David-Néel.
Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.
The Dunhuang manuscripts are a cache of important religious and secular documents discovered in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China, in the early 20th century.
Dzogchen or "Great Perfection", Sanskrit: अतियोग, is a tradition of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism aimed at discovering and continuing in the natural primordial state of being.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
An empowerment is a ritual in Vajrayana which initiates a student into a particular tantric deity practice.
(b. 634, in Katsuragi (modern Nara Prefecture); d. c. 700–707) was a Japanese ascetic and mystic, traditionally held to be the founder of Shugendō, the path of ascetic training practiced by the gyōja or yamabushi.
Extrasensory perception or ESP, also called sixth sense or second sight, includes claimed reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses, but sensed with the mind.
In Buddhism, faith (italic, italic) refers to a serene commitment to the practice of the Buddha's teaching and trust in enlightened or highly developed beings, such as Buddhas or bodhisattvas (those aiming to become a Buddha).
In Buddhism, fierce deities are the fierce, wrathful or forceful (Tibetan: trowo, Sanskrit: krodha) forms of enlightened Buddhas, Bodhisattvas or Devas (divine beings).
In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Five Tathāgatas (pañcatathāgata) or Five Wisdom Tathāgatas, the Five Great Buddhas and the Five Jinas (Sanskrit for "conqueror" or "victor"), are emanations and representations of the five qualities of the Adi-Buddha or "first Buddha" Vairocana or Vajradhara, which is associated with Dharmakaya.
A ganacakra (Sanskrit: gaṇacakra "gathering circle") is also known as tsog, ganapuja, cakrapuja or ganacakrapuja.
The Gaṇḍavyūha Sutra or The Flower Ornament Scripture is a Buddhist Mahayana Sutra of Indian origin dating roughly c. 200 to 300 CE.
The Gankyil (Lhasa) or "wheel of joy" (cakra) is a symbol and ritual tool used in Tibetan and East Asian Buddhism.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Ghanta (tibetan: drilbu) is the Sanskrit term for a ritual bell used in Hinduistic religious practices.
Gorakhnath (also known as Goraksanath, estimated c. early 11th century) was an influential founder of the Nath Hindu monastic movement in India.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
The Guhyasamāja Tantra (Sanskrit: Guhyasamājatantra; Tibetan: Gsang ’dus rtsa rgyud (Toh 442); Tantra of the Secret Community) is one of the most important scriptures of Tantric Buddhism.
Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.
Gyuto (also spelled Gyütö or Gyüto) Tantric University is one of the great monastic institutions of the Gelug Order.
Hatha yoga is a branch of yoga.
The Heart Sūtra (Sanskrit or Chinese 心經 Xīnjīng) is a popular sutra in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Hevajra (Tibetan: ཀྱེའི་རྡོ་རྗེ་ kye'i rdo rje / kye rdo rje; Chinese: 喜金剛 Xǐ jīngāng / 呼金剛 Hū jīngāng) is one of the main yidams (enlightened beings) in Tantric, or Vajrayana Buddhism.
"Hīnayāna" is a Sanskrit term literally meaning the "inferior vehicle".
In religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance.
A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.
Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama who was deemed a "Buddha" ("Awakened One").
Hwaeom is the name of the Korean transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism.
The I Ching,.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indonesian Esoteric Buddhism or Esoteric Buddhism in Maritime Southeast Asia refers to the traditions of Esoteric Buddhism found in Maritime Southeast Asia which emerged in the 7th century along the maritime trade routes and port cities of the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra as well as in Malaysia.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Zongkapa Lobsang Zhaba, or Tsongkhapa ("The man from Tsongkha", 1357–1419), usually taken to mean "the Man from Onion Valley", born in Amdo, was a famous teacher of Tibetan Buddhism whose activities led to the formation of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Jingak Order is a South Korean Esoteric (Vajrayana) Buddhist sect founded in 1947 by Grand Master Hoedang (Kyu-Shang Sohn, 1902-1963).
In Indian philosophy and religion, jñāna (Pali: ñāṇa) or gyan/gian (Hindi: jñān) is "knowledge".
The Jogye Order, officially the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism (대한불교조계종, 大韓佛敎 曹溪宗) is the representative order of traditional Korean Buddhism with roots that date back 1,200 years to Unified Silla National Master Doui, who brought Seon (known as Zen in the West) and the practice taught by the Sixth Patriarch, Huineng, from China about 820 C.E. The name of the Order, Jogye, was adopted from the name of the village where Patriarch Huineng's home temple is located.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
The Kalachakra (Sanskrit कालचक्र,; Цогт Цагийн Хүрдэн Tsogt Tsagiin Hurden) is a term used in Vajrayana Buddhism that means wheel of time or "time-cycles".
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, comprising the Kangyur or Kanjur ('The Translation of the Word') and the Tengyur or Tanjur (Tengyur) ('Translation of Treatises').
The Kāpālika tradition was a non-Puranic form of Shaivism in India.
Karmamudrā (Sanskrit; "action seal," erroneously: kāmamudrā or "desire seal," Tib. las-kyi phyag-rgya) is a Vajrayana Buddhist technique of sexual practice with a physical or visualized consort.
Kashmir Shaivism is a group of nondualist Tantric Shaiva exegetical traditions from Kashmir that originated after 850 CE.
The kīla or phurba (Sanskrit Devanagari: कील; IAST: kīla;, alternate transliterations and English orthographies: phurpa, phurbu, purbha, or phurpu) is a three-sided peg, stake, knife, or nail-like ritual implement traditionally associated with Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, Bön, and Indian Vedic traditions.
Kūkai (空海), also known posthumously as, 774–835, was a Japanese Buddhist monk, civil servant, scholar, poet, and artist who founded the Shingon or "True Word" school of Buddhism.
Khabarovsk Krai (p) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Seon Buddhism (Korean: 선; IPA) is the transformative facture of Chan Buddhism tradition and creed in Korea.
Lama ("chief" or "high priest") is a title for a teacher of the Dhamma in Tibetan Buddhism.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Later Silla (668–935) or Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean peninsula.
A lineage in Buddhism is a line of transmission of the Buddhist teaching that is "theoretically traced back to the Buddha himself." The acknowledgement of the transmission can be oral, or certified in documents.
Longchen Rabjampa, Drimé Özer (Wylie: klong chen rab 'byams pa dri med 'od zer), commonly abbreviated to Longchenpa (1308–1364), was a major teacher in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra (or Infinite Life Sutra) is one of the two Indian Mahayana sutras which describe the pure land of Amitābha.
The Lotus Sūtra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, literally "Sūtra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma") is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
Louis Étienne Joseph Marie de La Vallée-Poussin (1 January 1869 – 18 February 1938) was a Belgian Indologist and scholar of Buddhist Studies.
Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.
The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa or Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa is a text of the Kriyā-tantra class.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
Mahāmudrā (Sanskrit, Tibetan: Chagchen, Wylie: phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo, Wylie: phyag rgya chen po) literally means "great seal" or "great imprint" and refers to the fact that "all phenomena inevitably are stamped by the fact of wisdom and emptiness inseparable".
Mahasiddha (Sanskrit: mahāsiddha "great adept) is a term for someone who embodies and cultivates the "siddhi of perfection".
The Mahāvairocana Tantra (also known as 大日经 ''Da ri Jing'') is an important Vajrayana Buddhist text.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
The Mahayana sutras are a broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that various traditions of Mahayana Buddhism accept as canonical.
Mahāyāna Sūtrālamkāra kārikā ("The Adornment of Mahayana sutras") is a major work of Buddhist philosophy attributed to Maitreya-nātha as dictated to Asanga.
A mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, maṇḍala; literally "circle") is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe.
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (insight) in Mahayana Buddhism.
A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
Matsyendranātha, Macchindranāth or Mīnanātha (c. early 10th century) was a saint and yogi in a number of Buddhist and Hindu traditions.
Medieval India refers to a long period of the history of the Indian subcontinent between the "ancient period" and "modern period".
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person.
In Abrahamic religions, Messianism is the belief and doctrine that is centered on the advent of the messiah, who acts as the chosen savior and leader of humanity by God.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
is a Japanese term that refers to the esoteric Vajrayāna practices of the Shingon Buddhist school and the related practices that make up part of the Tendai and Kegon schools.
Mind Stream (citta-santāna) in Buddhist philosophy is the moment-to-moment continuum (Sanskrit: saṃtāna) of sense impressions and mental phenomena, which is also described as continuing from one life to another.
A mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
A mudra (Sanskrit "seal", "mark", or "gesture") is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism.
A Murti (Sanskrit: मूर्ति, IAST: Mūrti) literally means any form, embodiment or solid object, and typically refers to an image, statue or idol of a deity or person in Indian culture.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nath, also called as Natha, are a Shaivism sub-tradition within Hinduism.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Newar (नेवार; endonym: Newa:; नेवा), or Nepami, are the historical inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic heritage and civilisation.
In Tibetan Buddhism and Bon, a Ngagpa (Sanskrit mantrī) is a non-monastic practitioner of Dzogchen who has received a skra dbang, a hair empowerment, for example in the Dudjom Tersar lineage.
The Tibetan term Ngöndro (pūrvaka) refers to the preliminary, preparatory or foundational practices or disciplines (Sanskrit: sādhanā) common to all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism and also to Bon.
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
In spirituality, nondualism, also called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second".
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug).
Obfuscation is the obscuring of the intended meaning of communication by making the message difficult to understand, usually with confusing and ambiguous language.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Palawan (pron.), officially the Province of Palawan (Cuyonon: Probinsya i'ang Palawan / Paragua; Kapuoran sang Palawan; Lalawigan ng Palawan) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA.
The Pali Text Society is a text publication society founded in 1881 by Thomas William Rhys Davids "to foster and promote the study of Pāli texts".
Parṇaśabarī /Paranasabari"Parnashavari" / Paranasavari (पार्णशबरी) is a Buddhist and Hindu deity of diseases.
Pashupata Shaivism (पाशुपत) is the oldest of the major Shaivite Hindu schools.
The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.
Pāramitā (Sanskrit, Pali) or pāramī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness".
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phowa (Tibetan: འཕོ་བ་; Wylie: 'pho ba; also spelled Powa phonetically; Sanskrit: saṃkrānti) is a Vajrayāna Buddhist meditation practice.
The pointing-out instruction (ngo sprod) is the direct introduction to the nature of mind in the Tibetan Buddhist lineages of Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen.
Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness).
Prajñāpāramitā means "the Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom" in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
The Prātimokṣa (Sanskrit prātimokṣa) is a list of rules (contained within the vinaya) governing the behaviour of Buddhist monastics (monks or bhikṣus and nuns or bhikṣuṇīs).
A prostration (Pali: panipāta, Skt.: namas-kara, Ch.: li-pai, Jp.: raihai) is a gesture used in Buddhist practice to show reverence to the Triple Gem (comprising the Buddha, his teachings, and the spiritual community) and other objects of veneration.
A pure land is the celestial realm or pure abode of a buddha or bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism.
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.
The Ratnagotravibhāga (Sanskrit, abbreviated as RgV) and its vyākhyā commentary (abbreviated RgVV), also known as the Uttaratantraśāstra, are a compendium of the tathāgatagarbha literature.
Ratnākaraśānti (also known as Śāntipa) (c. 1000 CE) was one of the eighty-four Buddhist Mahāsiddhas and the chief debate-master at the monastic university of Vikramashila.
Religion in Japan is dominated by Shinto (the ethnic religion of the Japanese people) and by Buddhism.
A religious symbol is an iconic representation intended to represent a specific religion, or a specific concept within a given religion.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Rongzom Chökyi Zangpo (1012–1088), widely known as Rongzom Mahapandita, Rongzom Dharmabhadra, or simply as Rongzompa, was one of the most important scholars of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is a religious architectural practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship or sacred or intentional space, such as churches, mosques, stupas, synagogues, and temples.
Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyeltsen (Tibetan: ས་སྐྱ་པནདིཏ་ཀུན་དགའ་རྒྱལ་མཚན)1182-28 November 1251) was a Tibetan spiritual leader and Buddhist scholar and the fourth of the Five Sakya Forefathers. Künga Gyeltsen is generally known simply as Sakya Pandita, a title given to him in recognition of his scholarly achievements and knowledge of Sanskrit. He is held in the tradition to have been an emanation of Manjusri, the embodiment of the wisdom of all the Buddhas. After that he also known as a great scholar in Tibet, Mongolia, China and India and was proficient in the five great sciences of Buddhist philosophy, medicine, grammar, dialectics and sacred Sanskrit literature as well as the minor sciences of rhetoric, synonymies, poetry, dancing and astrology. He is considered to be the fourth Sakya Forefather and sixth Sakya Trizin and one of the most important figures in the Sakya lineage.
Sam Julius van Schaik is an English Tibetologist.
Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि), also called samāpatti, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools refers to a state of meditative consciousness.
Samatha (Pāli) or śamatha (शमथ; zhǐ) is the Buddhist practice (bhāvanā भावना) of calming the mind (citta चित्त) and its 'formations' (saṅkhāra संस्कार).
The samaya (Japanese and, sanmaya-kai, Sānmóyéjiè), is a set of vows or precepts given to initiates of an esoteric Vajrayana Buddhist order as part of the abhiṣeka (empowerment or initiation) ceremony that creates a bond between the guru and disciple.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sādhana (Sanskrit साधन), literally "a means of accomplishing something", is a generic term coming from the yogic tradition and it refers to any spiritual exercise that is aimed at progressing the sādhaka towards the very ultimate expression of his or her life in this reality.
The Shailendra dynasty (derived from Sanskrit combined words Śaila and Indra, meaning "King of the Mountain", also spelled Sailendra, Syailendra or Selendra) was the name of a notable Indianised Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java, whose reign signified a cultural renaissance in the region.
Shaiva siddhanta,(IAST: Śaiva siddhānta), provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of Agamic and Vedic Shaivam combined.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
is one of the major schools of Buddhism in Japan and one of the few surviving Vajrayana lineages in East Asia, originally spread from India to China through traveling monks such as Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra.
, also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is a script used for writing Sanskrit from c. 550 – c. 1200.
(Sanskrit and Pali: सिद्धि; Kannada: ಸಿದ್ಧಿ; Telugu: సిద్ధి; Sinhala: සිද්දි; Tamil: சித்தி;, (accessed: Thursday April 15, 2010)) are spiritual, paranormal, supernatural, or otherwise magical powers, abilities, and attainments that are the products of spiritual advancement through sādhanās such as meditation and yoga.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
A subtle body is one of a series of psycho-spiritual constituents of living beings, according to various esoteric, occult, and mystical teachings.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Sūtrayāna, (Sanskrit) is the Indo-Tibetan three-fold classification of yanas.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
The Taego Order or Taego-jong is the second largest order in Korean Seon, the Korean branch of Chan Buddhism.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, literally "loom, weave, system") denotes the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most likely about the middle of 1st millennium CE.
Tantra techniques in Vajrayana Buddhism are techniques used to attain Buddhahood.
Tantras ("Looms" or "Weavings") refers to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
For the work of the same title by Shantarakshita, see Tattvasamgraha Tattvasaṃgraha Tantra (Sanskrit), is an important seventh century Indian Buddhist tantric text that was very important for the development of the Vajrayana Yoga tantra traditions in India, Tibet, China, Japan and Sumatra, amongst others.
Taktsang Monastery is a prominent Tibetan Buddhist sacred site and temple complex, located on the cliffside of the Tawang District in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh (not the same as Paro Taktsang monastery).
The Ten Stages Sutra (Sanskrit: Daśabhūmika Sūtra) also known as the Daśabhūmika Sūtra, is an early, influential Mahayana Buddhist scripture.
is a Mahayana Buddhist school established in Japan in the year 806 by a monk named Saicho also known as.
The Tengyur or Tanjur or Bstan-’gyur (Tibetan: "Translation of Teachings") is the Tibetan collection of commentaries to the Buddhist teachings, or "Translated Treatises".
Terma ("hidden treasure") are various forms of hidden teachings that are key to Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhist and Bon religious traditions. The belief is that these teachings were originally esoterically hidden by various adepts such as Padmasambhava and dakini such as Yeshe Tsogyal (consorts) during the 8th century, for future discovery at auspicious times by other adepts, who are known as tertöns. As such, terma represent a tradition of continuous revelation in Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhism. Termas are a part of tantric literature.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
A thangka, variously spelt as thangka, tangka, thanka, or tanka (Nepal Bhasa: पौभा), is a Tibetan Buddhist painting on cotton, silk appliqué, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, scene, or mandala.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία, Theourgia) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action or evoking the presence of one or more gods, especially with the goal of achieving henosis (uniting with the divine) and perfecting oneself.
A thunderbolt or lightning bolt is a symbolic representation of lightning when accompanied by a loud thunderclap.
Tiantai is a school of Buddhism in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam that reveres the Lotus Sutra as the highest teaching in Buddhism.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
For more than a thousand years, Tibetan artists have played a key role in the cultural life of Tibet.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
About 104 million people in India are members of Scheduled Tribes, which accounts for 8.6 % of Indias population (according to the 2011 census).
Trisong Detsen or Trisong Detsän was the son of Me Agtsom and the 38th emperor of Tibet.
Tsa lung Trul khor (vayv-adhisāra "magical movement instrument, channels and inner breath currents"), known in short as Trul khor "magical instrument" or "magic circle" (adhisāra) is a Vajrayana discipline which includes pranayama and body postures (asanas).
A tulku (also tülku, trulku) is a reincarnate custodian of a specific lineage of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism who is given empowerments and trained from a young age by students of his or her predecessor.
Tummo (Tibetan: gtum-mo; Sanskrit: caṇḍālī) means the fierce goddess of heat and passion in Tibetan Buddhist tradition.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
Twilight language is a rendering of the Sanskrit term (written also,,;, THL gongpé ké) or of their modern Indic equivalents (especially in Bengali, Odia, Assamese, Maithili, Hindi, Nepali, Braj Bhasha and Khariboli).
Upaya (Sanskrit:, expedient means, pedagogy) is a term used in Mahayana Buddhism to refer to an aspect of guidance along the Buddhist Paths to liberation where a conscious, voluntary action is driven by an incomplete reasoning about its direction.
Vairocana (also Vairochana or Mahāvairocana, वैरोचन) is a celestial buddha who is often interpreted, in texts like the Flower Garland Sutra, as the Dharma Body of the historical Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama).
Vajra is a Sanskrit word meaning both thunderbolt and diamond.
Vajrabodhi (Ch.金剛智) (671–741) was an Indian Buddhist monk and esoteric Buddhist teacher in Tang China.
A bajracharya or vajracharya (lit. "vajra carrier") is a Vajrayana Buddhist priest among the Newar communities of Nepal and a Revered Teacher who is highly attained in Vajrayana practices and rituals.
The Vajraśekhara Sūtra is an important Buddhist tantra used in the Vajrayāna schools of Buddhism, but can refer to a number of different works.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
Vajrayoginī (Vajrayoginī;, Dorjé Neljorma; Огторгуйд Одогч, Нархажид) is a Tantric Buddhist female Buddha and a. Vajrayoginī's essence is "great passion" (maharaga), a transcendent passion that is free of selfishness and illusion, and intensely works for the well-being of others and for the destruction of ego clinging.
Vāmācāra (वामाचार) is a Sanskrit term meaning "left-handed attainment" and is synonymous with "Left-Hand Path" or "Left-path" (Sanskrit: Vāmamārga).
Vimalamitra was an 8th-century Indian monk.
Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (विपश्यन) in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.
Word Association is a common word game involving an exchange of words that are associated together.
Yamāntaka (यमान्तक Yamāntaka or Vajrabhairava; 대위덕명왕 DaeWiDeokMyeongWang; 大威徳明王 Daitokumyōō;; Эрлэгийн Жаргагчи Erlig-jin Jarghagchi) is the "lord of death" deity of Vajrayana Buddhism.
Yāna (Sanskrit and Pāli: "vehicle") refers to a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice.
Yi Xing (683–727), born Zhang Sui, was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, mechanical engineer and Buddhist monk of the Tang dynasty (618–907).
Yidam is a type of deity associated with tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism said to be manifestations of Buddhahood or enlightened mind.
Yogachara (IAST:; literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Bajrayan, Buddhist Tantra, Buddhist Tantrism, Buddhist tantra, Deity Yoga, Diamond Vehicle, Esoteric Buddhism, Guhya mantrayana, Guhyamantrayana, Himalayan Buddhist, Japanese esoteric Buddhism, Mantranaya, Mantrayana, Tantrayana, Tantric Buddhism, Tantric Buddhist, Tantric buddhism, The Thunderbolt Vehicle, Thunderbolt Vehicle, Vajrayana Buddhism, Vajrayanist, Vajrayāna, Vajrayānist, Vijrayana.