75 relations: Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Allotropy, Aluminium, Argon, Atom, Boron, Boron group, Carbon, Carbon group, Chalcogen, Chemical bond, Chemical element, Chemistry, Chlorine, Copper, Covalent bond, D electron count, Diamond, Electric current, Electric field, Electrical conductor, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electronic band structure, Energy, Fluorine, Germanium, Gold, Group (periodic table), Halogen, Helium, Inert gas, Insulator (electricity), Ion, Ionic bonding, Ionization, Ionization energy, Lattice energy, Magnesium, Main-group element, Manganese, Metal, Metalloid, Neon, Nickel, Noble gas, Nonmetal, ..., Octet rule, Open shell, Oxidation state, Periodic table, Permanganate, Phosphorus, Photon, Pnictogen, Potassium, Principal quantum number, Properties of metals, metalloids and nonmetals, Reactivity (chemistry), Semiconductor, Silicon, Silver, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Solid, Sulfur, Temperature, Transition metal, Valence (chemistry), Valence and conduction bands, X-ray notation, Zinc. Expand index (25 more) » « Shrink index
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The d electron count is a chemistry formalism used to describe the electron configuration of the valence electrons of a transition metal center in a coordination complex.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the main group is the group of elements whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine as arranged in the periodic table of the elements.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
In the context of atomic orbitals, an open shell is a valence shell which is not completely filled with electrons or that has not given all of its valence electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion,.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In quantum mechanics, the principal quantum number (symbolized n) is one of four quantum numbers which are assigned to all electrons in an atom to describe that electron's state.
can be broadly divided into metals, metalloids and nonmetals according to their shared physical and chemical properties.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
X-ray notation is a method of labeling atomic orbitals that grew out of X-ray science.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.