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Valenciennes

Index Valenciennes

Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae, Valincyinne) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. [1]

122 relations: Agrigento, Albert I, Duke of Bavaria, Albertus Magnus, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Assembly line, Austrasia, Óbuda, Baron Hesketh, Battle of Valenciennes (1656), Beeldenstorm, Belgic Confession, Bell tower, Bourbon Restoration, Bubonic plague, Calvinism, Capture of Brielle, Car, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Clovis II, Communauté d'agglomération Valenciennes Métropole, Communes of France, Compagnie des mines d'Anzin, County, County of Hainaut, Düren, Death by burning, Departments of France, Dominican Order, Dominique Riquet, Duchy of Burgundy, Dutch language, Easton Neston, Eighty Years' War, English people, Euro, European Union, European Union Agency for Railways, Face transplant, Famine, Fifth-century Athens, François Lamoureux, Francia, French people, French Revolution, Gare de Valenciennes, Gaspard II de Coligny, Georges Chastellain, Germans, Gliwice, Government of France, ..., Guido de Bres, Habsburg Netherlands, Henry II of France, Hindenburg Line, Holy Roman Empire, Hugh Cairns (VC), Huguenots, Iconoclasm, Industry, Isabelle Dinoire, Jean Molinet, Jean-Louis Borloo, Joséphine Leroux, Latin, Legion of Honour, Lille, Linen, Lord Howe's action, or the Glorious First of June, Lotharingia, Louis of Nassau, Louis XIV of France, Louise de Bettignies, March (territorial entity), Medway, Miskolc, Mons, Moscow, Nacka, Neustria, Nord (French department), Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normans, Ottonian dynasty, Philip II of Spain, Philip James de Loutherbourg, Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Pope Innocent V, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Protestantism, Reign of Terror, Saint-Amand-les-Eaux, Salgótarján, Santa Sabina, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Scheldt, Scottish people, Siege of Valenciennes (1567), Siege of Valenciennes (1793), Simon Marmion, Sister city, Spanish Netherlands, Steel, Subprefecture, Subprefectures in France, Textile, Thomas Aquinas, Toyota, Toyota Yaris, Treaties of Nijmegen, Treaty of Verdun, Union of Democrats and Independents, Valenciennes FC, Valenciennes lace, Valenciennes tramway, Vendémiaire Pavot, Victoria Cross, War of the First Coalition, World War I, World War II, Yichang, Zimmermann Telegram. Expand index (72 more) »

Agrigento

Agrigento (Sicilian: Girgenti or Giurgenti) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy and capital of the province of Agrigento.

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Albert I, Duke of Bavaria

Albert I, Duke of Bavaria (Albrecht; 25 July 1336, Munich – 13 December 1404, The Hague) KG, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries.

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Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.

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Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma

Alexander Farnese (Alessandro Farnese, Alejandro Farnesio) (27 August 1545 – 3 December 1592) was an Italian noble who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592.

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Assembly line

An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.

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Austrasia

Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.

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Óbuda

Óbuda was a city in Hungary that was merged with Buda and Pest on 1 January 1873; it now forms part of District III-Óbuda-Békásmegyer of Budapest.

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Baron Hesketh

Baron Hesketh, of Hesketh in the County Palatine of Lancaster, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Battle of Valenciennes (1656)

The Battle of Valenciennes (16 July 1656) was fought between the Spanish troops commanded by Don Juan José de Austria against the French troops under Marshal Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, in the outskirts of the town in the Spanish Netherlands, during the Franco-Spanish War.

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Beeldenstorm

Beeldenstorm in Dutch, roughly translatable to "statue storm", or Bildersturm in German ("image/statue storm"), also the Great Iconoclasm or Iconoclastic Fury, is a term used for outbreaks of destruction of religious images that occurred in Europe in the 16th century.

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Belgic Confession

The Confession of Faith, popularly known as the Belgic Confession, is a doctrinal standard document to which many of the Reformed churches subscribe.

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Bell tower

A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none.

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Bourbon Restoration

The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.

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Bubonic plague

Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Calvinism

Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Capture of Brielle

The Capture of Brielle by the Watergeuzen, on 1 April 1572 marked a turning point in the uprising of the Low Countries against Spain in the Eighty Years' War.

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Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

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Clovis II

Clovis II (634 – 27 November 657 or 658) succeeded his father Dagobert I in 639 as King of Neustria and Burgundy.

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Communauté d'agglomération Valenciennes Métropole

Communauté d'agglomération Valenciennes Métropole is the communauté d'agglomération, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Valenciennes.

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Communes of France

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.

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Compagnie des mines d'Anzin

The Compagnie des mines d'Anzin (Anzin Mining Company) was a large French mining company in the coal basin of Nord-Pas-de-Calais in northern France.

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County

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.

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County of Hainaut

The County of Hainaut (Comté de Hainaut, Graafschap Henegouwen; Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spellings Hainault and Heynowes, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons (Bergen).

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Düren

Düren is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, between Aachen and Cologne on the river Rur.

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Death by burning

Deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion, or effects of exposure to extreme heat, has a long history as a form of capital punishment.

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Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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Dominique Riquet

Dominique Riquet (born 18 September 1946 in Valenciennes, Nord) is a French politician who is a Christian Democrat Member of the European Parliament (MEP) and mayor of Valenciennes elected in the 2009 European election for the North-West constituency.

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Duchy of Burgundy

The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Easton Neston

Easton Neston is a large grade I listed country house in the parish of Easton Neston near Towcester in Northamptonshire, England.

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Eighty Years' War

The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.

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English people

The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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European Union Agency for Railways

The European Union Agency for Railways (ERA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that sets mandatory requirements for European railways and manufacturers in the form of Technical Specifications for Interoperability, which apply to the Trans-European Rail system.

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Face transplant

A face transplant is a medical procedure to replace all or part of a person's face using tissue from a cadaver.

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Famine

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Fifth-century Athens

Fifth-century Athens is the Greek city-state of Athens in the time from 480 BC-404 BC.

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François Lamoureux

François Lamoureux (17 December 1946 – 26 August 2006) was a prominent European civil servant whose influential career placed him at the centre of European integration.

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Francia

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

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French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Gare de Valenciennes

Gare de Valenciennes is a railway station serving the town of Valenciennes, Nord, France.

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Gaspard II de Coligny

Gaspard de Coligny, Seigneur de Châtillon (16 February 1519 – 24 August 1572) was a French nobleman and admiral, best remembered as a disciplined Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion and a close friend and advisor to King Charles IX of France.

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Georges Chastellain

Georges Chastellain (c. 1405 or c. 1415 – 20 March 1475), Burgundian chronicler and poet, was a native of Aalst in Flanders.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Gliwice

Gliwice (Gleiwitz) is a city in Upper Silesia, southern Poland, near Katowice.

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Government of France

The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.

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Guido de Bres

Guido de Bres (also known as Guido de Bray,L.A. van Langeraad, Guido de Bray Zijn Leven en Werken, Zierikzee: S.Ochtman en Zoon 1884 p.9, 13 Guy de Bray and Guido de Brès, 1522 – 31 May 1567) was a Walloon pastor, Protestant reformer and theologian, a student of John Calvin and Theodore Beza in Geneva.

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Habsburg Netherlands

Habsburg Netherlands is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg and later by the Spanish Empire, also known as the Spanish Netherlands.

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Henry II of France

Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.

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Hindenburg Line

The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung or Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Hugh Cairns (VC)

Hugh Cairns, (4 December 1896 – 2 November 1918) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

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Huguenots

Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.

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Iconoclasm

IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.

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Industry

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Isabelle Dinoire

Isabelle Dinoire (1967 – 22 April 2016) was a French woman who was the first person to undergo a partial face transplant, after her Labrador retriever, pit-bull mixed breed mauled her in May 2005.

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Jean Molinet

Jean Molinet (1435 – 23 August 1507) was a French poet, chronicler, and composer.

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Jean-Louis Borloo

Jean-Louis Borloo (born 7 April 1951 in Paris) is a French politician and was the leader of the Union of Democrats and Independents, and French Minister for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Town and Country Planning (Regional Development) between 2007 and 2010.

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Joséphine Leroux

Joséphine Leroux (23 January 1747 – 23 October 1794), born Anne-Josepha Leroux, was a French Poor Clare nun, executed during the French Revolution.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Lille

Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.

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Linen

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.

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Lord Howe's action, or the Glorious First of June

Lord Howe's action, or the Glorious First of June is a 1795 painting by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg of the victory of British naval forces under Lord Howe over a French force led by Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse on the Glorious First of June 1794.

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Lotharingia

Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).

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Louis of Nassau

Louis of Nassau (Dutch: Lodewijk van Nassau, January 10, 1538 – April 14, 1574) was the third son of William, Count of Nassau and Juliana of Stolberg, and the younger brother of Prince William of Orange Nassau.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louise de Bettignies

Louise Marie Jeanne Henriette de Bettignies (15 July 1880 - 27 September 1918) was a French secret agent who spied on the Germans for the British during World War I using the pseudonym of Alice Dubois.

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March (territorial entity)

A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".

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Medway

Medway is a conurbation and unitary authority in Kent in the region of South East England.

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Miskolc

Miskolc (Slovak/Czech: Miškovec, German: Mischkolz, Romanian: Mișcolț, מישקאָלץ Mishkoltz) is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry.

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Mons

Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Nacka

Nacka is the municipal seat of Nacka Municipality and part of Stockholm urban area in Sweden.

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Neustria

Neustria, or Neustrasia, (meaning "western land") was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks.

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Nord (French department)

Nord (North; Noorderdepartement) is a department in the far north of France.

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Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Nord-Pas-de-Calais (is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium (north and east) and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants. With its 330.8 people per km2 on just over 12,414 km2, it is a densely populated region, having some 4.1 million inhabitants, 7% of France's total population, making it the fourth most populous region in the country, 83% of whom live in urban communities. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille. The second largest city is Calais, which serves as a major continental economic/transportation hub with Dover of Great Britain away; this makes Nord-Pas-de-Calais the closest continental European connection to the Great Britain. Other major towns include Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai and Saint-Omer. Numerous films, like Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.

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Normans

The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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Ottonian dynasty

The Ottonian dynasty (Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Philip James de Loutherbourg

Philip James de Loutherbourg RA (31 October 174011 March 1812), whose name is sometimes given in the French form of Philippe-Jacques, the German form of Philipp Jakob, or with the English-language epithet of the Younger, was a Franco-British painter who became known for his large naval works, his elaborate set designs for London theatres, and his invention of a mechanical theatre called the "Eidophusikon".

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Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas

The Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas (PUST), also known as the Angelicum in honor of its patron the Doctor Angelicus Thomas Aquinas, is located in the historic center of Rome, Italy.

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Pope Innocent V

Pope Innocent V (Innocentius V; c. 1225 – 22 June 1276), born Pierre de Tarentaise, was pope from 21 January to 22 June 1276.

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Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

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Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

Prince Frederick Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (German Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld) (26 December 1737 – 26 February 1815) was a general in the Austrian service.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.

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Saint-Amand-les-Eaux

Saint-Amand-les-Eaux (Flemish: Sint-Amands-aan-de-Skarpe) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France on the Scarpe river.

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Salgótarján

Salgótarján is a city with county rights in Nógrád county, north-eastern Hungary.

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Santa Sabina

The Basilica of Saint Sabina (Basilica Sanctae Sabinae, Basilica di Santa Sabina all'Aventino) is a historical church on the Aventine Hill in Rome, Italy.

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Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban

Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.

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Scheldt

The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.

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Scottish people

The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

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Siege of Valenciennes (1567)

The Siege of Valenciennes took place between 6 December 1566 and 23 March 1567 at Valenciennes, then in the Habsburg Netherlands.

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Siege of Valenciennes (1793)

The Siege of Valenciennes took place between 13 June and 28 July 1793, during the Flanders Campaign of the War of the First Coalition.

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Simon Marmion

Simon Marmion (born c. 1425 at Amiens, France, died 24 or 25 December 1489, Valenciennes) was a French or Burgundian Early Netherlandish painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Spanish Netherlands

Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.

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Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Subprefecture

Subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.

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Subprefectures in France

In France, a subprefecture (sous-préfecture) is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department.

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Textile

A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Toyota

, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.

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Toyota Yaris

The is a subcompact car sold by Toyota since 1999, replacing the Starlet.

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Treaties of Nijmegen

The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen (Traités de Paix de Nimègue; Friede von Nimwegen) were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and December 1679.

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Treaty of Verdun

The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.

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Union of Democrats and Independents

The Union of Democrats and Independents (Union des démocrates et indépendants, UDI) is a centrist political party in France founded on 18 September 2012 on the basis of the parliamentary group of the same name in the National Assembly.

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Valenciennes FC

Valenciennes Football Club (commonly known as Valenciennes or USVA) is a French association football club based in Valenciennes.

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Valenciennes lace

Valenciennes lace is a type of bobbin lace which originated in Valenciennes, in the Nord département of France, and flourished from about 1705 to 1780.

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Valenciennes tramway

The Valenciennes tramway (Tramway de Valenciennes) is a tramline in the Valenciennes urban area in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais région of northern France.

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Vendémiaire Pavot

Vendémiaire Pavot was a French sculptor born on 30 September 1883 in Valenciennes.

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Victoria Cross

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.

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War of the First Coalition

The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yichang

Yichang (old postal name 'Ichang') is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China.

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Zimmermann Telegram

The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note or Zimmerman Cable) was a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event that the United States entered World War I against Germany.

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Redirects here:

Margraviate of Valenciennes, Valenciennes, France, Valenciennois, Valencijn, Valentianae.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valenciennes

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