233 relations: A1 in London, Abrasion (geology), Aburrá Valley, Agriculture, Albertine Rift, Alluvial fan, Amazon River, Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, Appalachia, Appalachian Mountains, Arête, Arkansas, Avalanche, Østerdalen, Bagh District, Bagrot Valley, Barak Valley, Barossa Valley, Barot (Himachal Pradesh), Base level, Benin, Beqaa Valley, Betaab Valley, Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, Bulolo Valley, Calchaquí Valleys, Canyon, Capertee Valley, Cauca River, Central Valley (California), Channel (geography), Chine, Chitral, Cirque, Climate, Combe, Complex society, Cove (Appalachian Mountains), Cradle of civilization, Cross section (geometry), Cylinder, Dale (landform), Dalen, Telemark, Danube, Death Valley, Dell (landform), Denudation, Depression (geology), Dry valley, Earth, ..., East African Rift, Elevation, Engadin, English language, Enns (river), Erosion, Escarpment, Europe, Fjærlandsfjorden, Fjord, Flood, Floodplain, Fluvial, Fluvial terrace, Fraser Canyon, Fraser Valley, Fresh water, Ganges, Geography, Geological resistance, Geology, German language, Glacial period, Glacier, Glacier National Park (U.S.), Glen, Glen Coe, Graben, Grand Canyon, Grand Canyon National Park, Grass valley, Great Glen, Great Rift Valley, Great Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Gudbrandsdalen, Gully, Hallingdal, Heddal, Hells Gate (British Columbia), Hill, Hooker Glacier (New Zealand), Hooker Lake, Horizontal plane, Hudson Valley, Hunter Region, Hunza Valley, Hutt Valley, Ice age, Ihlara, Indus River, Inn (river), Inner Terai Valleys of Nepal, Iron Gates, Irrigation, Ischigualasto Provincial Park, Jordan Rift Valley, Jordan Valley (Middle East), Kaghan Valley, Kalasha Valleys, Kangra Valley, Karsog, Kashmir Valley, Kathmandu Valley, Khaplu, Kloof, Kullu Valley, Kumrat Valley, Landslide, Las Vegas Valley, Lauterbrunnen, Lidder Valley, List of geological features on Titan, List of largest rifts, canyons and valleys in the Solar System, List of lineae on Europa, List of valles on Mars, List of valleys on the Moon, Loire Valley, Longitudinal valley, Lyon, Macarthur, New South Wales, Main stem, Markham Valley, Matterhorn, Midt-Telemark, Misfit stream, Mississippi River, Missouri, Montana, Monument Valley, Moselle, Mountain, Mountain range, Mudrock, Multilingualism, Nant Ffrancon Pass, Napa County, California, Napf, Neelam Valley District, Neora Valley National Park, New England, Nile, North America, Nubra Valley, Nugaal Valley, Numedal, Okanagan, Ottawa Valley, Ozarks, Palo Duro Canyon, Pangi, Himachal Pradesh, Panjshir Valley, Parvati Valley, Periglaciation, Pin Valley National Park, Plate tectonics, Pleistocene, Prehistory, Quetta, Ravine, Rhône, Rhine, Ridge, Rio Grande Valley, River, Rock (geology), Rocky Mountains, Romsdalen, Rupes, Saint Lawrence River, Salzach, Salzburg, San Fernando Valley, Sangla, India, Sediment, Setesdal, Shenandoah Valley, Shigar Valley, Side valley, Skardu Valley, Sognefjord, Sonoma Valley, South Wales Valleys, Southern England Chalk Formation, Spiti Valley, St. Mary River (Alberta–Montana), Steephead valley, Strath, Strath Taieri, Stream, Stream bed, Sunlight, Suru Valley, Swat District, Temperature, Tigris–Euphrates river system, Toluca Valley, Topography, Tributary, Tropics, Turkey, Tyrol (state), U-shaped valley, Umba Valley, Upper Rhine, Upper Rhine Plain, Urstromtal, Valley, Valley of Flowers National Park, Valley of Mexico, Valley of the Gods, Valley of the Kings, Valley step, Vallis Alpes, Vestfjorddalen, Village, Waterfall, West Antarctic Rift, Willamette Valley, Yangtze, Yasin Valley, Yellow River, Yosemite Valley, Yumthang Valley of Flowers. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
The A1 in London is the southern part of the A1 road.
Abrasion is a process of erosion which occurs when material being transported wears away at a surface over time.
Aburrá Valley (in Spanish Valle de Aburrá), is the natural basin of the Medellín River and one of the most populous valleys of Colombia in its Andean Region with near 4 million inhabitants in its biggest urban agglomeration: The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Albertine Rift is the western branch of the East African Rift, covering parts of Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania.
An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park is in the South Island of New Zealand, near the town of Twizel.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
Clouds Rest in Yosemite National Park is an arête. An arête is a narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.
Østerdalen is a valley and traditional district in Hedmark County, in Eastern Norway.
Bagh District (ضلع باغ) is one of the Ten districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.
Bagrote Valley (وادی بگروٹ) is a valley in the Karakoram Mountain range in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of northern Pakistan.
The Barak Valley is a valley located in the southern region of the Indian state of Assam.
The Barossa Valley is a valley in South Australia located northeast of Adelaide city centre.
Barot a village, originally developed in 1920s for Shanan Hydel Project is now a tourist location in Mandi district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
In geology and geomorphology a base level is the lower limit for an erosion process.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.
Betaab valley is situated at a distance of 15 kilometers from Pahalgam in Anantnag district in India's northernmost state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park is an American national park located in western Colorado and managed by the National Park Service.
The Bulolo Valley is a geographical area in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.
The Calchaquí Valley (Valles Calchaquíes) is an area in the northwestern region of Argentina which crosses the provinces of Catamarca, Tucumán, Jujuy and Salta.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
The Capertee Valley is a large valley in New South Wales, Australia, north-west of Sydney.
The Cauca River is a river in Colombia that lies between the Occidental and Central cordilleras.
The Central Valley is a flat valley that dominates the geographical center of the U.S. state of California.
In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait.
A chine is a steep-sided coastal river valley where the river flows to the sea through, typically, soft eroding cliffs of sandstone or clays.
Chitral (Pashto/چترال; چھترار, Khowar for "field") is the capital of the Chitral District, situated on the Chitral River in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Two cirques with semi-permanent snowpatches near Abisko National Park, Sweden A cirque (French, from the Latin word circus) is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
A combe (also spelled coombe or coomb and, in place names, comb) can refer either to a steep, narrow valley, or to a small valley or large hollow on the side of a hill; in any case, it is often understood simply to mean a small valley through which a watercourse does not run.
In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.
In the central and southern Appalachian Mountains of Eastern North America, a cove is a small valley between two ridge lines that is closed at one or both ends.
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.
A dale is an open valley.
Dalen is the administrative centre of Tokke municipality, Norway.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Death Valley is a desert valley located in Eastern California, in the northern Mojave Desert bordering the Great Basin Desert.
In physical geography, a dell is a small secluded hollow, (implying also) a grassy, park-like, usually partially-wooded valley.
In geology, denudation involves the processes that cause the wearing away of the Earth's surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes.
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.
A dry valley may develop on many kinds of permeable rock, such as limestone and chalk, or sandy terrains that do not regularly sustain surface water flow.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).
The Engadin or Engadine (Engiadina, Engadin, Engadina, Engadine; lit.: Valley of the Inn people) is a long high Alpine valley region in the eastern Swiss Alps located in the canton of Graubünden in most southeastern Switzerland with about 25,000 inhabitants.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Enns is a southern tributary of the Danube River, joining northward at Enns, Austria.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively leveled areas having differing elevations.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fjærlandsfjorden is a fjord in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them.
Fluvial terraces are elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and fluvial valleys all over the world.
The Fraser Canyon is a major landform of the Fraser River where it descends rapidly through narrow rock gorges in the Coast Mountains en route from the Interior Plateau of British Columbia to the Fraser Valley.
The Fraser Valley is the region of the Fraser River basin in southwestern British Columbia downstream of the Fraser Canyon.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Geological resistance is a measure of how well minerals resist erosive factors, and is primarily based on hardness, chemical reactivity and cohesion.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U.S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.
A glen is a valley, typically one that is long and bounded by gently sloped concave sides, unlike a ravine, which is deep and bounded by steep slopes.
Glen Coe (Gleann Comhann) is a glen of volcanic origins, in the Highlands of Scotland.
In geology, a graben is a depressed block of the Earth's crust bordered by parallel faults.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named a national park.
A grass valley (also vega and valle) is a meadow located within a forested and relatively small drainage basin such as a headwater.
The Great Glen (An Gleann Mòr), also known as Glen Albyn (from the Scottish Gaelic Gleann Albainn "Glen of Scotland") or Glen More (from the Scottish Gaelic An Gleann Mòr) is a long and straight glen in Scotland running for from Inverness on the edge of Moray Firth, to Fort William at the head of Loch Linnhe.
The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from Lebanon's Beqaa Valley in Asia to Mozambique in Southeastern Africa.
The Great Rift Valley of Ethiopia, (or Main Ethiopian Rift or Ethiopian Rift Valley) is a branch of the East African Rift that runs through Ethiopia in a southwest direction from the Afar Triple Junction.
Gudbrandsdalen (Gudbrand Valley) is a valley and traditional district in the Norwegian county of Oppland.
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside.
Hallingdal (Halling Valley) is a valley as well as a traditional district located in Buskerud county in Norway.
Heddal is a village and parish in Notodden municipality in Telemark County, Norway.
Hells Gate is an abrupt narrowing of British Columbia's Fraser River, located immediately downstream of Boston Bar in the southern Fraser Canyon.
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain.
Hooker Glacier is one of several glaciers close to the slopes of Aoraki / Mount Cook in the Southern Alps of New Zealand.
Hooker Lake is a proglacial lake that started to form in the late 1970s by the recent retreat of the Hooker Glacier.
In geometry, physics, astronomy, geography, and related sciences, a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is perpendicular to the gradient of the gravity field at that point – in other words, if apparent gravity makes a plumb bob hang perpendicular to the plane at that point.
The Hudson Valley comprises the valley of the Hudson River and its adjacent communities in the U.S. state of New York, from the cities of Albany and Troy southward to Yonkers in Westchester County.
The Hunter Region, also commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales, Australia, extending from approximately to north of Sydney.
Hunza (Burushaski: ہنزو, Wakhi, and ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.
The Hutt Valley is the large area of fairly flat land in the Hutt River valley in the Wellington region of New Zealand.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Ihlara is a township with own municipality in Aksaray Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Inn (Aenus; En) is a river in Switzerland, Austria and Germany.
The Inner Terai Valleys of Nepal (भित्री मधेश) comprise several elongated river valleys in the southern lowland Terai part of the country.
The Iron Gates (Porțile de Fier, Đerdapska klisura, Железни врата, Eisernes Tor, Vaskapu) is a gorge on the river Danube.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Ischigualasto Provincial Park (Parque Provincial Ischigualasto), also called Valle de la Luna ("Valley of the Moon" or "Moon Valley"), due to its otherworldly appearance, is a provincial protected area in the north-east of San Juan Province, north-western Argentina, limiting to the north with the Talampaya National Park, in La Rioja Province.
The Jordan Rift Valley (בִּקְעָת הַיַרְדֵּן Bik'at HaYarden, الغور Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr), also called the Syro-African Depression, is an elongated depression located in modern-day Israel, Jordan, and Palestine.
The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.
Kaghan Valley (وادی کاغان) is an alpine-climate valley in Mansehra District of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
The Kalasha Valleys (Kalasha-mondr: Kaĺaśa Desh; وادی کالاش) are valleys in Chitral District in northern Pakistan.
Kangra Valley is situated in the Western Himalayas.
Karsog is a small town and nagar panchyat situated in the lap of Himalayas, near Shimla, at a height of 1,404 metres.
The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is a valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India.
Population- 5 million The Kathmandu Valley (काठमाडौं उपत्यका, Nepalbhasa: स्वनिगः, नेपाः गाः), historically known as Nepal Valley or Nepa Valley, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several pilgrimage sites for Hindus and Buddhists.
Khaplu (Urdu and Balti), also spelt Khapalu, is a town that serves as the administrative capital of the Ghanche District of Gilgit-Baltistan, in northern Pakistan.
Kloof is a leafy upper-class suburb and small town, that includes a smaller area called Everton, in the greater Durban area of eThekwini in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Kullu Valley is a broad open valley in Himachal Pradesh, India, formed by the Beas River between Manali and Largi.
Kumrat (کمراٹ) is a valley in the Upper Dir District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa the Province of Pakistan.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
The Las Vegas Valley is a major metropolitan area in the southern part of the U.S. state of Nevada.
Lauterbrunnen is a village and a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.
The Lidder Valley or Liddar ValleyKaul, Manmohan N., Glacial and Fluvial Geomorphology of Western Himalaya, South Asia Books, 1990, p. 23, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India, is a Himalayan sub-valley that forms the southeastern corner of the Kashmir Valley.
This is a list of named geological features on Saturn's moon Titan.
Following are the longest, widest, and deepest rifts and valleys in various worlds of the Solar System.
This is a list of lineae on Europa.
Valles (singular vallis) on Mars are similar to valleys on Earth.
The Moon's surface is covered in many interesting features.
The Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire), spanning, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire.
A longitudinal valley is an elongated valley found between two almost parallel mountain chains in geologically young fold mountains such as the Alps, Carpathians, Andes or the highlands of Central Asia.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Macarthur is a region in south-west of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
In hydrology, a main stem (or trunk) is "the primary downstream segment of a river, as contrasted to its tributaries".
Markham Valley is a geographical area in Papua New Guinea.
The Matterhorn (Matterhorn; Cervino; Mont Cervin) is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy.
Midt-Telemark is a traditional district of Norway situated in the middle of Telemark county.
A misfit stream is a river that is either too large or too small to have eroded the valley or cave passage in which it flows.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
Monument Valley (Tsé Biiʼ Ndzisgaii,, meaning valley of the rocks) is a region of the Colorado Plateau characterized by a cluster of vast sandstone buttes, the largest reaching above the valley floor.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Mudrocks are a class of fine grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
The Nant Ffrancon Pass in Snowdonia, North Wales, is the long steady climb of the A5 road between Bethesda, Gwynedd, and Llyn Ogwen in Conwy.
Napa County is a county located north of San Pablo Bay in the northern portion of the U.S. state of California.
The Napf is a mountain on the border between the Swiss cantons of Bern and Lucerne.
The Neelam Valley (also spelt Neelum; وادیِ نیلم), is the northernmost region and district of Azad Kashmir in Pakistan.
Neora Valley National Park is situated in the Kalimpong district, West Bengal, India and was established in 1986.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Nubra (Tibetan: ལྡུམ་ར; Wylie: ldum ra; English: Nubra) is a tri-armed valley located to the north east of Ladakh valley.
The Nugaal Valley (Dooxada Nugaal, وادي نوجال), also called the Nogal Valley, is a long and broad valley located in northern Somalia.
Numedal is a valley and a traditional district in Eastern Norway located within the county of Buskerud.
The Okanagan, also known as the Okanagan Valley and sometimes as the Okanagan Country, is a region in the Canadian province of British Columbia defined by the basin of Okanagan Lake and the Canadian portion of the Okanagan River.
The Ottawa Valley is the valley of the Ottawa River, along the boundary between Eastern Ontario and the Outaouais, Quebec, Canada.
The Ozarks, also referred to as the Ozark Mountains and Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U.S. states of Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Palo Duro Canyon is a canyon system of the Caprock Escarpment located in the Texas Panhandle near the cities of Amarillo and Canyon.
Pangi is a tehsil of Chamba, Himachal Pradesh.
The Panjshir Valley (also spelled Panjsheer or Panjsher; – Dare-ye Panjšēr; literally Valley of the Five Lions) is a valley in north-central Afghanistan, north of Kabul, near the Hindu Kush mountain range.
Parvati Valley is situated in the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Periglaciation (adjective: "periglacial," also referring to places at the edges of glacial areas) describes geomorphic processes that result from seasonal thawing of snow in areas of permafrost, the runoff from which refreezes in ice wedges and other structures.
Pin Valley National Park is a National park of India located within the Lahaul and Spiti district, in the state of Himachal Pradesh, in far Northern India.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
A ravine is a landform narrower than a canyon and is often the product of streamcutting erosion.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
A ridge or mountain ridge are geological features consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance.The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side.The line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline.
The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of South Texas.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Romsdalen is a valley in Norway.
Rupes is the Latin word for 'cliff' (the same form rupes is both singular and plural).
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
The Salzach is a river in Austria and Germany.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it.
Sangla is a town in the Baspa Valley, also referred to as the Sangla valley, in the Kinnaur District of Himachal Pradesh, India, close to the Tibetan border.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Setesdal (older name: Sætersdal) is a valley and a traditional district in Aust-Agder County in southern Norway.
The Shenandoah Valley is a geographic valley and cultural region of western Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia in the United States.
The Shigar Valley (وادی شگر) is a valley in Gilgit Baltistan in northern Pakistan that is watered by the Shigar River, and centred on the town of Shigar.
A side valley and a tributary valley are valleys whose brook or river flows into a greater one.
The Skardu Valley (وادی سکردو) is located in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.
The Sognefjord or Sognefjorden, nicknamed the King of the Fjords, is the largest and deepest fjord in Norway.
Sonoma Valley is a valley located in southeastern Sonoma County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The South Wales Valleys (Cymoedd De Cymru) are a group of industrialised valleys in South Wales.
The Chalk Formation of Southern England is a system of chalk downland in the south of England.
The Spiti Valley is a cold desert mountain valley located high in the Himalaya mountains in the north-eastern part of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
The Saint Mary River is a cross-border tributary of the Oldman River, itself a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River.
A steephead valley, steephead or blind valley is a deep, narrow, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending.
A strath is a large valley, typically a river valley that is wide and shallow (as opposed to a glen, which is typically narrower and deep).
Strath Taieri is a large glacial valley and river plateau in New Zealand's South Island.
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.
A stream bed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
The Suru valley is a valley in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, which is drained by the Suru River (Indus), a powerful tributary of the Indus river.
Swāt (Pashto, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia.
The Toluca Valley is a valley in central Mexico, just west of the Valley of Mexico (Mexico City), the old name was Matlatzinco.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.
U-shaped valleys, trough valleys or glacial troughs, are formed by the process of glaciation.
Umba Valley is a geographic area in Tanzania and the world's only source of Umba sapphires.
The Upper Rhine (Oberrhein) is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basle in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany.
The Upper Rhine Plain, Rhine Rift Valley or Upper Rhine Graben (German: Oberrheinische Tiefebene, Oberrheinisches Tiefland or Oberrheingraben, French: Vallée du Rhin) is a major rift, about and on average, between Basel in the south and the cities of Frankfurt/Wiesbaden in the north.
An Urstromtal (plural: Urstromtäler) is a type of broad glacial valley, for example, in northern Central Europe, that appeared during the ice ages, or individual glacial periods of an ice age, at the edge of the Scandinavian ice sheet and was formed by meltwaters that flowed more or less parallel to the ice margin.
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.
Valley of Flowers National Park is an Indian national park, located in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand and is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora.
The Valley of Mexico (Valle de México; Tepētzallāntli Mēxihco) is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with present-day Mexico City and the eastern half of the State of Mexico.
The Valley of the Gods is a scenic sandstone valley near Mexican Hat in San Juan County, Southeastern Utah, United States.
The Valley of the Kings (وادي الملوك), also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings (وادي ابواب الملوك), is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock cut tombs were excavated for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt).
A valley step (Talstufe or Talschwelle) is a prominent change in the longitudinal slope of a valley, mainly in trough valleys formed by glaciers.
Vallis Alpes (Latin for"Alpine Valley") is a lunar valley feature that bisects the Montes Alpes range.
See also Vestfjorddalen (Svalbard). Vestfjorddalen is a valley in Tinn, Norway, stretching from Lake Tinn westwards past Rjukan, Vemork and Rjukan Falls to Møsvatn.
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river.
The West Antarctic Rift is a major active rift valley lying between East and West Antarctica.
The Willamette Valley is a long valley in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yasin (یاسین Yāsīn), also known as Babaye-i-Yasen (بابائے یاسین) or Worshigum (ورشیگوم Worśigūm), is a high mountain valley in the Hindu Kush mountains, in the northwestern Ghizer District in Gilgit-Baltistan, northern Pakistan.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California.
The Yumthang Valley or Sikkim Valley of Flowers sanctuary, is a nature sanctuary with river, hot springs, yaks and grazing pasture on rolling meadows surrounded by the Himalayan mountains in the North Sikkim district of Sikkim state in India.
Bottom (valley), Box valley, Floor (valley), Glacial valleys, Hanging Valley, Hanging valley, Hanging valleys, Hollow (geography), Mountain valley, Mountain valleys, River valley, River valleys, Trough-shaped valley, V-shaped valley, Valley bottom, Valley bottoms, Valley floor, Valley shoulder, Valleys.