36 relations: Acid, Adverse drug reaction, British Journal of Pharmacology, Butabarbital, Carbamazepine, Epilepsy, Epoxide, Gabapentin, Hydrolase, Hypnotic, In vivo, International nonproprietary name, Mania, Metabolite, Motor coordination, Neuropathic pain, Preventive healthcare, Prodrug, Racemic mixture, Sedative, Somnolence, Stereoisomerism, Structural isomer, United States Adopted Name, Valproate, Valpromide, 2-Ethyl-1-butanol, 2-Ethylhexanoic acid, 2-Ethylhexanol, 2-Methylheptane, 2-Methylhexane, 2-Methylpentane, 3-Ethylpentane, 3-Methylheptane, 3-Methylhexane, 3-Methylpentane.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
The British Journal of Pharmacology is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology.
Butabarbital (trade name Butisol) is a prescription barbiturate sleep aid.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that is commonly used as biochemical catalysts that utilize water to break a chemical bond.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Valpromide (marketed as Depamide by Sanofi-Aventis) is a carboxamide derivative of valproic acid used in the treatment of epilepsy and some affective disorders.
2-Ethyl-1-butanol (IUPAC name: 2-ethylbutan-1-ol) is an organic chemical compound.
2-Ethylhexanoic acid is the organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)3CH(C2H5)CO2H.
2-Ethylhexanol (abbreviated 2-EH) is a branched, eight-carbon chiral alcohol.
2-Methylheptane is a branched alkane isomeric to octane.
2-Methylhexane (C7H16, also known as isoheptane, ethylisobutylmethane) is an isomer of heptane.
2-Methylpentane, trivially known as isohexane, is a branched-chain alkane with the molecular formula C6H14.
3-Ethylpentane (C7H16) is a branched, saturated hydrocarbon.
3-Methylheptane is a branched alkane isomeric to octane.
3-Methylhexane is a branched hydrocarbon with two enantiomers.
3-Methylpentane is a branched-chain alkane with the molecular formula C6H14.