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Index Valproate

Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches. [1]

177 relations: Abbott Laboratories, Absence seizure, Acetylcarnitine, Acid, Acute myeloid leukemia, Adverse event, AKAP5, Androgen receptor, Androstenedione, Antiandrogen, Anticonvulsant, Antiprogestogen, Antipsychotic, Aromatase inhibitor, Aspirin, Autism spectrum, Benzodiazepine, Beta oxidation, Bial, Bipolar disorder, Boxed warning, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Breast cancer, Cancer, Carbamazepine, Carbapenem, Carboxylic acid, Carnitine, Causes of seizures, Cervical cancer, Chromatography, Cimetidine, Commonwealth of Independent States, Conjugate acid, Coordination complex, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A5, Cytochrome P450, Desitin Arzneimittel GmbH, Developing country, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Drug metabolism, Dysmorphic feature, Encephalopathy, Enteric coating, Enzyme, Epicanthic fold, Epilepsy, ..., Epileptic spasms, Epoxide hydrolase, Erythromycin, Estrogen, Ethosuximide, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Felbamate, Focal seizure, Folate, Food and Drug Administration, Fragile X syndrome, GABA transaminase, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Generalised tonic-clonic seizure, Generalized epilepsy, Generic drug, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, Glioblastoma, Glucuronidation, Glucuronide, Glucuronosyltransferase, Gonad, Health system, Hemofiltration, Hemoperfusion, Hepatitis, Hepatotoxicity, Histone deacetylase, Histone deacetylase inhibitor, HIV/AIDS, Human nose, Hyperammonemia, Hyperandrogenism, Hypersensitivity, Hypothermia, Impulse control disorder, Intelligence quotient, Intravenous therapy, KvLQT2, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, L-DOPA, Laboratory rat, Lamotrigine, Liver, Liver function tests, Mean absolute difference, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Medscape, Mefloquine, Melanoma, Menstrual disorder, Mental health, Metabolic acidosis, Migraine, Mitochondrial disease, Mitochondrion, Mydriasis, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Myoclonus, Neural tube, Nonsteroidal, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Organic compound, Orion Corporation, Ossification, Oxidative phosphorylation, Pancreatitis, Parkinson's disease, Paroxysmal tonic upgaze, Pentylenetetrazol, Pharmac, Pharmacodynamics, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Philtrum, Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, Plasma protein binding, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Porphyria, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Pregnancy, Preventive healthcare, Primidone, Progesterone receptor, Quality of life, Randomized controlled trial, Receptor antagonist, Relative risk, Rifampicin, Salt (chemistry), Sanofi, Schizophrenia, Short-chain fatty acid, Sodium channel, Somnolence, Specific developmental disorder, Spina bifida, Status epilepticus, Structural analog, Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, Suicide, Sun Pharmaceutical, Systematic review, The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Thrombocytopenia, Tretinoin, Trigonocephaly, UGT1A10, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B15, UGT2B7, United States dollar, Urine, Valerian (herb), Valeric acid, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Vermilion border, Warfarin, Weakness, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Zidovudine. Expand index (127 more) »

Abbott Laboratories

Abbott Laboratories is an American health care company with headquarters in Lake Bluff, Illinois, United States.

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Absence seizure

Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.

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Acetyl-L-carnitine, ALCAR or ALC, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine.

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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.

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Adverse event

An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment.

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A-kinase anchor protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP5 gene.

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Androgen receptor

The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.

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Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

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Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Antiprogestogens, or antiprogestins, also known as progesterone antagonists or progesterone blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent progestogens like progesterone from mediating their biological effects in the body.

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Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Aromatase inhibitor

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Autism spectrum

Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Beta oxidation

In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.

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Bial (Portela e C.ª, S.A.) is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Sao Mamede do Coronado, in Trofa, Porto district, Portugal.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Boxed warning

In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.

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Causes of seizures

There are many causes of seizures.

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Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.

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Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.

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Cimetidine, sold under the brand name Tagamet among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Conjugate acid

A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.

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Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.

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Cytochrome P450 3A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP3A5 gene.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Desitin Arzneimittel GmbH

Desitin Arzneimittel GmbH is a German producer, mostly of CNS drugs (one of the leading German antiepileptic generics mark) such as Orfiril (sodium valproate film-coated tablets, gastroresistent tablets, sustained release tablets and extended-release granulate), Luminal (phenobarbital tablets and sodium phenobarbital injections), Lamotrigin (lamotrigine) and Timonil (carbamazepine).

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dopamine dysregulation syndrome

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time.

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Drug metabolism

Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.

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Dysmorphic feature

A dysmorphic feature is a difference of body structure.

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Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.

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Enteric coating

An enteric coating is a polymer barrier applied on oral medication that prevents its dissolution or disintegration in the gastric environment.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epicanthic fold

The epicanthic fold is the skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Epileptic spasms

Epileptic spasms, also known as infantile spasms, juvenile spasms, or West syndrome is an uncommon-to-rare epileptic disorder in infants, children and adults.

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Epoxide hydrolase

Epoxide hydrolases (EH's), also known as epoxide hydratases, are enzymes that metabolize compounds that contain an epoxide residue; they convert this residue to two hydroxyl residues through a dihydroxylation reaction to form diol products.

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Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Ethosuximide, sold under the brand name Zarontin among others, is a medication used to treat absence seizures.

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Familial adenomatous polyposis

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine.

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Felbamate (marketed under the brand name Felbatol by MedPointe) is an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy.

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Focal seizure

Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder.

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GABA transaminase

A GABA transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes two reactions.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Generalised tonic-clonic seizure

A generalized tonic–clonic seizure (formerly known as a grand mal seizure) is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.

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Generalized epilepsy

Generalized epilepsy, also known as primary generalized epilepsy or idiopathic epilepsy, is a form of epilepsy characterised by generalised seizures with no apparent cause.

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Generic drug

A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.

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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GDNF gene.

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Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain.

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Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.

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A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.

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Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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In medicine, hemofiltration, also haemofiltration, is a renal replacement therapy which is used in the intensive care setting.

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Hemoperfusion or haemoperfusion (see spelling differences) is a method of filtering the blood extracorporeally (that is, outside the body) to remove a toxin.

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Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.

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Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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Histone deacetylase

Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O.

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Histone deacetylase inhibitor

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors, HDACi, HDIs) are chemical compounds that inhibit histone deacetylases.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Human nose

The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.

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Hyperammonemia (or hyperammonaemia) is a metabolic disturbance characterised by an excess of ammonia in the blood.

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Hyperandrogenism, also known as androgen excess, is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones such as testosterone) in the female body and the associated effects of the elevated androgen levels.

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Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.

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Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.

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Impulse control disorder

Impulse-control disorder (ICD) is a class of psychiatric disorders characterized by impulsivity – failure to resist a temptation, an urge, an impulse, or the inability to not speak on a thought.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Kv7.2 (KvLQT2) is a potassium channel protein coded for by the gene KCNQ2.

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Kyowa Hakko Kirin

is a Japanese pharmaceutical and biotechnology company under the Kirin Holdings, and is among the 40 largest in the world by revenue.

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L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.

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Laboratory rat

A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.

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Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Liver function tests

Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.

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Mean absolute difference

The mean absolute difference (univariate) is a measure of statistical dispersion equal to the average absolute difference of two independent values drawn from a probability distribution.

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Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.

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Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.

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Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Menstrual disorder

A menstrual disorder is an abnormal condition in a woman's menstrual cycle.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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Mitochondrial disease

Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.

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Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature and therefore do not become healthy blood cells.

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Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.

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Neural tube

In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

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Nonsteroidal is a term which is used to describe a compound that is not a steroid.

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Oral administration

| name.

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Oral contraceptive pill

Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Orion Corporation

Orion Corporation, founded in 1917 and headquartered at Espoo, Finland, is a Finnish company, which develops, manufactures and markets pharmaceuticals, active pharmaceutical ingredients and diagnostic tests for global markets.

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Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Paroxysmal tonic upgaze

Paroxysmal tonic upgaze (PTU) of childhood is a rare and distinctive neuro-ophthalmological syndrome characterized by episodes of sustained upward deviation of the eyes.

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Pentylenetetrazol, also known as pentylenetetrazole, metrazol, pentetrazol (INN), pentamethylenetetrazol, Corazol, Cardiazol, deumacard or PTZ, is a drug formerly used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant.

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The Pharmaceutical Management Agency, better known as Pharmac, is a New Zealand Crown entity that decides, on behalf of District Health Boards, which medicines and pharmaceutical products are subsidised for use in the community and public hospitals.

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Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).

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Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.

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Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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The philtrum (philtrum, φίλτρον philtron, lit. "love charm"), or medial cleft, is a vertical indentation in the middle area of the upper lip, common to many mammals, extending in humans from the nasal septum to the tubercle of the upper lip.

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Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate

Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), abbreviated PIP3, is the product of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases) phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2).

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Plasma protein binding

Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.

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Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.

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Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale

The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a medical scale used for measuring symptom severity of patients with schizophrenia.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Primidone (INN, BAN, USP) is an anticonvulsant of the barbiturate class.

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Progesterone receptor

The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Receptor antagonist

A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.

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Relative risk

In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.

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Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Gentilly, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Short-chain fatty acid

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.

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Sodium channel

Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.

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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).

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Specific developmental disorder

Specific developmental disorders (SDD) are disorders in which development is delayed in one specific area or areas,Ahuja Vyas: Textbook of Postgraduate Psychiatry (2 Vols.), 2nd ed.

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Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.

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Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

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Structural analog

A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.

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Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase

In enzymology, a succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are succinate semialdehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are succinate, NADH, and H+.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Sun Pharmaceutical

Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra that manufactures and sells pharmaceutical formulations and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) primarily in India and the United States.

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Systematic review

Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.

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The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach

The GRADE approach (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) is a method of assessing the certainty in evidence (also known as quality of evidence or confidence in effect estimates) and the strength of recommendations in health care.

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Therapeutic Goods Administration

The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia.

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Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.

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Tretinoin, also known as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), is medication used for the treatment of acne and acute promyelocytic leukemia.

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Trigonocephaly (from Greek trigonon, "triangle", and kephale, "head") is a congenital condition of premature fusion of the metopic suture (from Greek metopon, "forehead"), leading to a triangular shaped forehead.

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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A10 gene.

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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A3 gene.

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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene.

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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A6 gene.

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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A8 gene.

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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A9 gene.

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UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT2B15 gene.

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UGT2B7 (UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-2B7) is a phase II metabolism isoenzyme found to be active in the liver, kidneys, epithelial cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract and also has been reported in the brain.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Valerian (herb)

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.

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Valeric acid

Valeric acid, or pentanoic acid, is a straight-chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.

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Vermilion border

The vermilion border (sometimes spelled vermillion border), also called margin or zone, is the normally sharp demarcation between the lip and the adjacent normal skin.

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Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valproate

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