149 relations: ACE inhibitor, Afterload, Anaerobic exercise, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, Angina, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Ankylosing spondylitis, Anticoagulant, Aortic dissection, Aortic insufficiency, Aortic stenosis, Aortic valve, Aortic valve replacement, Apex beat, Artificial heart valve, Ascending aorta, Ascites, Atrial fibrillation, Austin Flint murmur, Behçet's disease, Beta blocker, Bicuspid aortic valve, Cabergoline, Calcium channel blocker, Cancer, Carcinoid syndrome, Cardiac catheterization, Cardiac examination, Cardiac output, Cardiac skeleton, Cardiac stress test, Cardiology, Cardiomyopathy, Chest pain, Chest radiograph, Common carotid artery, Congenital rubella syndrome, Cyanosis, Diabetes mellitus, Digoxin, Diuretic, Drugs in pregnancy, Ebstein's anomaly, Echocardiography, Edema, Ehlers–Danlos syndromes, Eisenmenger's syndrome, Ejection fraction, Electrocardiography, Endocarditis, ..., Ergotamine, Fourth heart sound, Gastrointestinal tract, Genitourinary system, Great vessels, Heart, Heart click, Heart failure, Heart murmur, Heart sounds, Heart valve, Heart valve dysplasia, Heart valve repair, Hemodynamics, Hemoptysis, Hepatomegaly, Hydralazine, Hypercoagulability in pregnancy, Hypereosinophilic syndrome, Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Idiopathic disease, Infective endocarditis, Injury, Intercurrent disease in pregnancy, Intra-aortic balloon pump, Jugular venous pressure, Left atrial enlargement, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Libman–Sacks endocarditis, Lipoma, Loeffler endocarditis, Low sodium diet, Marfan syndrome, Medical sign, Minimally invasive procedures, Mitral insufficiency, Mitral valve, Mitral valve prolapse, Mitral valve repair, Mitral valve replacement, Mitral valve stenosis, Myocardial infarction, Myxoma, New York Heart Association Functional Classification, Nitrovasodilator, Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, Noonan syndrome, Orthopnea, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Palpitations, Papillary muscle, Parasternal heave, Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea, Pathophysiology, Patient, Perfusion scanning, Pergolide, Prazosin, Pregnancy, Prolapse, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary heart disease, Pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonary insufficiency, Pulmonary valve, Pulmonary valve stenosis, Pulmonic stenosis, Pulse pressure, Reactive arthritis, Rheumatic fever, Risk factor, Shock (circulatory), Shortness of breath, Staphylococcus aureus, Stethoscope, Surface anatomy, Syncope (medicine), Syphilitic aortitis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Systole, Tachycardia, Tetralogy of Fallot, Third heart sound, Tricuspid insufficiency, Tricuspid valve, Tricuspid valve stenosis, Uremia, Valsalva maneuver, Valve replacement, Valvulotomy, Vasodilation, Venous thrombosis, Ventricular septal defect, Warfarin, Watson's water hammer pulse, William Zoghbi. Expand index (99 more) » « Shrink index
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Afterload is the pressure against which the heart must work to eject blood during systole.
Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.
Aneurysm of the aortic sinus, also known as the sinus of Valsalva, is comparatively rare.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.
Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart (where the aorta begins), such that problems result.
The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.
Aortic valve replacement is a procedure in which a patient's failing aortic valve is replaced with an artificial heart valve.
The apex beat (lat. ictus cordis), also called the apical impulse, is the pulse felt at the point of maximum impulse (PMI), which is the point on the precordium farthest outwards (laterally) and downwards (inferiorly) from the sternum at which the cardiac impulse can be felt.
An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease.
The ascending aorta (AAo) is a portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum.
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
In cardiology, an Austin Flint murmur is a low-pitched rumbling heart murmur which is best heard at the cardiac apex.
Behçet's disease (BD) is a type of inflammatory disorder which affects multiple parts of the body.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an inherited form of heart disease in which two of the leaflets of the aortic valve fuse during development in the womb resulting in a two-leaflet valve (bicuspid valve) instead of the normal three-leaflet valve (tricuspid).
Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex and others), an ergot derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2 receptors.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carcinoid syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome comprising the signs and symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors.
Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart.
In medicine, the cardiac examination, also precordial exam, is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with chest pain suggestive of a cardiovascular pathology.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
The cardiac skeleton, also known as the fibrous skeleton of the heart, is a high density single structure of connective tissue that forms and anchors the valves and influences the forces exerted through them.
A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Drugs in pregnancy can be either pharmaceutical or recreational and can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus.
Ebstein's anomaly is a congenital heart defect in which the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve are displaced towards the apex of the right ventricle of the heart.
An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Ehlers–Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of genetic connective tissue disorders.
Eisenmenger's syndrome (or ES, Eisenmenger's reaction, Eisenmenger physiology, or tardive cyanosis) is defined as the process in which a long-standing left-to-right cardiac shunt caused by a congenital heart defect (typically by a ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, or less commonly, patent ductus arteriosus) causes pulmonary hypertension and eventual reversal of the shunt into a cyanotic right-to-left shunt.
An ejection fraction (EF) is the volumetric fraction of fluid (usually blood) ejected from a chamber (usually the heart) with each contraction (or heartbeat).
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
The fourth heart sound or S4 is an extra heart sound that occurs during late diastole, immediately before the normal two "lub-dub" heart sounds (S1 and S2).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
Great vessels are the large vessels that bring blood to and from the heart.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
With the advent of newer, non-invasive imaging techniques, the origin of other, so-called adventitial sounds or heart clicks has been appreciated.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.
Heart sounds are the noises generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it.
A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.
Heart valve dysplasia is a congenital heart defect which affects the aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid heart valves.
Heart valve repair is a surgical technique used to fix defects in heart valves in valvular heart diseases, and provides an alternative to valve replacement.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver.
Hydralazine, sold under the brand name Apresoline among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure.
Hypercoagulability in pregnancy is the propensity of pregnant women to develop thrombosis (blood clots).
The hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a disease characterized by a persistently elevated eosinophil count (≥ 1500 eosinophils/mm³) in the blood for at least six months without any recognizable cause, with involvement of either the heart, nervous system, or bone marrow.
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Infective endocarditis is an infection of the inner surface of the heart, usually the valves.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
An intercurrent (or concurrent, concomitant or, in most cases, pre-existing) disease in pregnancy is a disease that is not directly caused by the pregnancy (in contrast to a complication of pregnancy), but which may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy (such as causing pregnancy complications).
The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a mechanical device that increases myocardial oxygen perfusion while at the same time increasing cardiac output.
The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system via visualization of the internal jugular vein.
Left atrial enlargement (LAE) or left atrial dilation refers to enlargement of the left atrium (LA) of the heart, and is a form of cardiomegaly.
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is thickening of the heart muscle of the left ventricle of the heart, that is, left-sided ventricular hypertrophy.
Libman–Sacks endocarditis (often misspelled Libmann–Sachs) is a form of nonbacterial endocarditis that is seen in association with systemic lupus erythematosus.
A lipoma is a benign tumor made of fat tissue.
Loeffler endocarditis is a form of restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by infiltration of the heart by white blood cells known as eosinophils.
A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mg of sodium per day.
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue.
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
Minimally invasive procedures (also known as minimally invasive surgeries) encompass surgical techniques that limit the size of incisions needed and so lessen wound healing time, associated pain and risk of infection.
Mitral insufficiency (MI), mitral regurgitation or mitral incompetence is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood.
The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP; a.k.a. floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click murmur syndrome or billowing mitral leaflet) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.
Mitral valve repair is a cardiac surgery procedure performed by cardiac surgeons to treat stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leakage) of the mitral valve.
Mitral valve replacement is a cardiac surgical procedure in which a patient’s diseased mitral valve is replaced by either a mechanical or bioprosthetic valve.
Mitral stenosis is a valvular heart disease characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
A myxoma (New Latin from Greek 'muxa' for mucus) is a myxoid tumor of primitive connective tissue.
The New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification provides a simple way of classifying the extent of heart failure.
A nitrovasodilator is a pharmaceutical agent that causes vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) by donation of nitric oxide (NO), and is mostly used for the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris.
Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a form of endocarditis in which small sterile vegetations are deposited on the valve leaflets.
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common autosomal dominant congenital disorder and is named after Jacqueline Noonan, a pediatric cardiologist.
Orthopnea or orthopnoea is shortness of breath (dyspnea) that occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle bone disease, is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
The papillary muscles are muscles located in the ventricles of the heart.
A parasternal heave is a precordial impulse that may be felt (palpated) in patients with cardiac or respiratory disease.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the lymphatic system or blood vessels to an organ or a tissue.
Pergolide (trade names Permax, Prascend) is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used in some countries for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).
Prazosin, trade names Minipress, Vasoflex, Lentopres and Hypovase, is a sympatholytic drug used to treat high blood pressure, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
In medicine, prolapse is a condition where organs fall down or slip out of place.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pulmonary heart disease, also known as cor pulmonale, is the enlargement and failure of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased vascular resistance (such as from pulmonic stenosis) or high blood pressure in the lungs.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.
Pulmonary insufficiency (or incompetence, or regurgitation) is a condition in which the pulmonary valve is incompetent and allows backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle of the heart during diastole.
The pulmonary valve (sometimes referred to as the pulmonic valve) is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps.
Pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS) is a heart valve disorder in which outflow of blood from the right ventricle of the heart is obstructed at the level of the pulmonic valve.
Pulmonic stenosis, also known as pulmonary stenosis, is a dynamic or fixed obstruction of flow from the right ventricle of the heart to the pulmonary artery.
Pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Reactive arthritis, formerly known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity).
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.
Surface anatomy (also called superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body of an animal.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Syphilitic aortitis (SA) is inflammation of the aorta associated with the tertiary stage of syphilis infection.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a type of heart defect present at birth.
The third heart sound or S3 is a rare extra heart sound that occurs soon after the normal two "lub-dub" heart sounds (S1 and S2).
Tricuspid insufficiency (TI), a valvular heart disease also called tricuspid regurgitation (TR), refers to the failure of the heart's tricuspid valve to close properly during systole.
The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
Tricuspid Valve Stenosis is a valvular heart disease that narrows the opening of the heart's tricuspid valve.
Uremia is the condition of having "urea in the blood".
The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalva manoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon.
Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis (homograft from human tissue or xenograft e.g. from pig).
Commissurotomy of heart valves is called valvulotomy, valvotomy, valvuloplasty, or valvoplasty and consists of making one or more incisions at the edges of the commissure formed between the two or three valve leaflets, which relieves the constriction of valvular stenosis (especially mitral valve stenosis).
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Watson's water hammer pulse, also known as Corrigan's pulse or collapsing pulse, is the medical sign which describes a pulse that is bounding and forceful, rapidly increasing and subsequently collapsing, as if it were the sound of a waterhammer that was causing the pulse.
William A. Zoghbi (born October 28, 1955) is a Lebanese-American cardiologist.
Cardiac Valve Stenosis, Cardiac regurgitation, Cardiac valve disease, Cardiac valve dysfunction, Cardiac valvular disease, Degenerative valvulopathy, Heart valve disease, Heart valve diseases, Heart valve disorder, Leaky heart valve, Pulmonary Valve Disorders, Pulmonary valve disorders, Valvular cardiomyopathy, Valvular disease of the heart, Valvular disorder, Valvular heart disease and pregnancy, Valvular heart disease in pregnancy, Valvular incompetence.