215 relations: A15 phases, Alexander von Humboldt, Algae, Alkali, Alloy, Aluminium, Amanita muscaria, Amavadin, Ammonium metavanadate, Andrés Manuel del Río, Annalen der Physik, Anton Eduard van Arkel, Ascidiacea, Astrobiology, Atomic number, Axle, Azotobacter, Bauxite, Beta decay, Binding constant, Biochemistry, Biosignature, Blood cell, Brittleness, Bromoform, Bromomethane, Bromoperoxidase, By-product, Calcium, Carnotite, Catalysis, Ceramic, Chemical compound, Chemical element, China, Chloride, Chloride peroxidase, Chromate and dichromate, Chromium, Chromium hexacarbonyl, Chrysoberyl, Cladding (metalworking), Coal, Coelom, Contact process, Conversion coating, Coordination complex, Copper, Corrosion, Corundum, ..., Crankshaft, Crystal bar process, Damascus steel, Dental implant, Diene, Diesel fuel, Dietary Reference Intake, Ductility, Electron capture, Enzyme, Ferrovanadium, Flow battery, Ford Model T, Fossil fuel, Freyja, Friedrich Wöhler, Fusion power, Gabbro, Gauss (unit), George William Featherstonhaugh, Green Giant mine, Grid energy storage, Half-life, Halide, Hardnesses of the elements (data page), Heme, Hemovanadin, Henry Roscoe (chemist), High-speed steel, High-temperature corrosion, Hippolyte-Victor Collet-Descotils, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Infrared, Inorganic anhydride, Ion, Iron, Iron ore, Isoelectronicity, Isotope, Jan Hendrik de Boer, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jet engine, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kelvin, Lead, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Lithium cobalt oxide, Lithium vanadium phosphate battery, Lithium-ion battery, Litre, Magnesium, Magnetite, Maleic anhydride, Mars, Mass number, Metal aquo complex, Metal carbonyl, Metal ions in aqueous solution, Mexico, Microgram, Mineral, Mineral water, Molybdenum, Mount Fuji, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Native vanadium, Neutron capture, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Niobium–tin, Niobium–titanium, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogenase, Norse mythology, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Oil shale, Old Norse, Optical spectrometer, Organobromine compound, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxohalide, Oxyanion, Passivation (chemistry), Patrónite, Periodic Videos, Peroxidase, Petroleum, Pierre Louis Dulong, Pig iron, Pourbaix diagram, Powder metallurgy, Predation, Predominance diagram, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Raman spectroscopy, Redox, Rockwell scale, Russia, Salt (chemistry), Seawater, Slag, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium decavanadate, Sodium metavanadate, Sodium orthovanadate, South Africa, Spin (physics), Spring (hydrology), Star, Steel, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Superconductivity, Surgical instrument, Tar, Teratology, Tesla (unit), Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Titanium, Titanium alloy, Tonne, Tool, Toxin, Transition metal, Tunicate, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultramafic rock, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, Uranium, Vacuole, Vanabins, Vanadate, Vanadinite, Vanadium bromoperoxidase, Vanadium carbide, Vanadium hexacarbonyl, Vanadium nitride, Vanadium nitrogenase, Vanadium oxytrichloride, Vanadium redox battery, Vanadium tetrachloride, Vanadium(II) chloride, Vanadium(III) iodide, Vanadium(IV) oxide, Vanadium(V) oxide, Vanadium–gallium, Vanadocene dichloride, Vanadyl acetylacetonate, Vanadyl ion, Vanadyl sulfate, Vanir, Wah Chang Corporation, Wootz steel, X-ray crystallography, Zinc. Expand index (165 more) » « Shrink index
The A15 phases (also known as β-W or Cr3Si structure types) are series of intermetallic compounds with the chemical formula A3B (where A is a transition metal and B can be any element) and a specific structure.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amavadin is a vanadium-containing anion found in three species of poisonous Amanita mushrooms: A. muscaria, A. regalis, and A. velatipes.
Ammonium metavanadate is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4VO3.
Andrés Manuel del Río Fernández (10 November 1764 – 23 March 1849) was a Spanish–Mexican scientist and naturalist who discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
Anton Eduard van Arkel, ('s-Gravenzande Netherlands, 19 November 1893 – Leiden, 14 March 1976) was a Dutch chemist.
Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.
Azotobacter is a genus of usually motile, oval or spherical bacteria that form thick-walled cysts and may produce large quantities of capsular slime.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
The binding constant, or association constant, is a special case of the equilibrium constant K, and is the inverse of the dissociation constant.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A biosignature (sometimes called chemical fossil or molecular fossil) is any substance – such as an element, isotope, molecule, or phenomenon – that provides scientific evidence of past or present life.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
Bromoform (CHBr3) is a brominated organic solvent, colorless liquid at room temperature, with a high refractive index, very high density, and sweet odor is similar to that of chloroform.
Bromomethane, commonly known as methyl bromide, is an organobromine compound with formula CH3Br.
Bromoperoxidases are enzymes that catalyse the bromination of hydrocarbons.
A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate radioactive mineral with chemical formula K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chloride peroxidase is a family of enzymes that catalyzes the chlorination of organic compounds.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Chromium carbonyl, also known as chromium hexacarbonyl, is the chemical compound with the formula Cr(CO)6.
The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.
Cladding is the bonding together of dissimilar metals.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.
The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.
Conversion coatings are coatings for metals where the part surface is converted into the coating with a chemical or electro-chemical process.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.
The crystal bar process (also known as iodide process or the van Arkel–de Boer process) was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925.
Damascus steel was the forged steel composing the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of wootz steel.
A dental implant (also known as an endosseous implant or fixture) is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.
In organic chemistry a diene or diolefin is a hydrocarbon that contains two carbon double bonds.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ferrovanadium (FeV) is an alloy formed by combining iron and vanadium with a vanadium content range of 35%-85%.
A flow battery, or redox flow battery (after reduction–oxidation), is a type of electrochemical cell where chemical energy is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids contained within the system and separated by a membrane.
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
In Norse mythology, Freyja (Old Norse for "(the) Lady") is a goddess associated with love, sex, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war, and death.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt, being its coarse-grained analogue.
The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B).
George William Featherstonhaugh FRS (London, 9 April 1780 – Le Havre, 28 September 1866) was a British-American geologist and geographer.
The Green Giant mine is one of the largest vanadium mines in Madagascar.
Grid energy storage (also called large-scale energy storage) is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on a large scale within an electrical power grid.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemovanadin is a pale green vanabin protein found in the blood cells, called vanadocytes, of ascidians (sea squirts) and other organisms.
Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe (7 January 1833 – 18 December 1915) was a British chemist.
High-speed steel (HSS or HS) is a subset of tool steels, commonly used as cutting tool material.
High-temperature corrosion is a mechanism of corrosion that takes place in gas turbines, diesel engines, furnaces or other machinery coming in contact with hot gas containing certain contaminants.
Hippolyte-Victor Collet-Descotils was a French chemist.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An inorganic anhydride is a chemical compound that is related to another by the loss of the elements of water, H2O.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Jan Hendrik de Boer (19 March 1899 – 25 April 1971) was a Dutch physicist and chemist.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lithium cobalt oxide, sometimes called lithium cobaltateA.
A lithium vanadium phosphate (LVP) battery is a proposed type of lithium ion battery that uses a vanadium phosphate in the cathode.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.
A metal ion in aqueous solution (aqua ion) is a cation, dissolved in water, of chemical formula z+.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineral water is water from a mineral spring that contains various minerals, such as salts and sulfur compounds.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
, located on Honshū, is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776.24 m (12,389 ft), 2nd-highest peak of an island (volcanic) in Asia, and 7th-highest peak of an island in the world.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Native vanadium is the mineral form of the metal vanadium, with the accepted name "vanadium".
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
Nils Gabriel Sefström (2 June 1787 – 30 November 1845) was a Swedish chemist.
Niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) or triniobium-tin is an intermetallic compound of niobium (Nb) and tin (Sn), used industrially as a type II superconductor.
Niobium-titanium (NbTi) is an alloy of niobium and titanium, used industrially as a type II superconductor wire for superconducting magnets, normally as Nb-Ti fibres in an aluminium or copper matrix.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
An optical spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials.
Organobromine compounds, also called organobromides, are organic compounds that contain carbon bonded to bromine.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Molecular oxohalides (oxyhalides) are a group of chemical compounds in which both oxygen and halogen atoms are attached to another chemical element A in a single molecule.
An oxyanion, or oxoanion, is an ion with the generic formula (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Patronite is the vanadium sulfide mineral with formula VS4.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Pierre Louis Dulong FRS FRSE (12 February 1785 – 19 July 1838) was a French physicist and chemist.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
In electrochemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, EH-pH diagram or a pE/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system.
Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A predominance diagram purports to show the conditions of concentration and pH where a chemical species has the highest concentration in solutions in which there are multiple acid-base equilibria.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on indentation hardness of a material.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium decavanadate describes any member of the family of inorganic compounds with the formula Na6(H2O)n.
Sodium metavanadate is the inorganic compound with the formula NaVO3.
Sodium orthovanadate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na3VO4·2H2O (sodium orthovanadate dihydrate).
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions or carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access for viewing it.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Vanabins (also known as vanadium-associated proteins or vanadium chromagen) are a specific group of vanadium-binding metalloproteins.
In chemistry, a vanadate is a compound containing an oxoanion of vanadium generally in its highest oxidation state of +5.
Vanadinite is a mineral belonging to the apatite group of phosphates, with the chemical formula Pb5(VO4)3Cl.
Vanadium bromoperoxidase are a kind of haloperoxidase that is involved in the bromination of organic compounds associated with defense and pigmentation in seaweeds and marine algae.
Vanadium carbide is the inorganic compound with the formula VC.
Vanadium hexacarbonyl is the inorganic compound with the formula V(CO)6.
Vanadium nitride, VN, is a chemical compound of vanadium and nitrogen.
Vanadium nitrogenase is a key enzyme for nitrogen fixation found in nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and is used as an alternative to molybdenum nitrogenase when molybdenum is unavailable.
Vanadium oxytrichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VOCl3.
The vanadium redox battery (VRB), also known as vanadium flow battery (VFB) or vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), is a type of rechargeable flow battery that employs vanadium ions in different oxidation states to store chemical potential energy.
Vanadium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl4.
Vanadium(II) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl2, and is the most reduced vanadium chloride.
Vanadium(III) iodide is the inorganic compound with the formula VI3.
Vanadium(IV) oxide (also called vanadium dioxide) is an inorganic compound with the formula VO2. It is a dark blue solid. Vanadium(IV) dioxide is amphoteric, dissolving in non-oxidising acids to give the blue vanadyl ion, 2+ and in alkali to give the brown 2− ion, or at high pH 4−. VO2 has a phase transition very close to room temperature(~66 °C). Electrical resistivity, opacity, etc, can change up several orders. Due to these properties, it has been widely used in surface coating, sensors, and imaging. Potential applications include use in memory devices, phase-change switches, aerospace communication systems and neuromorphic computing.
Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.
Vanadium–gallium (V3Ga) is a superconducting alloy of vanadium and gallium.
Vanadocene dichloride is an organometallic complex with formula (''η''5-C5H5)2VCl2 (commonly abbreviated as Cp2VCl2).
Vanadyl acetylacetonate is the chemical compound with the formula VO(acac)2, where acac– is the conjugate base of acetylacetone.
The vanadyl or oxovanadium(IV) cation, VO2+, is a blue-coloured vanadium oxocation at an oxidation state of +4.
Vanadyl(IV) sulfate describes a collection of inorganic compounds of vanadium with the formula, VOSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤6.
In Norse mythology, the Vanir (singular Vanr) are a group of gods associated with fertility, wisdom, and the ability to see the future.
Wah Chang Corporation is an American manufacturing company based in Albany, Oregon in the United States.
Wootz steel is a crucible steel characterized by a pattern of bands, which are formed by sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix in higher carbon steel, or by ferrite and pearlite banding in lower carbon steels.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.