139 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Aerial root, Aromatherapy, Aztecs, Baking, Bamboo, Beaver, Bordeaux mixture, Cake, Calcium oxalate, Caramel, Carbendazim, Caribbean, Cartel, Castoreum, Central America, Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International, Charles François Antoine Morren, Chocolate, Coffee, Colletotrichum, Comoro Islands, Comoros, Conquistador, Cook's Illustrated, Cookie, Coumarin, CRC Press, Crystallization, Curing (food preservation), Custard, Cutting (plant), Cyclone, Cyclone Enawo, Cyclone Hudah, Cymbidium mosaic virus, Dicopper chloride trihydroxide, Diminutive, Dipteryx odorata, Drought, Edmond Albius, Enzyme catalysis, Ethanol, Eugenol, Euglossini, Eulaema, Ferdinand-Alphonse Hamelin, Flavor, Food and Agriculture Organization, ..., Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Food and Drug Administration, French colonial empire, French Polynesia, Fruit, Fungus, Furfural, Fusarium, Genus, Glycerol, Guaiacol, Guatemala, Gynoecium, Hand-pollination, Hermaphrodite, Hernán Cortés, Hexanoic acid, Hummingbird, Hydrolysis, Ice cream, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Isobutyric acid, Leaf curl, Leptotes bicolor, Lignin, Madagascar, Manila galleon, Mauritius, Melipona, Mesoamerica, Methyl cinnamate, Mexico, Mosaic virus, Mulch, Niue, Note (perfumery), Old World, Orchid mycorrhiza, Orchidaceae, Overseas France, Papermaking, PH, Phenols, Philip Miller, Philippines, Phytophthora, Pollination, Pollination management, Pollinium, Pre-Columbian era, Pseudomonadaceae, Pulp (paper), Raceme, Réunion, Redox, Rhizosphere, Rostellum, Saffron, Sava Region, Sclerotium, Self-pollination, Seychelles, South America, Species, Stamen, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfate, Sulfite, Tahiti, Tenochtitlan, Thomas Kitchin, Tonne, Toronto Star, Totonac, Trichoderma, Tropical cyclone, United States Department of Agriculture, Vanilla (genus), Vanilla extract, Vanilla ice cream, Vanilla planifolia, Vanilla pompona, Vanilla sugar, Vanilla tahitensis, Vanillin, Veracruz, Vermicompost, 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde. Expand index (89 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Aerial roots are roots above the ground.
Aromatherapy uses plant materials and aromatic plant oils, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds for improving psychological or physical well-being.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Bordeaux mixture (also called Bordo Mix) is a mixture of copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) and slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) used as a fungicide.
Cake is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked.
Calcium oxalate (in archaic terminology, oxalate of lime) is a calcium salt of oxalate with the chemical formula CaC2O4(H2O)x, where x can vary.
Caramel is a medium- to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars.
Carbendazim is a widely used, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.
Castoreum is the exudate from the castor sacs of the mature North American beaver (Castor canadensis) and the European beaver (Castor fiber).
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI, sometimes also referred to as CAB International) is a not-for-profit inter-governmental development and information organisation focusing primarily on agricultural and environmental issues in the developing world.
Charles François Antoine Morren (3 March 1807 Ghent – 17 December 1858 Liège), was a Belgian botanist and horticulturist, and Director of the Jardin botanique de l’Université de Liège.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Colletotrichum (sexual stage: Glomerella) is a genus of fungi that are symbionts to plants as endophytes or phytopathogens.
The Comoro Islands or Comoros (Shikomori Komori; جزر القمر, Juzur al-Qamar; French Les Comores) form an archipelago of volcanic islands situated off the south-east coast of Africa, to the east of Mozambique and north-west of Madagascar.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Cook's Illustrated is an American cooking magazine published every two months by the America's Test Kitchen company in Brookline, Massachusetts.
A cookie is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet.
Coumarin (2H-chromen-2-one) is a fragrant organic chemical compound in the benzopyrone chemical class, although it may also be seen as a subclass of lactones.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Curing is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of combinations of salt, nitrates, nitrites,.
Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk.
A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative (asexual) propagation.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Intense Tropical Cyclone Enawo was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike Madagascar since Gafilo in 2004, which killed at least 81 people of the country in March 2017.
Cyclone Hudah was a powerful and destructive tropical cyclone that affected Southeast Africa in April 2000.
Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Alphaflexiviridae.
Dicopper chloride trihydroxide is the chemical compound with the formula Cu2(OH)3Cl.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
Dipteryx odorata (commonly known as "cumaru" or "kumaru") is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
Edmond Albius (1829 – 9 August 1880) was born into slavery and became an important figure in the cultivation of vanilla.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Eugenol is a phenylpropene, an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol.
The tribe Euglossini, in the subfamily Apinae, commonly known as orchid bees or Euglossine bees, are the only group of corbiculate bees whose non-parasitic members do not all possess eusocial behavior.
Eulaema is a genus of large-bodied euglossine bees that occur primarily in the Neotropics.
Ferdinand-Alphonse Hamelin (2 September 1796 – 10 January 1864), French admiral, was born in Pont-l'Évêque, Normandy.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Furfural is an organic compound produced from a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat, wheat bran, and sawdust.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Guaiacol is a naturally-occurring organic compound with the formula C6H4(OH)(OCH3), first isolated by Otto Unverdorben in 1826.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Hand pollination, also known as mechanical pollination is a technique that can be used to pollinate plants when natural or open pollination is either undesirable or insufficient.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Hexanoic acid (caproic acid) is the carboxylic acid derived from hexane with the chemical formula.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Isobutyric acid, also known as 2-methylpropanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula (CH3)2CHCO2H.
Leaf curl is a plant disease characterized by curling of leaves, and caused by a fungus, genus Taphrina, or virus, especially genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae.
Leptotes bicolor is a species of orchid native to Paraguay and southern Brazil.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Melipona is a genus of stingless bees, widespread in warm areas of the Neotropics, from Sinaloa and Tamaulipas (México) to Tucumán and Misiones (Argentina).
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Methyl cinnamate is the methyl ester of cinnamic acid and is a white or transparent solid with a strong, aromatic odor.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mosaic viruses are plant viruses that cause the leaves to have a speckled appearance.
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.
Notes in perfumery are descriptors of scents that can be sensed upon the application of a perfume.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Orchid mycorrhizae are symbiotic relationships between the roots of plants of the family Orchidaceae and a variety of fungi.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Philip Miller FRS (1691 – 18 December 1771) was an English botanist of Scottish descent.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phytophthora (from Greek (phytón), "plant" and (phthorá), "destruction"; "the plant-destroyer") is a genus of plant-damaging oomycetes (water molds), whose member species are capable of causing enormous economic losses on crops worldwide, as well as environmental damage in natural ecosystems.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Pollination management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions.
A pollinium (plural pollinia) is a coherent mass of pollen grains in a plant that are the product of only one anther, but are transferred, during pollination, as a single unit.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
The Pseudomonadaceae are family of bacteria which includes the genera Azomonas, Azomonotrichon, Azorhizophilus, Azotobacter, Cellvibrio, Mesophilobacter, Pseudomonas (the type genus), Rhizobacter, Rugamonas, and Serpens.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
A raceme is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers (flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels) along its axis.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms.
The rostellum is a projecting part of the column in Orchidaceae flowers, and separates the male androecium from the female gynoecium, commonly preventing self-fertilisation.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Sava is a region of northern Madagascar.
A sclerotium, plural sclerotia, is a compact mass of hardened fungal mycelium containing food reserves.
Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
Tahiti (previously also known as Otaheite (obsolete) is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean, and is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, and the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants (2017 census), making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population. Tahiti is the economic, cultural and political centre of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity (sometimes referred to as an overseas country) of France. The capital of French Polynesia, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast of Tahiti. The only international airport in the region, Fa'a'ā International Airport, is on Tahiti near Papeete. Tahiti was originally settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800AD. They represent about 70% of the island's population, with the rest made up of Europeans, Chinese and those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, and the inhabitants became French citizens. French is the only official language, although the Tahitian language (Reo Tahiti) is widely spoken.
Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.
Thomas Kitchin (or Thomas Kitchen) (1718–1784) was an English engraver and cartographer, who became hydrographer to the king.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.
The Totonac are an indigenous people of Mexico who reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo.
Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that is present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Vanilla, the vanilla orchids, forms a flowering plant genus of about 110 species in the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Vanilla extract is a solution made by macerating and percolating vanilla pods in a solution of ethanol and water.
Vanilla is frequently used to flavor ice cream, especially in North America and Europe.
Vanilla planifolia is a species of vanilla orchid.
Vanilla pompona is a species of vanilla orchid.
Vanilla sugar (German: Vanillezucker, Polish: Cukier waniliowy, Hungarian: Vaníliás cukor, Swedish: "Vaniljsocker", Macedonian: "Ванилин шеќер") is a commonly used ingredient of Dutch, German, Polish, Swedish, Finnish, Danish, Austrian, Norwegian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Turkish and other European desserts.
Vanilla tahitensis is a species of orchid in the genus Vanilla.
Vanillin is a phenolic aldehyde, which is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3.
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.
Vermicompost (or vermi-compost, vermiculture) is the product of the composting process using various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast.
4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is one of the three isomers of hydroxybenzaldehyde.
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