241 relations: Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, Afroasiatic languages, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Al-Bakri, Aleppo, Algeria, Algerian Arabic, Algerian Saharan Arabic, Algiers, Allophone, Anah, Analytic language, Anatolia, Ancient North Arabian, Andalusian Arabic, Arab (disambiguation), Arab world, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Arabization, Aramaic language, Ḍād, Ḏāl, Ṯāʾ, Ẓāʾ, Babalia Creole Arabic, Baghdad, Baghdad Arabic, Baghdad Jewish Arabic, Bahrain, Bahrani Arabic, Bareqi Arabic, Bedouin, Beirut, Benghazi, Berber languages, Bet (letter), Birzeit, Cairo, Casablanca, Central Asian Arabic, Chad, Chadian Arabic, Charles A. Ferguson, Che (Persian letter), Christian, Circumfix, ..., Classical Arabic, Classical Latin, Code-switching, Consonant cluster, Coptic language, Creole language, Cypriot Arabic, Cyprus, Dadanitic, Damascus, Dhofari Arabic, Dialect, Diglossia, Druze, Dual (grammatical number), Early Muslim conquests, Egypt, Egyptian Arabic, El Hamma, El-Said Badawi, English language, European Union, Existential clause, ʾIʿrab, Fez, Morocco, First language, French language, Gaf, George Grigore, Gimel, Glottal stop, Grammatical case, Grammatical mood, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Gulf Arabic, Hadhrami Arabic, Hamza, Hasaitic dialect, Hassaniya Arabic, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hejazi Arabic, Himyaritic language, Hismaic, In situ, Interdental consonant, International Association of Arabic Dialectology, Internet, Interrogative word, Iran, Iraq, Iraq War, Iraqi Kurdistan, ISO 639 macrolanguage, Italian language, Jebli Arabic, Jerusalem, Jews, Jijel Arabic, Jordanian Arabic, Juba Arabic, Judeo-Arabic languages, Judeo-Iraqi Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan Arabic, Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni Arabic, Kaph, Kees Versteegh, Khouribga, Khuzestani Arabic, Koiné language, Kuwaiti Arabic, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lebanese Arabic, Levant, Levantine Arabic, Libyan Arabic, Lingua franca, Loanword, Maghreb, Maghrebi Arabic, Malta, Maltese language, Mardin, Maridi Arabic, Marrakesh, Mauritania, Mecca, Medina, Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian Arabic, Mizrahi Jews, Mobile phone, Modern Hebrew, Modern South Arabian languages, Modern Standard Arabic, Monastir, Tunisia, Moroccan Arabic, Moroccan Jews, Mosul, Muslim, Mutual intelligibility, Najd, Najdi Arabic, Nazareth, Ng (Arabic letter), Nigeria, Nomad, North Africa, North Mesopotamian Arabic, North Syrian Arabic, Northwest Arabian Arabic, Nubi language, Nubia, Nunation, Old South Arabian, Oman, Omani Arabic, Ottoman Egypt, Ottoman Turkish language, Ouaddaï (prefecture), Palestinian Arabic, Pan-Arabism, Passive voice, Pe (letter), Pe (Persian letter), Peninsular Arabic, Persian Gulf, Persian language, Pharyngealization, Phoenician language, Pidgin, Plural, Polysynthetic language, Pragmatics, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Punic language, Q, Qoph, Quran, Rabat, Regional language, Riyadh, Romance languages, Sa'idi Arabic, Safaitic, Said Akl, San'ani Arabic, Sana'a, Saudi Arabia, Sétif Province, Sedentism, Semitic languages, Semitic root, Sfax, Shia Islam, Shihhi Arabic, Shirvani Arabic, Sibawayh, Sicilian language, Siculo-Arabic, SMS, Sociolinguistics, South Asia, Spanish language, Subject–verb–object, Sudan, Sudanese Arabic, Sunni Islam, Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic, Talk show, Taymanitic, Taza, Thamudic, Tihamiyya Arabic, Tlemcen, Tunis, Tunisian Arabic, Turkey, Upper Egypt, Variety (linguistics), Ve (Arabic letter), Velarization, Verb–subject–object, Vowel shift, Yemen, Yemeni Arabic, Yusuf al-Maghribi. Expand index (191 more) » « Shrink index
The Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo (مجمع اللغة العربية بالقاهرة) is an academy in Cairo founded in 1934 in order to develop and regulate the Arabic language in The Republic of Egypt.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
, or simply Al-Bakri (أبو عبيد عبدالله بن عبد العزيز البكري) (c. 1014–1094) was an Andalusian Arab historian and the greatest geographer of the Muslim West.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algerian Arabic, or Algerian (known as Darja, or Dziria in Algeria) is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria.
Algerian Saharan Arabic (also known as Saharan Arabic, Tamanrasset Arabic, Tamanghasset Arabic) is a structurally distinct variety of Arabic spoken by an estimated 100,000 people in Algeria, predominantly along the Moroccan border with the Atlas Mountains.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Anah or Ana (عانة, ʾĀna), formerly also known as Anna, is an Iraqi town on the Euphrates river, approximately midway between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Persian Gulf.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient North Arabian (ANA)http://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf refers to all South Semitic scripts excluding Ancient South Arabian (ASA) used in central and northern Arabia from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE.
Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) under Muslim rule (and for some time after) from the 9th century to the 17th century.
An Arab is a member of a Semitic people, originally from the Arabian peninsula and neighbouring territories, inhabiting much of the Middle East and North Africa.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
(ض), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In name and shape, it is a variant of.
(ذ, also be transcribed as) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents.
() is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents the voiceless dental fricative, also found in English as the "th" in words such as "think" and "thin".
, or (ظ), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic it represents a pharyngealized or velarized voiced dental fricative or.
Babalia Arabic is a creolized form of Chadian Arabic spoken by the Babalia people, whose original language was Beraku; Babalia Creole vocabulary is 90% Chadian Arabic and 10% Beraku, though speakers use a continuum to Chadian Arabic.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baghdad Arabic or the Baghdadi Arabic is the Arabic dialect spoken in Baghdad, the capital of Iraq.
Baghdad Jewish Arabic (عربية يهودية بغدادية) is the Arabic dialect spoken by the Jews of Baghdad and other towns of Southern Iraq.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bahrani Arabic (also known as Bahrani and Baharna Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Eastern Arabia and Oman.
Bareqi Arabic (لهجة بارقية) is the variety of Arabic spoken in Bareq, Saudi Arabia.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Birzeit (بيرزيت), also Bir Zeit, is a Palestinian town north of Ramallah in the central West Bank.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
Central Asian Arabic is a variety of Arabic spoken in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and currently facing extinction.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chadian Arabic (also known as Shuwa/Shua/Suwa Arabic; لهجة تشادية, Baggara Arabic, and, most recently, within a small scholarly milieu, Western Sudanic Arabic) is one of the regional colloquial varieties of Arabic.
Charles Albert Ferguson (July 6, 1921 – September 2, 1998) was an American linguist who taught at Stanford University.
Che, or čīm (چ), is a letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet, used to represent, and which derives from (ج) by the addition of two dots.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A circumfix (abbreviated) or confix is an affix which has two parts, one placed at the start of a word, and the other at the end.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Cypriot Arabic, also known as Cypriot Maronite Arabic or Sanna, is a moribund variety of Arabic spoken by the Maronite community of Cyprus.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Dadanitic is the dialect and script of the oasis of Dadān (modern al-ʿUlā) in northwestern Arabia, spoken probably some time during the second half of the first millennium BCE.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dhofari Arabic (also known as Dhofari, Zofari) is a variety of Arabic, spoken in Salalah, Oman and the surrounding coastal regions (the Dhofar Governorate).
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
El Hamma (الحامة) is an oasis town located in the Gabès Governorate, 30 kilometers west of Gabès, Tunisia and near the eastern end of Chott el Fejej.
El-Said Badawi (El-Saʿīd Muḥammad Badawī) (السعيد محمد بدوي) was a scholar and linguist and author of many works, both in English and in Arabic, dealing with various aspects of the Arabic language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An existential clause is a clause that refers to the existence or presence of something.
(إِﻋْﺮَاب) is an Arabic term for the system of nominal, adjectival, or verbal suffixes of Classical Arabic.
Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gaf, or gāf, may be the name of different Perso-Arabic letters, all representing.
George Grigore (born 2 February 1958) is a Romanian writer, essayist, translator, professor, researcher in Middle Eastern Studies.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gulf Arabic (خليجي local pronunciation: or اللهجة الخليجية, local pronunciation) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, as well as parts of eastern Saudi Arabia (Eastern Province), southern Iraq (Basra Governorate and Muthanna Governorate), and south Iran (Bushehr Province and Hormozgan Province) and northern Oman.
Hadhrami Arabic, or Ḥaḍrami Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken by the Hadhrami people (Ḥaḍārima) living in the Hadhramaut.
Hamza (همزة) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.
Hasaitic is an Ancient North Arabian dialect attested in inscriptions in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia at Thaj, Hinna, Qatif, Ras Tanura, Abqaiq in the al-Hasa region, Ayn Jawan, Mileiha and at Uruk.
Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (حجازي), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia.
Himyaritic or Al-Himyariah (لغة حمير luġat Ḥimyar, Language of Himyar) is a Semitic language that was spoken in Yemen, according to some by the Himyarites.
Hismaic is a variety of the Ancient North Arabian script and the language most commonly expressed in it.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
The International Association of Arabic Dialectology (Association Internationale de Dialectologie Arabe, AIDA) is an association of researchers in Arabic dialects, from all over the world.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jebli (Jebelia) is a pre-Hilalian Arabic dialect spoken in the mountains of the north of Morocco.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jijeli, or Jijel Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken specifically in the Jijel Province in northeastern Algeria, but traces of it reach parts of the neighboring Skikda and Mila Provinces.
Jordanian Arabic is a continuum of mutually intelligible varieties of Levantine Arabic spoken by the population of the Kingdom of Jordan.
Juba Arabic is a lingua franca spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in South Sudan, and derives its name from the town of Juba, South Sudan.
The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.
Judeo-Iraqi Arabic (عربية يهودية عراقية), also known as Iraqi Judeo-Arabic and Yahudic, is a variety of Arabic spoken by Iraqi Jews currently or formerly living in Iraq.
Judeo-Moroccan Arabic is a variety of the Arabic Language spoken by Jewish people living or formerly living in Morocco and Algeria.
Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic (also known as Tripolitanian Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Tripolitanian-Libyan Arabic, Tripolita'it, Yudi) is a variety of Arabic spoken by Jews formerly living in Libya.
Judeo-Tunisian Arabic, also known as Djerbian Arabic, is a variety of Tunisian Arabic mainly spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Tunisia.
Judeo-Yemeni Arabic (also known as Judeo-Yemeni and Yemenite Judeo-Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Yemen.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
Cornelis Henricus Maria Versteegh, better known as Kees Versteegh (1947-present), is a Dutch linguist and Arabist.
Khouribga (ⵅⵯⵔⵉⴱⴳⴰ, خريبكة) is the capital of Khouribga Province in the Béni Mellal-Khénifra region of Morocco.
Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Gelet (Southern) Mesopotamian Arabic spoken by the Iranian Arabs in Khuzestan Province of Iran.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
Kuwaiti (in Kuwaiti كويتي, //) is a Gulf Arabic dialect spoken in Kuwait.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lebanese Arabic or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
Libyan Arabic (ليبي Lībī; also known as Sulaimitian Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Libya and neighboring countries.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.
Maridi Arabic was a possible Arabic pidgin apparently spoken in the upper Nile valley around 1000 CE.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
The Modern South Arabian languages (Eastern South Semitic or Eastern South Arabian) are spoken mainly by small populations inhabiting the Arabian Peninsula, in Yemen and Oman.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Monastir, also called Mīstīr (مـنسـتير, from the Greek μοναστήριον "hermit's cell, monastery"), is a city on the central coast of Tunisia, in the Sahel area, It is south of Sousse and south of Tunis.
Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.
Moroccan Jews (al-Yehud al-Magharibah יהודים מרוקאים Yehudim Maroka'im) are the Jews who live or have lived in the area of North African country of Morocco.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Najd or Nejd (نجد, Najd) is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.
Najdi Arabic (اللهجة النجدية) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Najd region of Saudi Arabia.
Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.
is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from kāf with the addition of three dots above the letter.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North Mesopotamian Arabic (also known as Moslawi or Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic) is a variety of Mesopotamian Arabic spoken north of the Hamrin Mountains in Iraq, in western Iran, northern Syria, and in southeastern Turkey (in the eastern Mediterranean Region, Southeastern Anatolia Region, and southern Eastern Anatolia Region).
North Syrian Arabic (اللهجة السورية الشمالية / ALA-LC: al-lahjat as-Sūriyat ash-Shamāliyah) is the variety of Arabic spoken in northern Syria.
Bedawi Arabic (لهجة بدوية, also known as Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic, Bedawi, Levantine Bedawi Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken by Bedouins mostly in eastern Egypt, and also in Jordan, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Saudi Arabia and Syria.
The Nubi language (also called Ki-Nubi) is a Sudanese Arabic-based creole language spoken in Uganda around Bombo, and in Kenya around Kibera, by the descendants of Emin Pasha's Sudanese soldiers who were settled there by the British colonial administration.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
In some Semitic languages, such as Arabic, nunation (تَنوِين) is the addition of one of three vowel diacritics (حَرَكَات) to a noun or adjective to indicate that the word ends in an alveolar nasal without the addition of the letter nūn.
Old South Arabianhttp://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf (or Epigraphic South Arabian, or Ṣayhadic) is a group of four closely related extinct languages spoken in the far southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Omani Arabic (also known as Omani Hadari Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Al Hajar Mountains of Oman and in a few neighboring coastal regions.
Ottoman Egypt covers two main periods of the history of Egypt from the 16th through early 20th centuries, when under the rule of or allied to the Ottoman Empire that was based in (present day) Turkey.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
This article refers to one of the former prefectures of Chad.
Palestinian Arabic is the subgroup of Levantine Arabic, spoken by most Palestinians in Palestine, by many Arab citizens of Israel and in the Palestinian diaspora populations.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
Pe (پ) is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet for.
Peninsular Arabic, or Southern Arabic, is the varieties of Arabic spoken throughout the Arabian Peninsula.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
The Punic language, also called Carthaginian or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rabat (الرِّبَاط,; ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ) is the capital city of Morocco and its third largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Ṣa‘īdi Arabic (صعيدى, locally), also known as Upper Egyptian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken by the Ṣa‘īdi people south of Cairo, Egypt, to the border of Sudan.
Safaitic is a variety of the South Semitic script used by the nomads of the basalt desert of southern Syria and northern Jordan, the so-called Ḥarrah, to carve rock inscriptions in various dialects of Old Arabic.
Said Akl (سعيد عقل,, also transliterated Saïd Akl, Said Aql and Saeed Akl; 4 July 1912 – 28 November 2014) was a Lebanese poet, philosopher, writer, playwright and language reformer.
San'ani Arabic is an Arabic dialect spoken in Yemen.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sétif Province (ولاية سطيف) is a province (wilaya) in north-eastern Algeria.
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
Sfax (صفاقس; ⵙⵉⴼⴰⴽⵙ Sifaks) is a city in Tunisia, located southeast of Tunis.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shihhi Arabic (also known as Shehhi, Shihu, Shihuh, or Al-Shihuh) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Musandam Governorate of Oman.
Shirvani Arabic is a variety of Arabic that was once spoken in what is now central and northwestern Azerbaijan (historically known as Shirvan) and Dagestan (southern Russia).
Abū Bishr ʻAmr ibn ʻUthmān ibn Qanbar Al-Baṣrī (c. 760–796, أبو بشر عمرو بن عثمان بن قنبر البصري), commonly known as Sībawayh or Sībawayhi (سيبويه, an Arabized form of Middle Persian name Sēbōē, modern Persian pronunciation Sēbōya/Sībūye) was a Persian linguist and grammarian of Arabic language.
Sicilian (sicilianu; in Italian: Siciliano; also known as Siculo (siculu) or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands.
Siculo-Arabic (or Sicilian Arabic) is the term used for the variety (or varieties) of Arabic that were spoken in the Emirate of Sicily (that included Malta) from the 9th century, persisting under the subsequent Norman rule till the 13th century.
SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sudanese Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken throughout Sudan.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic, also known as Southern Yemeni Arabic, is a variety of Yemeni Arabic spoken in southern Yemen and Djibouti, where it may be referred to simply as Djibouti Arabic.
A talk show or chat show is a television programming or radio programming genre in which one person (or group of people) discusses various topics put forth by a talk show host.
Taymanitic is the dialect and script of the oasis of Taymāʾ in northwestern Arabia, attested starting in the 6th century BCE, though references to the existence of an indigenous script in Taymāʾ are attested in outside sources from the 8th century BCE.
Taza (Berber: ⵜⴰⵣⴰ, Taza, in Arabic: تازة) is a city in northern Morocco, which occupies the corridor between the Rif mountains and Middle Atlas mountains, about 120 km east of Fez and 210 km west of Oujda.
Thamudic is a name invented by nineteenth-century scholars for large numbers of inscriptions in Ancient North Arabian (ANA) alphabets which have not yet been properly studied.
Tihāmiyyah (Arabic: تهامية Tihāmiyyah; also known as Tihamiyya, Tihami) is the variety of Arabic originally spoken by the tribes, that belongs to the historic region of Tihamah, the Red Sea coastal plain of Arabia from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb Strait.
Tlemcen (تلمسان Tlemsan; ⵜⵍⴻⵎⵙⴰⵏ) is a city in north-western Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisian Arabic, or Tunisian, is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Ve or Vāʼ is a letter of the Arabic-based Sorani, Comoro, Wakhi, Malay Arabic, Karakhanid alphabets derived from the Arabic letter (ﻑ) with two additional dots.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).
A vowel shift is a systematic sound change in the pronunciation of the vowel sounds of a language.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yemeni Arabic is a cluster of varieties of Arabic spoken in Yemen, southwestern Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Djibouti.
(Arabic: يوسف المغربي) was a 17th-century lexicographer active in Cairo.
'ammiyya, Arabic dialect, Arabic dialects, Arabic varieties, Arabic vernacular, Colloquial Arabic, Dialect of Arabic, Dialectal Arabic, Dialects of Arabic, Informal Arabic, Mashriqi Arabic language, Modern Arabic dialects, Sharqi Arabic, Spoken Arabic, Varieties of Arabic dialects, Varieties of Arabic/version 1, Varieties of arabic, Variety of Arabic, Vernacular Arabic, `āmmiyya.