194 relations: Affricate consonant, Allophone, Amoy dialect, Anhui, Austroasiatic languages, Bai language, Beijing dialect, Cantonese, Central Min, Chang-Du dialect, Changsha dialect, Checked tone, Chengdu-Chongqing dialect, China, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Chinese Civil War, Chinese language, Chinese nationalism, Chinese Singaporeans, Chongming Island, Classical Chinese, Code-switching, Cognate, Comparison of Cantonese and Standard Chinese, Compound (linguistics), Consonant, Cyrillic script, Danzhou dialect, Democratic Progressive Party, Dialect continuum, Diasystem, Dungan language, E language, Eastern Han Chinese, Eastern Min, Ethnologue, Fangyan, Formosan languages, Four tones (Middle Chinese), Fricative consonant, Fujian, Fuzhou dialect, Gan Chinese, Goh Keng Swee, Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Guanzhong dialect, Hainan, ..., Hakka Chinese, Hakka people, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Historical Chinese phonology, Hokkien, Hong Kong, Huai River, Hubei, Huizhou Chinese, Hunan, Identity politics, Indonesia, ISO 639-3, Japanese people, Jerry Norman (sinologist), Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jin Chinese, John DeFrancis, Kazakhstan, Kra–Dai languages, Kuomintang, Kyrgyzstan, Language Atlas of China, Languages of China, Languages of Singapore, Latin, Lee Kuan Yew, Leizhou Peninsula, Li Fang-Kuei, Li Rong (linguist), Lingua franca, Linguistic Atlas of Chinese Dialects, Linguistic competence, Logogram, Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Macau, Mainland China, Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Malaysia, Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca), Mandarin Chinese, Mao Zedong, Medieval Latin, Meixian dialect, Middle Chinese, Min Chinese, Ming dynasty, Ministry of Education (Taiwan), Mixed language, Monophthong, Morpheme, Multilingualism, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, New Xiang, North China Plain, Northern Min, Obstruent, Official language, Official languages of the United Nations, Old Chinese, Old Xiang, Paul K. Benedict, Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Phonology, Pinghua, Pitch-accent language, Post-Soviet states, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Prime Minister of Singapore, Promotion of Putonghua, Pu-Xian Min, Qieyun, Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Republic of China (1912–1949), Rime dictionary, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Semantics, Semivowel, Shandong, Shanghai, Shanghainese, Shanxi, Shaozhou Tuhua, Shuangfeng dialect, Singapore, Sino-Tibetan languages, Sonorant, Southeast Asia, Southern Min, Spring and Autumn period, Standard Chinese, Standard language, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Sui dynasty, Suzhou dialect, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Syntax, Taishanese, Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Tang dynasty, Tangwang language, Taz people, Teochew dialect, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy, Tone (linguistics), Tone letter, Tone sandhi, United Nations, University of Hawaii Press, Varieties of Chinese, Variety (linguistics), Victor H. Mair, Vocabulary, Walter de Gruyter, Wang Li (linguist), Wave model, Waxiang Chinese, Wei River, Wenzhounese, Western Europe, Written vernacular Chinese, Wu Chinese, Xiamen, Xiang Chinese, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yellow River, Yilan County, Taiwan, Yuan Jiahua, Yue Chinese, Yunnan, Zhejiang, Zhou dynasty. Expand index (144 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The Amoy dialect or Xiamen dialect, also known as Amoynese, Amoy Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian province.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Bai language (Bai: Baip‧ngvp‧zix) is a language spoken in China, primarily in Yunnan province, by the Bai people.
The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Central Min, or Min Zhong, is a part of the Min group of varieties of Chinese.
Chang-Du or Chang-Jing dialect, sometimes called Nanchang dialect after its principal variety, is a dialect of Gan Chinese.
Changsha dialect is a dialect of New Xiang Chinese.
A checked tone, commonly known by its Chinese calque entering tone, is one of four syllable types in the phonology in Middle Chinese.
Chengdu-Chongqing dialect or Cheng–Yu (Sichuanese Pinyin: Cen2yu2) is the most widely used branch of Southwestern Mandarin, with about 90 million speakers.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), with historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republic of China era, is the premier and the most comprehensive academic research organization and national center in the People's Republic of China for study in the fields of philosophy and social sciences, with the obligation of advancing and innovating in the scientific researches of philosophy, social sciences and policies.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
Chinese Singaporeans or Singaporean Chinese are people of full or partial Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who hold Singaporean nationality.
Chongming, formerly known as Chungming, is an alluvial island at the mouth of the Yangtze River in eastern China covering as of 2010.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Cantonese and Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin, are both varieties of Chinese (Sinitic languages).
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Danzhou dialect, locally known as Xianghua, is a Chinese variety of uncertain affiliation spoken in the area of Danzhou in northwestern Hainan, China.
The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), also known as Minjindang (MJD) is a liberal political party in the Taiwan and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition as it is currently the majority ruling party, controlling both the presidency and the unicameral Legislative Yuan.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
In the field of dialectology, a diasystem or polylectal grammar is a linguistic analysis set up to encode or represent a range of related varieties in a way that displays their structural differences.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
or Wuse/Wusehua is a Tai–Chinese mixed language spoken primarily in Rongshui Miao Autonomous County, Guangxi, China.
Eastern Han Chinese or Later Han Chinese is the stage of the Chinese language revealed by poetry and glosses from the Eastern Han period (first two centuries AD).
Eastern Min, or Min Dong (Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄), is a branch of the Min group of varieties of Chinese.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The Fāngyán (“regional words”, “regional expressions”, “dictionary of local expressions”, “regional spoken words”; not “dialects” as in modern Chinese) was the first Chinese dictionary of dialectal terms.
"Formosan languages" is a cover term for the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family.
The four tones of Chinese poetry and dialectology are four traditional tone classes of Chinese words.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
The Fuzhou dialect, (FR) also Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of eastern Fujian province.
Gan is a group of Chinese varieties spoken as the native language by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in surrounding regions such as Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, and Fujian.
Goh Keng Swee,, (6 October 1918 – 14 May 2010) was the second Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore between 1973 and 1984, and a Member of Parliament (MP) for the Kreta Ayer constituency for a quarter of a century.
The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects is a compendium of dictionaries for 42 local varieties of Chinese following a common format.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guanzhong dialect, is a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in Shaanxi's Guanzhong region, including the prefecture-level city of Xi'an.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Historical Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
Huizhou or Hui, is a group of closely related varieties of Chinese spoken over a small area in and around the historical region of Huizhou (for which it is named), in about ten or so mountainous counties in southern Anhui, plus a few more in neighbouring Zhejiang and Jiangxi.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Identity politics refers to political positions based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Jerry Lee Norman (July 16, 1936July 7, 2012) was an American sinologist and linguist known for his studies of Chinese dialects and historical phonology, particularly on the Min Chinese dialects, and of the Manchu language.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
Jin is a group of Chinese dialects or languages spoken by roughly 63 million people in northern China.
John DeFrancis (August 31, 1911January 2, 2009) was an American linguist, sinologist, author of Chinese language textbooks, lexicographer of Chinese dictionaries, and Professor Emeritus of Chinese Studies at the University of Hawaiokinai at Mānoa.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
The Language Atlas of China, published in two parts in 1987 and 1989, maps the distribution of both the varieties of Chinese and minority languages of China.
The languages of China are the languages that are spoken in China.
According to the Constitution of Singapore, the single national language of Singapore is Malay, which plays a symbolic role, as Malays are constitutionally recognized as the indigenous peoples of Singapore, and it is the government's duty to protect their language and heritage.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.
The Leizhou Peninsula, formerly romanized as the Luichow Peninsula, is a peninsula in the southernmost part of Guangdong Province in southern China.
Li Fang-Kuei (20 August 190221 August 1987) was a Chinese linguist, known for his studies of the varieties of Chinese, and for his reconstructions of Old Chinese and Proto-Tai.
Li Rong (4 February 1920 – 31 December 2002) was a Chinese linguist known for his work on Chinese dialectology.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The Linguistic Atlas of Chinese Dialects, edited by Cao Zhiyun and published in 2008 in three volumes, is a dialect atlas documenting the geography of varieties of Chinese.
Linguistic competence is the system of linguistic knowledge possessed by native speakers of a language.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Lower Yangtze Mandarin is one of the most divergent and least mutually-intellegible groups of Mandarin dialects, as it neighbors the Wu, Hui, and Gan groups of varieties of Chinese.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) linguistic area is a linguistic area that stretches from Thailand to China and is home to speakers of languages of the Sino-Tibetan, Hmong–Mien (or Miao–Yao), Kra–Dai, Austronesian (represented by Chamic) and Austroasiatic families.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mandarin was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Meixian dialect (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Mòi-yen-fa; IPA), also known as Meizhou (梅州話), Moiyen, and Yue-Tai, is the prestige dialect of Hakka Chinese and the basis for the Hakka dialects in Taiwan.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Min or Miin (BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ministry of Education of the Republic of China (MOE) is the ministry responsible for incorporating educational policies and managing public schools in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and has Overseas Education Divisions all over the world.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
New Xiang, also known as Chang-Yi (长益片 / 長益片) is the dominant form of Xiang Chinese.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
Northern Min, is a group of mutually intelligible Min varieties spoken in Nanping prefecture of northwestern Fujian.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Old Xiang, also known as Lou-Shao (娄邵片 / 婁邵片) is a conservative form of Xiang Chinese.
Paul King Benedict (July 5, 1912 – July 21, 1997) was an American anthropologist, mental health professional, and linguist who specialized in languages of East and Southeast Asia.
Pe̍h-ōe-jī (abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Pinghua (Yale: Pìhng Wá; sometimes disambiguated as /广西平话) is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken mainly in parts of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with some speakers in Yunnan province.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore (Perdana Menteri Republik Singapura; 新加坡共和國總理;, pinyin: Xīnjiāpō gònghéguó zǒnglǐ; சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசின் பிரதமர், Ciṅkappūr kuṭiyaraciṉ piratamar) is the head of the government of the Republic of Singapore, and the most powerful person in Singapore.
Promotion of Putonghua is a movement led by the government of China since the Communist Party come to the power.
Puxian (Hinghwa Romanized: Pó-sing-gṳ̂/莆仙語), also known as Pu-Xian Chinese, Puxian Min, Xinghua or Hinghwa (Hing-hua̍-gṳ̂/興化語), is a branch of Min Chinese.
The Qieyun is a Chinese rime dictionary, published in 601 CE during the Sui dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
A rime dictionary, rhyme dictionary, or rime book is an ancient type of Chinese dictionary that collates characters by tone and rhyme, instead of by radical.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shaozhou Tuhua (traditional: 韶州土話; simplified: 韶州土话 Sháozhōu Tǔhuà "Shaoguan tuhua"), or simply Tuhua, is an unclassified Chinese variety spoken in the border region of the provinces Guangdong, Hunan and Guangxi.
Shuangfeng dialect is a dialect of Xiang Chinese, spoken in Shuangfeng County, Hunan province, China.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
The Suzhou dialect (Suzhounese: Sou-tsøʏ ghé-ghô 蘇州閒話), also known as Suzhounese, is the variety of Chinese traditionally spoken in the city of Suzhou in Jiangsu Province, China.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Taishanese, or in the Cantonese romanization Toishanese (Taishanese), is a dialect of Yue Chinese.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tangwang language (Tángwàng huà) is a variety of Mandarin Chinese heavily influenced by the Mongolic Santa language (Dongxiang).
The Taz (Russian: plural Тазы, transliterated Tazy) primarily live in Russia.
Teochew (Chaozhou dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variant of Southern Min spoken mainly by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy is a book written by John DeFrancis, published in 1984 by University of Hawaii Press.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tone letters are letters that represent the tones of a language, most commonly in languages with contour tones.
Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Victor Henry Mair (born March 25, 1943) is an American Sinologist and professor of Chinese at the University of Pennsylvania.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Wang Li (IPA: /wɑŋ' li:/; 10 August 1900 – 3 May 1986) was a Chinese linguist, educator, translator and poet, described as "the founder of Chinese Linguistics".
In historical linguistics, the wave model or wave theory (German Wellentheorie) is a model of language change in which a new language feature (innovation) or a new combination of language features spreads from a central region of origin in continuously weakening concentric circles, similar to the waves created when a stone is thrown into a body of water.
Waxiang (ɕioŋ55 tsa33) is a divergent variety of Chinese, spoken by the Waxiang people, an unrecognized ethnic minority group in the northwestern part of Hunan province, China.
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.
Wenzhounese, also known as Oujiang, Tong Au or Auish, is the language spoken in Wenzhou, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang, China.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.
Xiang or Hsiang, also known as Hunanese, is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese, spoken mainly in Hunan province but also in northern Guangxi and parts of neighboring Guizhou and Hubei provinces.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yangzhou, formerly romanized as Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, China.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Yilan County is a county in northeastern Taiwan.
Yuan Jiahua (January 19034 September 1980) was a Chinese linguist and dialectologist from Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu province.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
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