201 relations: A. Sreedhara Menon, Abraham Zacuto, Abyssinian–Adal war, Afonso de Albuquerque, Afonso de Paiva, Afonso V of Portugal, Aframomum melegueta, Age of Discovery, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Ahmad ibn Mājid, Ajuran Sultanate, Alentejo, Algarve, Alvor (Portimão), Angra do Heroísmo, Anjediva Island, Arabian Peninsula, Arabs, Asia, Atlantic Ocean, Augusto Carlos Teixeira de Aragão, Azores, Évora, Bartolomeu Dias, Belém (Lisbon), Black pepper, Cambridge University Press, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Route, Cape Verde, Caravel, Carlos Viegas Gago Coutinho, Carrack, Catholic Church, Christopher Columbus, Chronology of European exploration of Asia, Cinnamon, Colonial empire, Colonial Man, Count, Count of Abrantes, Count of Vidigueira, Counts and dukes of Linhares, CR Vasco da Gama, Cristóvão da Gama, Crown of Castile, Denmark, Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, Diogo, Duke of Viseu, Draft (hull), ..., Duarte de Menezes, Eastern Cape, Eastern world, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, Egypt, England, Equator, Esmeralda (carrack), Estêvão da Gama (15th century), Estêvão da Gama (16th century), Estêvão da Gama (c. 1470), Eugène Scribe, Europe, Factory (trading post), Ferdinand Magellan, Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, Fernão Gomes, Fort Kochi, France, Francisco de Almeida, Gaspar Correia, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Girolamo Sernigi, Grand opera, Great Fish River, Gujarati people, Gulf of Guinea, Hakluyt Society, Hindu, History of Portugal (1415–1578), Horn of Africa, House of Aviz, Hugh Masekela, Imperialism, India, Indian Ocean, Indian Ocean trade, Jaime, Duke of Braganza, Jerónimos Monastery, João de Sá, John II of Portugal, John III of Portugal, Jorge de Lencastre, Duke of Coimbra, Kannur, Kappad, Kenya, Kerala, Kilwa Kisiwani, Kingdom of Fez, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Portugal, Kochi, Kozhikode, KwaZulu-Natal, L'Africaine, Levant, Lisbon, Lisbon Oceanarium, List of governors of Portuguese India, Lopo Soares de Albergaria, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, Lord, Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray, Luís de Camões, M. G. S. Narayanan, Madayi, Malabar Coast, Malacca, Malaria, Malindi, Maluku Islands, Manuel I of Portugal, Mecca, Mediterranean Sea, Military Order of Saint James of the Sword, Mogadishu, Mombasa, Monsoon, Moon, Mossel Bay, Mozambique, Muslim, Nair, Nambudiri, National epic, Netherlands, Nicolau Coelho, Nobility, NRP Vasco da Gama (F330), Oman, Order of Christ (Portugal), Os Grandes Portugueses, Os Lusíadas, Parque das Nações, Paulo da Gama, Pêro da Covilhã, Pêro Escobar, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Piracy, Plácido Domingo, Ponnani, Portugal, Portuguese discoveries, Portuguese discovery of the sea route to India, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese India, Portuguese India Armadas, Portuguese Navy, Portuguese nobility, Portuguese real, Prince Henry the Navigator, Qaid, Red Sea, Republic of Venice, Saint Helena, San Francisco Opera, Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai, Santiago, Cape Verde, São Gabriel (ship), Scurvy, Senhor, Setúbal, Sierra Leone, Sines, Sintra, Slavery, Sofala, Somalis, Spice trade, St. Francis Church, Kochi, Tenerife, Tenor, Thomé Lopes, University of Calgary, Urumi (film), Vasco da Gama (crater), Vasco da Gama Bridge, Vasco da Gama Tower, Vasco da Gama, Goa, Vasco da Gama-class frigate, Vasco S.C., Vicente Sodré, Viceroy, Vidigueira, W. W. Norton & Company, Westerlies, Western world, World Digital Library, Zamorin of Calicut, 2nd Portuguese India Armada (Cabral, 1500), 4th Portuguese India Armada (Gama, 1502). Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
Alappat Sreedhara Menon (18 December 1925 – 23 July 2010) was a historian from Kerala, India.
Abraham Zacuto (אברהם זכות, Abraão ben Samuel Zacuto, also Abraham ben Samuel Zacut and Abraham Zacut) (Salamanca, August 12, 1452 – Damascus, probably 1515) was a Portuguese astronomer, astrologer, mathematician, rabbi and historian who served as Royal Astronomer in the 15th century to King John II of Portugal.
The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
Afonso de Paiva (c. 1443 – c. 1490) was a Portuguese diplomat and explorer of Ethiopia and the Barbary Coast together with Pêro da Covilhã.
Afonso V KG (15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481), called the African, was King of Portugal and of the Algarves.
Aframomum melegueta is a species in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
Ahmad ibn Mājid (أحمد بن ماجد), was an Arabian navigator and cartographer born in 1421 in Julfar.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
The Alentejo is a geographical, historical and cultural region of south-central and southern Portugal.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
Alvor is a civil parish (freguesia) in the municipality of Portimão, in the southern Algarve of Portugal.
Angra do Heroísmo, generally known as Angra, is a municipality and city on the island of Terceira in the Portuguese autonomous region of the Azores.
Anjediva Island (also Anjadip Island) is an island in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Canacona in the South Goa district, Goa, India.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Augusto Carlos Teixeira de Aragão • • • (Lisbon, June 15, 1823 - Lisbon, April 29, 1903) was a Portuguese Army officer, doctor, numismatist, archaeologist and historian.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
Évora (Ebora) is a city and a municipality in Portugal.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
Belém, whose name is derived from the Portuguese word for Bethlehem, is the southwesternmost civil parish (freguesia) of the municipality of Lisbon.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The European-Asian sea route, also known as the sea route to India or the Cape Route is a shipping route from European coast of the Atlantic Ocean to Asia's coast of the Indian Ocean passing by the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Agulhas at the southern edge of Africa.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
Carlos Viegas Gago Coutinho, GCTE, GCC, generally known simply as Gago Coutinho (17 February 1869 – 18 February 1959) was a Portuguese naval officer and aviation pioneer who, together with Sacadura Cabral, was the first to cross the South Atlantic Ocean by air, from March to June 1922 (some sources wrongly claim 1919), from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro.
A carrack was a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
This is a chronology of the early European exploration of Asia.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.
Colonial Man is the eighteenth studio album by South African trumpeter Hugh Masekela.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
Count of Abrantes (in Portuguese Conde de Abrantes) was a Portuguese title of nobility created by a royal decree, dated from June 13, 1476, by King Afonso V of Portugal, and granted to his 4th cousin, Lopo de Almeida.
Count of Vidigueira (in Portuguese Conde da Vidigueira) was a Portuguese comital title of nobility awarded by King Manuel I of Portugal to Dom Vasco da Gama, who discovered the maritime route from Europe to India.
Count of Linhares (in Portuguese Conde de Linhares) was a Portuguese title of nobility created by a royal decree of king John III of Portugal dated from May 13th, 1532, and granted to Dom António de Noronha, 2nd son of Pedro de Menezes, 1st Marquis of Vila Real.
Club de Regatas Vasco da Gama is a Brazilian football club that was founded on August 21, 1898 (although the professional football department started on November 5, 1915), by Portuguese immigrants, and it is still traditionally supported by the Portuguese community of Rio de Janeiro.
Cristóvão da Gama (c. 1516 – 29 August 1542), anglicised as Christopher da Gama, was a Portuguese military commander who led a Portuguese army of 400 musketeers on a crusade in Ethiopia and Somalia (1541–1543) against the far larger Adal Muslim army of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (also known as Ahmad Gragn) aided by the Ottoman Empire.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
D.Diogo Lopes de Sequeira (1465–1530) was a Portuguese fidalgo, sent to analyze the trade potential in Madagascar and Malacca, he arrived at Malacca on 11 September 1509.
Infante Diogo of Viseu (1450–1484) was the second son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, and his wife Beatriz of Portugal.
The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel), with the thickness of the hull included; in the case of not being included the draft outline would be obtained.
Dom Duarte de Menezes (before 1488 - after 1539), was a 16th-century Portuguese nobleman and colonial officer, governor of Tangier from 1508 to 1521 and 1536 to 1539 and governor of Portuguese India from 1522 to 1524.
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.
The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Esmeralda was a Portuguese carrack that sank in May 1503 off the coast of Oman as part of Vasco da Gama's 1502 Armada to India while commanded by da Gama's maternal uncle Vicente Sodré.
Estêvão da Gama (about 1430–July 1497) was a wealthy Portuguese knight of the fifteenth century, best known as the father of explorer Vasco da Gama.
Estêvão da Gama (ca. 1505–1576) was the Portuguese governor of Portuguese Gold Coast (1529–15??) and Portuguese India (1540–1542).
Estêvão da Gama (c. 1470) was a Portuguese navigator and explorer, discoverer of the Trindade and Martim Vaz islands (in modern Brazil).
Augustin Eugène Scribe (24 December 179120 February 1861) was a French dramatist and librettist.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu and Beja (or Fernando,, 1433 – 1470) was the third son of Edward, King of Portugal and his wife Eleanor of Aragon.
Fernão Gomes (15th century) was a Portuguese merchant and explorer from Lisbon, the son of Tristão Gomes de Brito (?).
Fort Kochi is a region in the city of Kochi in the state of Kerala, India.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (c. 1450–1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer.
Gaspar Correia or Gaspar Correa or Gaspar Corrêa (1492The birth date of Gaspae de Correia is uncertain, António Banha de Andrade dates his birth in 1492 or 1496 – c. 1563 in Goa) was a Portuguese historian, author of Lendas da Índia (Legends of India), one of the earliest and most important works about Portuguese rule in Asia, being referred to as a Portuguese Polybius.
Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.
Girolamo Sernigi (1453- after 1510) was an Italian merchant, originally from Florence, based in Lisbon, Portugal.
Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events.
The Great Fish River (called great to distinguish it from the Namibian Fish River) (Groot-Visrivier) is a river running through the South African province of the Eastern Cape.
Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાતી) are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language.
The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia.
The Hakluyt Society is a text publication society, founded in 1846 and based in London, England, which publishes scholarly editions of primary records of historic voyages, travels and other geographical material.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The House of Aviz (modern Portuguese: Avis) known as the Joanine Dynasty was the second dynasty of the kings of Portugal.
Hugh Ramapolo Masekela (4 April 1939 – 23 January 2018) was a South African trumpeter, flugelhornist, cornetist, composer and singer.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history.
Jaime of Braganza (1479 – 20 September 1532) was the 4th Duke of Braganza and the 2nd Duke of Guimarães, among other titles.
The Jerónimos Monastery or Hieronymites Monastery (Mosteiro dos Jerónimos), is a former monastery of the Order of Saint Jerome near the Tagus river in the parish of Belém, in the Lisbon Municipality, Portugal; it was secularised on 28 December 1833 by state decree and its ownership transferred to the charitable institution, Real Casa Pia de Lisboa.
João de Sá, knight (fl. 1497 – 1514) was a Portuguese explorer, who accompanied Vasco da Gama on the voyage of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.
John II (Portuguese: João II,; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495.
John III (João III; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) nicknamed "o Colonizador" (English: "The Colonizer") was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557.
Jorge de Lencastre (English: George; 21 August 1481 – 22 July 1550) was a Portuguese prince, illegitimate son of King John II of Portugal and Ana de Mendonça, a maid of Joanna la Beltraneja.
Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India.
Kappad, or Kappakadavu locally, is a beach near Kozhikode, in the district of the same name, Kerala, India.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Kilwa Kisiwani is a community on an Indian Ocean island off the southern coast of present-day Tanzania in eastern Africa.
The Kingdom of Fez was the name given to the northern part of Morocco, from the founding of the country by the Idrisid dynasty in the 8th century until the establishment of the French and the Spanish protectorate.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
L'Africaine (The African Woman) is a grand opera in five acts, the last work of the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The Lisbon Oceanarium (Oceanário de Lisboa) is an oceanarium in Lisbon, Portugal.
The government of Portuguese India started in 1505, six years after the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, then settled at Kochi.
Lopo Soares de Albergaria (c. 1460 in Lisbon – c. 1520 in Torres Vedras) was the third Governor of Portuguese India, having reached India in 1515 to supersede governor Afonso de Albuquerque.
Lopo Vaz de Sampaio was the 6th Governor of Portuguese India from 1526 to 1529.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray (2 February 1840 – 4 July 1910) was a French Breton composer, pianist, and professor of music history/theory at the Conservatoire de Paris as well as a Prix de Rome laureate.
Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns (e.g. by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers),; c. 1524 or 1525 – 10 June 1580), is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet.
Madayi (a.k.a. Madai).
The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malindi (known as Melinde in antiquity) is a town on Malindi Bay at the mouth of the Galana River, lying on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Dom Manuel I (31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Military Order of Saint James of the Sword (Ordem Militar de Sant'Iago da Espada) is a Portuguese order of chivalry.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Mombasa is a city on the coast of Kenya.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mossel Bay is a harbour town of about 130,000 people on the Southern Cape (or Garden Route) of South Africa.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nair, also known as Nayar, are a group of Indian castes, described by anthropologist Kathleen Gough as "not a unitary group but a named category of castes".
The Nambudiri, also transliterated Nambūdiri, Namboodiri, Namboothiri, and Nampūtiri, are a Malayali Brahmin caste, native to Kerala.
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nicolau Coelho (c.1460, in Felgueiras – 1502, off the coast of Mozambique) was an expert Portuguese navigator and explorer during the age of discovery.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
NRP Vasco da Gama is Portuguese frigate of the operated by the Portuguese Navy.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
The Military Order of Christ (Ordem Militar de Cristo), previously the Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ (Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo), was the former Knights Templar order as it was reconstituted in Portugal after the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312 by the papal bull, Vox in excelso, issued by Pope Clement V. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319, with the protection of the Portuguese king, Denis I, who refused to pursue and persecute the former knights as had occurred in all the other sovereign states under the political influence of the Catholic Church.
Os Grandes Portugueses (The Greatest Portuguese) was a public poll contest organized by the Portuguese public broadcasting station RTP and hosted by Maria Elisa.
Os Lusíadas, usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões (– 1580) and first published in 1572.
Parque das Nações (Park of the Nations) is a Portuguese civil parish (freguesia) of the city of Lisbon. It was created in 2012 from parts of the parishes Santa Maria dos Olivais (Lisbon), Sacavém and Moscavide (both part of Loures municipality). The population in 2011 was 21,025,, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal in an area of 5.44 km².As of 2018, an estimated 31,000 people live in the area, with 30,000 of them employed. Taking advantage of its geographical position, Parque das Nações also has a brand new marina, Marina Parque das Nações featuring 600 berths and modern infrastructures, a river pier for cruises or historical vessels and an exclusive pontoon prepared to receive nautical and on land events, and a spot for bird watching as it is sited in the Tagus Estuary, one of the largest and diverse estuaries of Europe. At the time of the census carried out in 2011, an estimated 21,000 people currently live in the Parque das Nações, which was shared between the Lisbon and Loures municipalities until November 2012. Following a request by local citizens for the municipality of Lisbon to annex the one belonging to Loures, thereby integrating the entire area within the Lisbon municipality, the area is now inside Lisbon and it is the city's most northeastern parish.
Paulo da Gama (ca. 1465 in Olivença, Kingdom of Portugal – June or July 1499 at Angra do Heroísmo, Kingdom of Portugal) was a Portuguese explorer, son of Estêvão da Gama and Isabel Sodré, and the older brother of Vasco da Gama.
Pedro, or Pêro da Covilhã or (c. 1460 – after 1526), sometimes written: Pero de Covilhăo, was a Portuguese diplomat and explorer.
Pedro Escobar, also known as Pêro Escobar, was a 15th-century Portuguese navigator who discovered São Tomé (December 21, 1471), Annobon (January 1, 1472), Príncipe (January 17, 1472) islands, together with João de Santarém c. 1470.
Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
José Plácido Domingo Embil, (born 21 January 1941), known as Plácido Domingo, is a Spanish tenor, conductor and arts administrator.
Ponnani is a Municipality in Ponnani Taluk, Malappuram District, in the state of Kerala.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese: Descobrimentos portugueses) are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The discovery of the sea route to India is the description sometimes used in Europe and among the Portuguese for the first recorded trip made directly from Europe to India via the Atlantic Ocean.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
The Portuguese India Armadas (Armadas da Índia) were the fleets of ships, organized by the crown of the Kingdom of Portugal and dispatched on an annual basis from Portugal to India, principally Goa.
The Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa, also known as Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa or as Armada Portuguesa) is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defense of Portugal.
The Portuguese nobility was the class of legally privileged and titled persons (nobility) recognized by the Kingdom of Portugal.
The real (meaning "royal", plural: réis or reais) was the unit of currency of Portugal from around 1430 until 1911.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
Qaid (قائد, "commander"; pl.), also spelled kaid or caïd, is a word meaning "commander" or "leader." It was a title in the Norman kingdom of Sicily, applied to palatine officials and members of the curia, usually to those who were Muslims or converts from Islam.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
San Francisco Opera (SFO) is an American opera company, based in San Francisco, California.
Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai was a higher-castled Portuguese carrack with 140 cannons, launched down in 1520 (800t, length 38 m, width 13 m, draft 4-4,5 м).
Santiago (Portuguese for “Saint James”), or Santiagu in Cape Verdean Creole, is the largest island of Cape Verde, its most important agricultural centre and home to half the nation’s population.
The São Gabriel was the flagship of Vasco da Gama's armada on his first voyage to India in 1497-1499.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Senhor (abb. Sr.; plural: senhores, abb. Sr.es or Srs.), from the Latin Senior (comparative of Senex, "old man"), is the Portuguese word for lord, sir or mister.
Setúbal (or; Caetobrix) is a city and a municipality in Portugal.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Sines is a Portuguese city of Setúbal District, the Alentejo region and subregion of the Alentejo coast, with about 18,298 inhabitants (2015 INE).
Sintra is a municipality in the Grande Lisboa subregion (Lisbon Region) of Portugal, considered part of the Portuguese Riviera.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Sofala, at present known as Nova Sofala, used to be the chief seaport of the Mwenemutapa Kingdom, whose capital was at Mount Fura.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.
Tenor is a type of classical male singing voice, whose vocal range is normally the highest male voice type, which lies between the baritone and countertenor voice types.
Thomé Lopes (sometimes modernized as Tomé Lopes) was a Portuguese scrivener, writer of an eyewitness account of the second journey of Vasco da Gama to India (1502–1503).
The University of Calgary (U of C or UCalgary) is a public research university located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Urumi (ഉറുമി) is a 2011 epic Indian historical drama film directed, filmed and co-produced by Santosh Sivan and written by Shankar Ramakrishnan.
Vasco da Gama is a lunar impact crater that is located near the western limb of the Moon.
The Vasco da Gama Bridge (Ponte Vasco da Gama) is a cable-stayed bridge flanked by viaducts and rangeviews that spans the Tagus River in Parque das Nações in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.
The Vasco da Gama Tower (Torre Vasco da Gama) is a lattice tower with skyscraper in the civil parish of Parque das Nações, the municipality of Lisbon, in Portugal.
Vasco da Gama, often shortened to Vasco, is the largest city in the state of Goa on the west coast of India.
The Vasco da Gama class is a class of frigates of the Portuguese Navy.
NRB sponsored Vasco Sports Club is a football club from Goa, India.
Vicente Sodré (c. 1465 – 30 April 1503) was a 16th-century Portuguese knight of Order of Christ and the captain of the first Portuguese naval patrol in the Indian Ocean.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Vidigueira is a town and a municipality in the District of Beja in Portugal.
The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
Zamorin of Calicut (Samoothiri; Portuguese: Samorim, Dutch: Samorijn, Chinese: ShamitihsiMa Huan's Ying-yai Sheng-lan: 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores'. Translated and Edited by J. V. G. Mills. Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society (1970).) is the title of the Hindu monarch of the Kingdom of Calicut (Kozhikode) on Malabar Coast, India.
The Second Portuguese India Armada was assembled in 1500 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral.
The 4th Portuguese India Armada was assembled in 1502 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of D. Vasco da Gama.
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