108 relations: Action potential, Addison's disease, Adenosine triphosphate, Adrenaline, Adrenergic agonist, Adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-Methyltryptamine, Amphetamine, Angiotensin, Antihistamine, Antihypotensive agent, Arteriole, Artery, Asymmetric dimethylarginine, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, Autonomic nervous system, Bleeding, Blood pressure, Caffeine, Calcium, Calcium channel, Calmodulin, Coagulation, Cocaine, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Decongestant, Depolarization, Diglyceride, Dopamine, Drug, Drugs.com, Endothelin, Endothelin receptor, Endothelium, Erectile dysfunction, Ergine, Gi alpha subunit, Gq alpha subunit, Hemostasis, Hormone, Hypertension, Hypotension, Hypoxia (medical), Inositol trisphosphate, Inositol trisphosphate receptor, Inotrope, Insulin, Intermittent claudication, Ion, ..., Lipopolysaccharide, Local anesthetic, Male, Mean arterial pressure, Mechanosensitive channels, Mephedrone, Methylphenidate, Micrograph, Microvessel, Myogenic mechanism, Myosin, Myosin light chain, Myosin light-chain kinase, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptide Y receptor, Nitric oxide, Norepinephrine, Orthostatic hypotension, Oxymetazoline, P2X purinoreceptor, Pericyte, Phenylephrine, Pheochromocytoma, Phospholipase C, Phosphorylation, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, Propylhexedrine, Protein kinase A, Pseudoephedrine, Pupillary response, Red blood cell, Route of administration, Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, Shear stress, Shock (circulatory), Signal transduction, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium channel, Sodium-calcium exchanger, Stimulant, Sympathetic nervous system, Tetryzoline, Thrombin, Thromboxane, Thromboxane receptor, Topical decongestant, Transmission electron microscopy, Vascular resistance, Vascular smooth muscle, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Vasopressin receptor, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Warm-blooded, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, 25I-NBOMe. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
α-Methyltryptamine (abbreviated as αMT, AMT) is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
An antihypotensive agent, also known as a vasopressor agent or pressor, is any medication that tends to raise reduced blood pressure.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring chemical found in blood plasma.
An ATP-sensitive potassium channel (or KATP channel) is a type of potassium channel that is gated by intracellular nucleotides, ATP and ADP.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for calcium-modulated protein) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drugs.com is an online pharmaceutical encyclopedia which provides drug information for consumers and healthcare professionals, primarily in the USA.
Endothelins are peptides with receptors and effects in many body organs.
There are at least four known endothelin receptors, ETA, ETB1, ETB2 and ETC, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors whose activation result in elevation of intracellular-free calcium, which constricts the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, raising blood pressure, or relaxes the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, among other functions.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide (LSA) and d-lysergamide, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
Hemostasis or haemostasis is a process which causes bleeding to stop, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel (the opposite of hemostasis is hemorrhage).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3).
An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intermittent claudication (Latin: claudicatio intermittens), also known as vascular claudication, is a symptom that describes muscle pain on mild exertion (ache, cramp, numbness or sense of fatigue), classically in the calf muscle, which occurs during exercise, such as walking, and is relieved by a short period of rest.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.
Mechanosensitive channels, mechanosensitive ion channels or stretch-gated ion channels.
Mephedrone, also known as 4-methyl methcathinone (4-MMC) or 4-methyl ephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Microvessel or microvasculature refers to the smallest systems of blood vessels in a body, including those responsible for microcirculation, the system of smaller blood vessels that distribute blood within tissues.
The myogenic mechanism is how arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
A myosin light chain is a light chain (small polypeptide subunit) of myosin.
Myosin light-chain kinase also known as MYLK or MLCK is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates a specific myosin light chain, namely, the regulatory light chain of myosin II.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Neuropeptide Y receptors are a family of receptors belonging to class A G-protein coupled receptors and they are activated by the closely related peptide hormones neuropeptide Y, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Oxymetazoline is a selective α1 adrenergic receptor agonist and α2 adrenergic receptor partial agonist.
The ATP-gated P2X receptor cation channel family, or simply P2X receptor family, consists of cation-permeable ligand-gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP).
Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells that line the capillaries and venules throughout the body.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a condition in which a change from lying to standing causes an abnormally large increase in heart rate.
Propylhexedrine, sold under the brand names Benzedrex and Obesin among others, is a nasal decongestant, appetite suppressant, and psychostimulant medication.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
The sarcolemma (sarco (from sarx) from Greek; flesh, and lemma from Greek; sheath) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, or exchange protein) is an antiporter membrane protein that removes calcium from cells.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tetryzoline (INN; also known as tetrahydrozoline), a derivative of imidazoline, is found in over-the-counter eye drops and nasal sprays.
Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.
Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids.
The thromboxane receptor (TP) also known as the prostanoid TP receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBXA2R gene, The thromboxane receptor is one among the five classes of prostanoid receptors and was the first eicosanoid receptor cloned.
Topical decongestants are decongestants applied directly to the nasal cavity.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
The actions of vasopressin are mediated by stimulation of tissue-specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) called vasopressin receptors that are classified into the V1 (V1A), V2, and V3 (V1B) receptor subtypes.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM; known on the street as STP, standing for "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a psychedelic and a substituted amphetamine.
25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5, also shortened to "25I") is a psychedelic hallucinogen that is used in biochemistry research for mapping the brains usage of the type 2A serotonin receptor and later also has been used for recreational purpose.
Constriction of blood vessels, Peripheral vasoconstriction, Vascular constriction, Vasoconstrict, Vasoconstricting, Vasoconstrictive, Vasoconstrictor, Vasoconstrictor agents, Vasoconstrictors, Vasocontrictor, Vasopression, Venoconstriction.