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Index Vasodilation

Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels. [1]

159 relations: Adenosine, Adenosine A1 receptor, Adenosine A2A receptor, Adenosine A2B receptor, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine receptor, Adenosine triphosphate, Adenylyl cyclase, Adrenal gland, Adrenaline, Adrenergic, Alpha blocker, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Amyl nitrite, Angina, Antiporter, Apigenin, Arginine, Arteriolar vasodilator, Arteriole, Artery, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Autonomic nervous system, Basophil, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Bradykinin, Bradykinin receptor, Calcium, Calcium channel blocker, Calcium-activated potassium channel, Capillary, Capsaicin, Carbon dioxide, Cardiac output, Catecholamine, CGMP-dependent protein kinase, Circulatory anastomosis, Circulatory system, Complement system, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Dephosphorylation, Diastole, Dioxygen in biological reactions, Drug, Endogeny (biology), Endothelin, ..., Endothelium, Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, Environmental noise, Erectile dysfunction, Estrogen, Ethanol, Exogeny, Extracellular fluid, Flushing (physiology), Gi alpha subunit, Glucose, Gq alpha subunit, Gs alpha subunit, Guanylate cyclase, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heart rate, Hematocrit, Hemodynamics, Heparin, Histamine, Histamine H2 receptor, Homeostasis, Hormone, Hot aches, Hunting reaction, Hyperpolarization (biology), Hypertension, Hypoxia (medical), Imidazoline receptor, Isosorbide dinitrate, Isosorbide mononitrate, Lactic acid, Lipid, Mast cell, Mean arterial pressure, Metabolism, Minoxidil, Myosin, Myosin light-chain kinase, Myosin-light-chain phosphatase, Na+/K+-ATPase, Natriuretic peptide, Nervous system, Neurotransmitter, Niacin, Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide synthase, Nitroglycerin, Nitroglycerin (drug), Nitrophorin, Nitrovasodilator, Norepinephrine, Organ (anatomy), Over illumination, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxygen, P2Y receptor, Papaver somniferum, Papaverine, Paracrine signalling, PDE5 inhibitor, Pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PH, Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Phospholipase C, Phosphorylation, Platelet-activating factor, Potassium, Potassium channel opener, Precapillary sphincter, Prostacyclin, Prostacyclin receptor, Prostaglandin D2, Prostaglandin D2 receptor, Prostaglandin E2, Prostaglandin E2 receptor, Protein kinase A, Pulmonary hypertension, Reflex syncope, Resting potential, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, SERCA, Sildenafil, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium, Sodium nitroprusside, Sodium-calcium exchanger, Stroke volume, Substance P, Sympathetic nervous system, Symporter, Systole, Tadalafil, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Theobromine, Tissue (biology), Tunica media, Vardenafil, Vascular resistance, Vascular smooth muscle, Vasoactive intestinal peptide, Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor, Vasoactivity, Vasoconstriction, Vein, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Voltage-gated potassium channel, Warm-blooded. Expand index (109 more) »


Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.

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Adenosine A1 receptor

The adenosine A1 receptor is one member of the adenosine receptor group of G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.

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Adenosine A2A receptor

The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Adenosine A2B receptor

The adenosine A2B receptor, also known as ADORA2B, is a G-protein coupled adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human adenosine A2b receptor gene which encodes it.

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Adenosine diphosphate

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.

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Adenosine receptor

The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adenylyl cyclase

Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Adrenergic means "working on adrenaline (epinephrine) or noradrenaline (norepinephrine)".

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Alpha blocker

Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).

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Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.

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Amyl nitrite

Amyl nitrite is a chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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An antiporter (also called exchanger or counter-transporter) is a cotransporter and integral membrane protein involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions.

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Apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), found in many plants, is a natural product belonging to the flavone class that is the aglycone of several naturally occurring glycosides.

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Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Arteriolar vasodilator

Arteriolar vasodilators are substances that preferentially dilate arterioles.

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An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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ATP-sensitive potassium channel

An ATP-sensitive potassium channel (or KATP channel) is a type of potassium channel that is gated by intracellular nucleotides, ATP and ADP.

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Atrial natriuretic peptide

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.

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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

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Basophils are a type of white blood cells.

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Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator.

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Bradykinin receptor

The bradykinin receptor family is a group of G-protein coupled receptors whose principal ligand is the protein bradykinin.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

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Calcium-activated potassium channel

Calcium-activated potassium channels are potassium channels gated by calcium, or that are structurally or phylogenetically related to calcium gated channels.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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CGMP-dependent protein kinase

cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP.

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Circulatory anastomosis

A circulatory anastomosis is a connection (an anastomosis) between two blood vessels, such as between arteries (arterio-arterial anastomosis), between veins (veno-venous anastomosis) or between an artery and a vein (arterio-venous anastomosis).

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Complement system

The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).

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Dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO43−) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis.

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Diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction).

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Dioxygen in biological reactions

Dioxygen plays an important role in the energy metabolism of living organisms.

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A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Endogeny (biology)

Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.

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Endothelins are peptides with receptors and effects in many body organs.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor

In blood vessels Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor or EDHF is proposed to be a substance and/or electrical signal that is generated or synthesized in and released from the endothelium; its action is to hyperpolarize vascular smooth muscle cells, causing these cells to relax, thus allowing the blood vessel to expand in diameter.

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Environmental noise

Environmental noise is the summary of noise pollution from outside, caused by transport, industrial and recreational activities.

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Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.

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Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.

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Flushing (physiology)

For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.

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Gi alpha subunit

Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Gq alpha subunit

Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).

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Gs alpha subunit

The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.

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Guanylate cyclase

Guanylate cyclase (also known as guanyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase, or GC) is a lyase enzyme.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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The hematocrit (Ht or HCT), also known by several other names, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells in blood.

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Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.

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Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.

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Histamine H2 receptor

H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hot aches

The hot aches (also known among North American ice climbers as the screaming barfies) is a very painful physical reaction to the cold, most often felt in the hands or feet.

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Hunting reaction

The hunting reaction or hunting response is a process of alternating vasoconstriction and vasodilation in extremities exposed to cold.

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Hyperpolarization (biology)

Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Imidazoline receptor

Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act.

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Isosorbide dinitrate

Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) is a medication used for heart failure, esophageal spasms, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart.

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Isosorbide mononitrate

Isosorbide mononitrate is a drug used principally in the treatment of angina pectoris and acts by dilating the blood vessels so as to reduce the blood pressure.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Mast cell

A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.

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Mean arterial pressure

In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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No description.

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Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

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Myosin light-chain kinase

Myosin light-chain kinase also known as MYLK or MLCK is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates a specific myosin light chain, namely, the regulatory light chain of myosin II.

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Myosin-light-chain phosphatase

Myosin light-chain phosphatase, more commonly called myosin phosphatase, is an enzyme (specifically a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase) that dephosphorylates the regulatory light chain of myosin II.

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-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.

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Natriuretic peptide

Natriuretic peptide refers to a peptide which induces natriuresis, the excretion of sodium by the kidneys.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nitric oxide synthase

Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.

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Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.

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Nitroglycerin (drug)

Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to cocaine.

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Nitrophorins are hemoproteins found in the saliva of blood-feeding insects.

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A nitrovasodilator is a pharmaceutical agent that causes vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) by donation of nitric oxide (NO), and is mostly used for the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Over illumination

Over illumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than that which is appropriate for a specific activity.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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P2Y receptor

P2Y receptors are a family of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors, stimulated by nucleotides such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP and UDP-glucose.

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Papaver somniferum

Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.

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Papaverine (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm and vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

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Paracrine signalling

Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.

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PDE5 inhibitor

A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5 inhibitor) is a drug used to block the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis.

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Pentaerythritol tetranitrate

Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), also known as PENT, PENTA, TEN, corpent, or penthrite (or—rarely and primarily in German—as nitropenta), is an explosive material.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phosphodiesterase inhibitor

A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).

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Phospholipase C

Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).

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In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Platelet-activating factor

Platelet-activating factor, also known as PAF, PAF-acether or AGEPC (acetyl-glyceryl-ether-phosphorylcholine), is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leukocyte functions, platelet aggregation and degranulation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium channel opener

A potassium channel opener is a type of drug which facilitates ion transmission through potassium channels.

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Precapillary sphincter

A precapillary sphincter is a band of smooth muscle that adjusts blood flow into capillaries mainly in the mesenteric microcirculation.

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Prostacyclin (also called prostaglandin I2 or PGI2) is a prostaglandin member of the eicosanoid family of lipid molecules.

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Prostacyclin receptor

The Prostacyclin receptor, also termed the prostaglandin I2 receptor or just IP, is a receptor belonging to the prostaglandin (PG) group of receptors.

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Prostaglandin D2

Prostaglandin D2 (or PGD2) is a prostaglandin that binds to the receptor PTGDR (DP1), as well as CRTH2 (DP2).

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Prostaglandin D2 receptor

The prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by prostaglandin D2.

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Prostaglandin E2

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), also known as dinoprostone, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin which is used as a medication.

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Prostaglandin E2 receptor

The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by prostaglandin E2.

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Protein kinase A

In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).

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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.

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Reflex syncope

Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure.

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Resting potential

The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the resting membrane potential (or resting voltage), as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.

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SERCA, or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, or SR Ca2+-ATPase, is a calcium ATPase-type P-ATPase.

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Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium nitroprusside

Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sold under the brand name Nitropress among others, is a medication used to lower blood pressure.

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Sodium-calcium exchanger

The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, or exchange protein) is an antiporter membrane protein that removes calcium from cells.

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Stroke volume

In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.

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Substance P

Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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A symporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the cell membrane.

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The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.

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Tadalafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) under the name Cialis, and under the name Adcirca for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.

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Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Tunica media

The tunica media (New Latin "middle coat"), or media for short, is the middle tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.

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Vardenafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor used for treating erectile dysfunction that is sold under the trade names Levitra (Bayer AG, GSK, and SP), Staxyn in India, and Vivanza in Italy.

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Vascular resistance

Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.

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Vascular smooth muscle

Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.

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Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine.

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Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor

There are two known receptors for the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) termed VPAC1 and VPAC2.

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A vasoactive substance is an endogenous agent or pharmaceutical drug that has the effect of either increasing or decreasing blood pressure and/or heart rate through its vasoactivity, that is, vascular activity (effect on blood vessels).

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Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Voltage-gated calcium channel

Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.

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Voltage-gated potassium channel

Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are transmembrane channels specific for potassium and sensitive to voltage changes in the cell's membrane potential.

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Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasodilation

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