71 relations: Afsharid dynasty, Akdamar Island, Andzevatsik, Antiquity, Antzevatsi, Arabs, Aram Manukian, Armenian Genocide, Armenians, Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Artaxias I, Artsruni dynasty, Ashot II of Armenia, Avarayr Plain, Ayyubid dynasty, Çavuştepe, Bagratid Armenia, Bagratuni dynasty, Byzantine Empire, Cathedral of the Holy Cross, Aghtamar, Chapel of Dzordzor, Church of the Holy Cross at Soradir, Defense of Van (1915), Gagik I of Vaspurakan, Gürpınar (District), Van, Gregory of Narek, Gukan, Iran, Kara Koyunlu, Karmravank (Vaspurakan), Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Vaspurakan, Lake Urmia, Lake Van, List of Abbasid caliphs, Mardistan, Metz Aghbak, Middle Ages, Mkrtich Khrimian, Monastery of Surp Gevork of Goms, Mongols, Mount Erek, Nader Shah, Nakharar, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Narekavank, Ordubad District, Ottoman Turks, Peace of Acilisene, Rshtuni, ..., Rshtunik, Safavid dynasty, Saint Bartholomew Monastery, Saint Stepanos Monastery, Sasanian Armenia, Satrapy of Armenia, Sebasteia (theme), Seljuq dynasty, Senekerim-Hovhannes Artsruni, Shah-Armens, Sirarpie Der Nersessian, St. Thaddeus Monastery, Sultanate of Rum, Tosb, Turkey, Urartu, Van, Turkey, Varagavank, Varazhnuni, Western Armenian, Zakarids-Mkhargrzeli. Expand index (21 more) » « Shrink index
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Akdamar Island (Akdamar Adası), also known as Aghtamar (Աղթամար) or Akhtamar (Ախթամար), is the second largest of the four islands in Lake Van, in eastern Turkey.
Andzevatsik was a region of ancient and medieval Armenia c. 400–800 in the South-East of Vaspurakan, ruled by the Antzevatsi family.
Antiquity may refer to any period before the European Middle Ages (which dates from around 476 with the collapse of Rome to 1492 with the discovery of the new world), but still within Western civilization-based history..
The Antzevatsi were a family that ruled the Armenian region of Antsevasiq, South-East of Van Lake and also South-East of Vaspurakan, where it was an enclave.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aram Manukian (Արամ Մանուկեան, reformed spelling: Արամ Մանուկյան), also referred to as simply Aram (19 March 187929 January 1919), was an Armenian revolutionary, statesman, and a leading member of the nationalist Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun) party.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.
Artaxias I (Άρταξίας, Artashes Արտաշես; reigned 190/189 BC160/159 BC) was the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty whose members ruled the Kingdom of Armenia for nearly two centuries.
The Artsruni (Արծրունի; also transliterated as Ardzruni) were an ancient noble (princely) family of Armenia.
Ashot II (Աշոտ Բ; r. 914–29) was an Armenian monarch and the third king of the royal Bagratuni line.
The Avarayr Plain (Ավարայրի Դաշտ) is the location of the Battle of Avarayr in 451, and is described as being along the banks of the Ṭłmut River (Տղմուտ գետ) (Rūd-e Zangemār, Iran), apparently the Armeno-Persian frontier at that time.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Çavuştepe (Հայկաբերդ; meaning "Fortress of Hayk"; Aspeşîn) or Sardurihinilli is an ancient fortified site in the Gürpınar district of Van Province in Turkey's Eastern Anatolia region.
The Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, also known as Bagratid Armenia (Բագրատունյաց Հայաստան Bagratunyats Hayastan or Բագրատունիների թագավորություն, Bagratunineri t’agavorut’yun, "kingdom of the Bagratunis"), was an independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule.
The Bagratuni or Bagratid (Բագրատունի) royal dynasty was a royal family of Armenia that ruled many regional polities of the medieval Kingdom of Armenia, such as Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Vanand, Taron, and Tayk.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cathedral of the Holy Cross (Աղթամարի Սուրբ Խաչ եկեղեցի/Ախթամարի Սուրբ Խաչ եկեղեցի, Aght’amari Surb Khach yekeghetsi Akdamar Kilisesi or Surp Haç Kilisesi) on Akdamar (Aghtamar) Island, in Lake Van in eastern Turkey, is a medieval Armenian Apostolic cathedral, built as a palatine church for the kings of Vaspurakan and later serving as the seat of the Catholicosate of Aghtamar.
The Chapel of Dzordzor (Ծոր Ծորի Սուրբ Աստվածածնի մատուռ, Zurzur kilsəsi, کلیسای زور زور), is part of an Armenian monastery located in Maku County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, on Zangmar River near the village of Baron.
The Church of the Holy Cross at Soradir is a 6th-century Armenian monastic complex in south-eastern Turkey.
The Defense of Van (also known as the Siege of Van or Van Resistance to the Armenians (Վանի հերոսամարտ Vani herosamart) was a self-defensive measure by the Armenian population of Van against the Ottoman Empire. Armenian forces fought against the attempts to massacre the Armenian population in the Van Vilayet. The resistance broke out during the Caucasus Campaign, in which the Dashnak militias were supported by the Imperial Russian army to defend the Ottoman Armenian population. Such measures had not been intended or planned by the Armenians.Herbert Adams Gibbons, Armenia in the World War, 1926.. Several contemporaneous observers and later historians have concluded that the Ottoman government deliberately instigated the armed Armenian resistance by enforcing the conditions on their subjects and then used this insurgency as a main pretext to justify the forced deportations of Armenians from all over the empire. However, the decisions of deportation and extermination were made before the Van resistance. The assessment of witness reports maintained that the Armenian posture at Van was defensive and an act of resistance to massacre. Based mostly in the city of Van, it was one of the few instances during the Armenian Genocide when Armenians fought against the Ottoman Empire's armed forces.
Gagik I Artsruni (Գագիկ Ա Արծրունի; 879/880 – 936/943) was an Artsruni ruler of Vaspurakan in southern Armenia, first as prince of northwestern Vaspurakan (Gagik III, 904–908) and after that until his death as king, claiming also the title of "King of Armenia" from the Bagratid line.
Gürpınar (Payîzava) is a district of Van Province and south of the provincial capital Van.
Gregory of Narek (Գրիգոր Նարեկացի Grigor Narekatsi, Western Armenian: Krikor Naregatsi; 9511003) was an Armenian monk, poet, mystical philosopher, theologian, and composer who is venerated as a Saint by both the Armenian Apostolic and Roman Catholic Churches.
Gukan (گوكان, also Romanized as Gūkān, Gaūkūn, and Gowkān; also known as Gūkān-e ‘Olyā) is a village in Ashayer Rural District, in the Central District of Fereydunshahr County, Isfahan Province, Iran.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
Karmravank (Կարմրավանք, meaning Red Monastery) is an abandoned 10th century Armenian monastery in the Vaspurakan province of historic Armenia (now in the Van Province of Turkey).
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
Vaspurakan (also transliterated as Vasbouragan in Western Armenian;, (Vaspowrakan) meaning the "noble land" or "land of princes") was the first and biggest province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered on Lake Van.
Lake Urmia (Daryāĉe Orumiye, Daryāche-ye Orumiye;, Urmiya gölü) is an endorheic salt lake in Iran.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
The Abbasid caliphs were the holders of the Islamic title of caliph who were members of the Abbasid dynasty, a branch of the Quraysh tribe descended from the uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib.
The district of Mardistan, in historic Armenia, corresponds to Artaz, west of the modern Maku, Iranian Azerbaijan.
Metz Aghbak Armenian: Աղբակ Մեծ is a district of Vaspurakan province of Western Armenia.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mkrtich Khrimian (classical reformed: Մկրտիչ Խրիմյան; 4 April 182029 October 1907) was an Armenian Apostolic Church leader, educator, and publisher who served as Catholicos of All Armenians from 1893 to 1907.
The Monastery of Saint George of Goms (Գոմքի Սուրբ Գևորգ վանք, "Saint George") was an Armenian monastery in the historic province of Vaspurakan, in present-day Turkey.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Mount Erek (Վարագա լեռ, Varaga leř) is a mountain overlooking the city of Van in eastern Turkey.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Nakharar (նախարար naxarar, from Parthian naxvadār "holder of the primacy") was a hereditary title of the highest order given to houses of the ancient and medieval Armenian nobility.
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Narekavank (Նարեկավանք, "Monastery of Narek", Western Armenian: Nareg) was a tenth-century Armenian monastery in the historic province of Vaspurakan, near the southern shores of Lake Van, in present-day eastern Turkey.
Ordubad is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Peace of Acilisene was a treaty between the East Roman Empire and the Sassanid Empire sometime between 384 and 390 (usually dated to 387) which divided Greater Armenia between these two empires.
Rshtuni (Ռշտունի, aka. Rshdouni. Reshdouni, Rashdouni, Rachdouni, Rachdoni) was an old Armenian noble house which ruled the region of Rshtuniq who were purportedly descendants of Rusas I of Urartu.
Rshtunik (Ռշտունիք) was a region of the old Armenia, in Vaspurakan, East of Antzevasiq.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Saint Bartholomew Monastery (Սուրբ Բարդուղիմեոսի վանք, Surb Barduğimeosi vank'; Western Armenian: Surp Part'uğimeosi vank') was a medieval Armenian monastery in the historic province of Vaspurakan, 23 km north-east from the town of Başkale, in present-day Turkey's Van Province, near the Iranian border.
The Saint Stepanos Monastery (Սուրբ Ստեփանոս վանք,; کلیسای سن استپانوس), also known in Armenian as Maghardavank (Մաղարդավանք), is an Armenian monastery located about 15 km northwest of the city of Julfa in the province of East Azarbaijan, northwestern Iran.
Sasanian Armenia, also known as Persian Armenia and Persarmenia (Պարսկահայաստան – Parskahayastan), may either refer to the periods where Armenia (𐭠𐭫𐭬𐭭𐭩 – Armin) was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire, or specifically to the parts of Armenia under its control such as after the partition of 387 AD when parts of western Armenia were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire while the rest of Armenia came under Sasanian suzerainty whilst maintaining its existing kingdom until 428.
The Satrapy of Armenia (Սատրապական Հայաստան Satrapakan Hayastan; Old Persian: Armina or Arminiya), a region controlled by the Orontid Dynasty (Երվանդունիներ Yervanduniner; 570–201 BC) was one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC, which later became an independent kingdom.
The Theme of Sebasteia (θέμα Σεβαστείας) was a military-civilian province (thema or theme) of the Byzantine Empire located in northeastern Cappadocia and Armenia Minor, in modern Turkey.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Senekerim-Hovhannes Artsruni (Սենեքերիմ-Հովհաննես Արծրունի), also known variously as Senekerim-John, Sennecherim or Sennacherib-John, known in Byzantine sources simply as Senachereim (Σεναχηρείμ), was the sixth and last King of Vaspurakan, from the Artsruni dynasty.
The Shah-Armens, also called the Kings of Armenia or Rulers of Ahlat (Ahlatşahlar Beyliği), were the 11th- and 12th-century Turcoman rulers of an Anatolian beylik founded after the Battle of Manzikert (1071) and centred in Ahlat on the northwestern shore of the Lake Van.
Sirarpie Der Nersessian (5 September 18965 July 1989) was an Armenian art historian, who specialized in Armenian and Byzantine studies.
The Monastery of Saint Thaddeus (Surb Tadeosi vank'; کلیسای حضرت تادئوس, Kelisā-ye Ḥaẓrat-e Tādeus) is an ancient Armenian monastery in the mountainous area of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Tosp (Տոսպ in Armenian) is a district of Vaspurakan province of Historical Armenia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
Van (Van; Վան; Wan; فان; Εύα, Eua) is a city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van.
Varagavank (Վարագավանք, "Monastery of Varag"; Yedi Kilise, "Seven Churches") was an Armenian monastery on the slopes of Mount Erek, southeast of the city of Van, in eastern Turkey.
Varazhnuni was a noble house of old Armenia that ruled the district of Varazhnunik.
Western Armenian (Classical spelling:, arevmdahayerên) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Eastern Armenian.
The Zakarids or Zakarians (Զաքարյաններ, Zak'aryanner), also known by their Georgian name as Mkhargrdzeli (მხარგრძელი), were a noble Armenian–Georgian dynasty of at least partial Kurdish or Kipchak origin.