95 relations: Angular momentum, Atmospheric pressure, Classical field theory, Closed manifold, Conservation of energy, Conservative vector field, Covariance and contravariance of vectors, Curl (mathematics), Del, Derivation (differential algebra), Derivative, Diffeomorphism, Differentiable function, Differentiable manifold, Differential calculus over commutative algebras, Differential form, Differential geometry of curves, Divergence, Divergence theorem, Dual space, Eisenbud–Levine–Khimshiashvili signature formula, Electromagnetic field, Equivalence class, Euclidean space, Euclidean vector, Euler characteristic, Exponential map (Lie theory), Exterior derivative, Field line, Field strength, Flow (mathematics), Fluid, Fluid dynamics, Force, Fraktur, Fundamental theorem of calculus, Geodesic, Gradient, Gradient descent, Gravitational field, Gravity, Hairy ball theorem, Inner product space, Invariant (mathematics), Iron, Lie algebra, Lie derivative, Lie group, Light field, Line integral, ..., Line of force, Linear form, Lipschitz continuity, Magnetic field, Magnetism, Magnitude (mathematics), Map (mathematics), MathWorld, Maxwell's equations, Michael Faraday, Module (mathematics), Multivector, One-form, One-parameter group, Open set, Orthogonal group, Orthogonal matrix, Parametric equation, Picard–Lindelöf theorem, PlanetMath, Poincaré–Hopf theorem, Polar coordinate system, Real line, Real number, Riemann integral, Riemannian manifold, Ring (mathematics), Scalar field, Section (fiber bundle), Smoothness, Space (mathematics), Stokes' theorem, Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines, Support (mathematics), Surface, Tangent bundle, Tangent space, Tensor field, Time dependent vector field, Vector calculus, Vector fields in cylindrical and spherical coordinates, Vector-valued function, Velocity, Wind tunnel, Winding number. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum.
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Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
A classical field theory is a physical theory that describes the study of how one or more physical fields interact with matter.
In mathematics, a closed manifold is a type of topological space, namely a compact manifold without boundary.
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In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant—it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
In vector calculus a conservative vector field is a vector field that is the gradient of some function, known in this context as a scalar potential.
In multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, covariance and contravariance describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis.
In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a 3-dimensional vector field.
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Del, or nabla, is an operator used in mathematics, in particular, in vector calculus, as a vector differential operator, usually represented by the nabla symbol ∇.
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In mathematics, a derivation is a function on an algebra which generalizes certain features of the derivative operator.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of a quantity (a function value or dependent variable) which is determined by another quantity (the independent variable).
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In mathematics, a diffeomorphism is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds.
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In calculus (a branch of mathematics), a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain.
In mathematics, a differentiable manifold is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus.
In mathematics the differential calculus over commutative algebras is a part of commutative algebra based on the observation that most concepts known from classical differential calculus can be formulated in purely algebraic terms.
In the mathematical fields of differential geometry and tensor calculus, differential forms are an approach to multivariable calculus that is independent of coordinates.
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Differential geometry of curves is the branch of geometry that deals with smooth curves in the plane and in the Euclidean space by methods of differential and integral calculus.
In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that measures the magnitude of a vector field's source or sink at a given point, in terms of a signed scalar.
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In vector calculus, the divergence theorem, also known as Gauss's theorem or Ostrogradsky's theorem, reprinted in is a result that relates the flow (that is, flux) of a vector field through a surface to the behavior of the vector field inside the surface.
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In mathematics, any vector space V has a corresponding dual vector space (or just dual space for short) consisting of all linear functionals on V together with a naturally induced linear structure.
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In mathematics, and especially differential topology and singularity theory, the Eisenbud–Levine–Khimshiashvili signature formula gives a way of computing the Poincaré-Hopf index of a real, analytic vector field at an algebraically isolated singularity.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
In mathematics, when a set has an equivalence relation defined on its elements, there is a natural grouping of elements that are related to one another, forming what are called equivalence classes.
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In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
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In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction and can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra.
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In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler–Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space's shape or structure regardless of the way it is bent.
In the theory of Lie groups, the exponential map is a map from the Lie algebra of a Lie group to the group which allows one to recapture the local group structure from the Lie algebra.
On a differentiable manifold, the exterior derivative extends the concept of the differential of a function to differential forms of higher degree.
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A field line is a locus that is defined by a vector field and a starting location within the field.
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In physics, field strength or intensity means the magnitude of a vector-valued field.
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In mathematics, a flow formalizes the idea of the motion of particles in a fluid.
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In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
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In physics, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion.
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In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
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Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.
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The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of the derivative of a function with the concept of the function's integral.
In mathematics, particularly differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".
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In mathematics, the gradient is a generalization of the usual concept of derivative of a function in one dimension to a function in several dimensions.
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Gradient descent is a first-order optimization algorithm.
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In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
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Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.
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The hairy ball theorem of algebraic topology states that there is no nonvanishing continuous tangent vector field on even-dimensional ''n''-spheres.
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In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.
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In mathematics, an invariant is a property, held by a class of mathematical objects, which remains unchanged when transformations of a certain type are applied to the objects.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
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In mathematics, a Lie algebra (not) is a vector space together with a non-associative multiplication called "Lie bracket".
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In mathematics, the Lie derivative, named after Sophus Lie by Władysław Ślebodziński, evaluates the change of a tensor field (including scalar function, vector field and one-form), along the flow of another vector field.
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In mathematics, a Lie group is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.
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The light field is a vector function that describes the amount of light flowing in every direction through every point in space.
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In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve.
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A line of force in Faraday's extended sense is synonymous with Maxwell's line of induction.
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In linear algebra, a linear functional or linear form (also called a one-form or covector) is a linear map from a vector space to its field of scalars.
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In mathematical analysis, Lipschitz continuity, named after Rudolf Lipschitz, is a strong form of uniform continuity for functions.
A magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials.
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Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
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In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property by which the object can be compared as larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.
In mathematics, the term mapping, usually shortened to map, refers to either.
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MathWorld is an online mathematics reference work, created and largely written by Eric W. Weisstein.
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Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, classical optics, and electric circuits.
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Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
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In abstract algebra, the concept of a module over a ring is a generalization of the notion of vector space over a field, wherein the corresponding scalars are the elements of an arbitrary given ring (with identity).
A multivector is the result of a product defined for elements in a vector space V. A vector space with a linear product operation between vectors is called an algebra; examples are matrix algebra and vector algebra.
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In linear algebra, a one-form on a vector space is the same as a linear functional on the space.
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In mathematics, a one-parameter group or one-parameter subgroup usually means a continuous group homomorphism from the real line \mathbb (as an additive group) to some other topological group G. That means that it is not in fact a group, strictly speaking; if \varphi is injective then \varphi(\mathbb), the image, will be a subgroup of G that is isomorphic to \mathbb as additive group.
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In topology, an open set is an abstract concept generalizing the idea of an open interval in the real line.
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In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension, denoted, is the group of distance-preserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations.
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In linear algebra, an orthogonal matrix is a square matrix with real entries whose columns and rows are orthogonal unit vectors (i.e., orthonormal vectors), i.e. where I is the identity matrix.
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In mathematics, parametric equations of a curve express the coordinates of the points of the curve as functions of a variable, called a parameter.
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In mathematics, in the study of differential equations, the Picard–Lindelöf theorem, Picard's existence theorem or Cauchy–Lipschitz theorem is an important theorem on existence and uniqueness of solutions to first-order equations with given initial conditions.
PlanetMath is a free, collaborative, online mathematics encyclopedia.
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In mathematics, the Poincaré–Hopf theorem (also known as the Poincaré–Hopf index formula, Poincaré–Hopf index theorem, or Hopf index theorem) is an important theorem that is used in differential topology.
In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction.
In mathematics, the real line, or real number line is the line whose points are the real numbers.
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In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line.
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In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval.
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In differential geometry, a (smooth) Riemannian manifold or (smooth) Riemannian space (M,g) is a real smooth manifold M equipped with an inner product g_p on the tangent space T_pM at each point p that varies smoothly from point to point in the sense that if X and Y are vector fields on M, then p \mapsto g_p(X(p),Y(p)) is a smooth function.
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In mathematics, and more specifically in algebra, a ring is an algebraic structure with operations that generalize the arithmetic operations of addition and multiplication.
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In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space.
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In the mathematical field of topology, a section (or cross section) of a fiber bundle \pi is a continuous right inverse of the function \pi.
In mathematical analysis, smoothness has to do with how many derivatives of a function exist and are continuous.
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In mathematics, a space is a set (sometimes called a universe) with some added structure.
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In vector calculus, and more generally differential geometry, Stokes' theorem (also called the generalized Stokes' theorem) is a statement about the integration of differential forms on manifolds, which both simplifies and generalizes several theorems from vector calculus.
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Fluid flow is characterized by a velocity vector field in three-dimensional space, within the framework of continuum mechanics.
In mathematics, the support of a function is the set of points where the function is not zero-valued or, in the case of functions defined on a topological space, the closure of that set.
In mathematics, specifically, in topology, a surface is a two-dimensional, topological manifold.
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In differential geometry, the tangent bundle of a differentiable manifold M is a manifold TM, which assembles all the tangent vectors in M. As a set, it is given by the disjoint unionThe disjoint union assures that for any two points x1 and x2 of manifold M the tangent spaces T1 and T2 have no common vector.
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In mathematics, the tangent space of a manifold facilitates the generalization of vectors from affine spaces to general manifolds, since in the latter case one cannot simply subtract two points to obtain a vector pointing from one to the other.
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In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a tensor field assigns a tensor to each point of a mathematical space (typically a Euclidean space or manifold).
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In mathematics, a time dependent vector field is a construction in vector calculus which generalizes the concept of vector fields.
Vector calculus (or vector analysis) is a branch of mathematics concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3-dimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^3.
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NOTE: This page uses common physics notation for spherical coordinates, in which \theta is the angle between the z axis and the radius vector connecting the origin to the point in question, while \phi is the angle between the projection of the radius vector onto the x-y plane and the x axis.
A vector-valued function, also referred to as a vector function, is a mathematical function of one or more variables whose range is a set of multidimensional vectors or infinite-dimensional vectors.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
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A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.
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In mathematics, the winding number of a closed curve in the plane around a given point is an integer representing the total number of times that curve travels counterclockwise around the point.
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F-related, Gradient flow, Gradient vector field, Index of a vector field, Tangent Bundle Section, Tangent bundle section, Vector Field, Vector field on a manifold, Vector fields, Vector plot, Vector point function, Vector-field, Vectorfield.