In geometry, an affine transformation, affine mapBerger, Marcel (1987), p. 38.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
Anti-Grain Geometry (AGG) is a high-quality 2D rendering library written in C++.
An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades.
Asteroids is an arcade space shooter released in November 1979 by Atari, Inc. and designed by Lyle Rains, Ed Logg, and Dominic Walsh.
A Bézier curve (pronounced in French) is a parametric curve frequently used in computer graphics and related fields.
A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads.
Cairo (stylized as cairo) is an open source programming library that provides a vector graphics-based, device-independent API for software developers.
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
In computer graphics, a color gradient (sometimes called a color ramp or color progression) specifies a range of position-dependent colors, usually used to fill a region.
This is a comparison of image file formats.
A number of vector graphics editors exist for various platforms.
In set theory, the complement of a set refers to elements not in.
In geometric modelling and in computer graphics, a composite Bézier curve is a piecewise Bézier curve that is at least continuous.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
In numerical analysis, a cubic Hermite spline or cubic Hermite interpolator is a spline where each piece is a third-degree polynomial specified in Hermite form: that is, by its values and first derivatives at the end points of the corresponding domain interval.
DEC GT40 is an VT11 vector graphic terminal produced by the Digital Equipment Corporation, first introduced in October, 1972 (selling for “under $11,000”).
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
Direct2D is a 2D vector graphics application programming interface (API) designed by Microsoft and implemented in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, and also Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 (with Platform Update installed).
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a DSC-conforming PostScript document with additional restrictions which is intended to be usable as a graphics file format.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.
File size is a measure of how much data a computer file contains or, alternately, how much storage it consumes.
Flood fill, also called seed fill, is an algorithm that determines the area connected to a given node in a multi-dimensional array.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
The IBM 2250 Graphics Display Unit was a vector graphics display system by IBM for the System/360.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images.
In computer graphics and digital imaging, image scaling refers to the resizing of a digital image.
In computer graphics, image tracing, raster-to-vector conversion or vectorization is the conversion of raster graphics into vector graphics.
The IMLAC PDS-1 and PDS-4 were popular graphical display systems in the 1970s.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
In mathematics, the intersection A ∩ B of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A), but no other elements.
In mathematics, iterated function systems (IFSs) are a method of constructing fractals; the resulting fractals are often self-similar.
Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938) is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, widely regarded as the "father of computer graphics." His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
A laser lighting display or laser light show involves the use of laser light to entertain an audience.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Metaballs are, in computer graphics, organic-looking n-dimensional objects.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States Department of Defense research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
Non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) is a mathematical model commonly used in computer graphics for generating and representing curves and surfaces.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value.
In digital printing, a page description language (PDL) is a computer language that describes the appearance of a printed page in a higher level than an actual output bitmap.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting, drawing and other graphic media, in which an artist studies a photograph and then attempts to reproduce the image as realistically as possible in another medium.
The plotter is a computer printer for printing vector graphics.
In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.
In geometry, a polygonal chain is a connected series of line segments.
Portable Network Graphics (PNG, pronounced or) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression.
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
PostScript fonts are font files encoded in outline font specifications developed by Adobe Systems for professional digital typesetting.
In computer science, primitive data type is either of the following.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.
In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.
Rasterisation (or rasterization) is the task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (pixels or dots) for output on a video display or printer, or for storage in a bitmap file format.
In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles.
Resolution independence is where elements on a computer screen are rendered at sizes independent from the pixel grid, resulting in a graphical user interface that is displayed at a consistent size, regardless of the size of the screen.
Rip-Off is a vector shoot 'em up written by Tim Skelly and released in arcades by Cinematronics in 1980.
A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation.
The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE, a name selected to mean "wise") was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area.
A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture or material composition.
Sketchpad (a.k.a. Robot Draftsman) was a revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis, for which he received the Turing Award in 1988, and the Kyoto Prize in 2012.
Space Wars is a 1977 vector graphics arcade game based on the 1962 PDP-1 program Spacewar!.
In mathematics, a spline is a function defined piecewise by polynomials.
A superellipse, also known as a Lamé curve after Gabriel Lamé, is a closed curve resembling the ellipse, retaining the geometric features of semi-major axis and semi-minor axis, and symmetry about them, but a different overall shape.
In mathematics, a super-ellipsoid or superellipsoid is a solid whose horizontal sections are super-ellipses (Lamé curves) with the same exponent r, and whose vertical sections through the center are super-ellipses with the same exponent t. Super-ellipsoids as computer graphics primitives were popularized by Alan H. Barr (who used the name "superquadrics" to refer to both superellipsoids and supertoroids).
The Tektronix 4010 series was a family of text and graphics computer terminals based on the company's storage tube technology.
In mathematics, particularly in semigroup theory, a transformation is a function f that maps a set X to itself, i.e..
TrueType is an outline font standard developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript.
In computer graphics, turtle graphics are vector graphics using a relative cursor (the "turtle") upon a Cartesian plane.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2 computer was the successor to the Lincoln TX-0 and was known for its role in advancing both artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction.
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection.
A vector graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to compose and edit vector graphics images interactively on a computer and save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats, such as EPS, PDF, WMF, SVG, or VML.
A vector monitor or vector display is a display device used for computer graphics up through the 1970s.
In graphics design, a Vector path is a drawn or generated outline that represents a series of smooth straight (vector) lines instead of raster dots (or bitmap dots).
The Vectrex is a vector display-based home video game console that was developed by Western Technologies/Smith Engineering.
Vexel is a neologism for an entirely pixel-based form of raster art that imitates the visual appearance of vector graphics technique (i.e. sharp-edged lines and areas of flat colour or smooth gradient fills).
A variety of computer graphic techniques have been used to display video game content throughout the history of video games.
A wire-frame model is a visual presentation of a 3-dimensional (3D) or physical object used in 3D computer graphics.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
Z-order is an ordering of overlapping two-dimensional objects, such as windows in a stacking window manager, shapes in a vector graphics editor, or objects in a 3D application.
In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling (or three-dimensional modeling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (either inanimate or living) in three dimensions via specialized software.
3D rendering is the 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images on a computer.
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