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# Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars. [1]

## Abelian category

In mathematics, an abelian category is a category in which morphisms and objects can be added and in which kernels and cokernels exist and have desirable properties.

## Abelian group

In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.

## Abstract algebra

In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.

In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number is the number that, when added to, yields zero.

## Affine geometry

In mathematics, affine geometry is what remains of Euclidean geometry when not using (mathematicians often say "when forgetting") the metric notions of distance and angle.

## Affine space

In mathematics, an affine space is a geometric structure that generalizes the properties of Euclidean spaces in such a way that these are independent of the concepts of distance and measure of angles, keeping only the properties related to parallelism and ratio of lengths for parallel line segments.

## Affine variety

In algebraic geometry, an affine variety over an algebraically closed field k is the zero-locus in the affine ''n''-space k^n of some finite family of polynomials of n variables with coefficients in k that generate a prime ideal.

## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

## Algebraic geometry

Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials.

## Algebraic number

An algebraic number is any complex number (including real numbers) that is a root of a non-zero polynomial (that is, a value which causes the polynomial to equal 0) in one variable with rational coefficients (or equivalently – by clearing denominators – with integer coefficients).

## Algebraic number theory

Algebraic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses the techniques of abstract algebra to study the integers, rational numbers, and their generalizations.

## Algebraically closed field

In abstract algebra, an algebraically closed field F contains a root for every non-constant polynomial in F, the ring of polynomials in the variable x with coefficients in F.

## Almost everywhere

In measure theory (a branch of mathematical analysis), a property holds almost everywhere if, in a technical sense, the set for which the property holds takes up nearly all possibilities.

## American Mathematical Monthly

The American Mathematical Monthly is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894.

## American Mathematical Society

The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.

## Analytic geometry

In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system.

## Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

## Anticommutativity

In mathematics, anticommutativity is a specific property of some non-commutative operations.

## Argumentum a fortiori

Argumentum a fortiori (Latin: "from a/the stronger ") is a form of argumentation which draws upon existing confidence in a proposition to argue in favor of a second proposition that is held to be implicit in the first.

## Arrow

An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.

## Arthur Cayley

Arthur Cayley F.R.S. (16 August 1821 – 26 January 1895) was a British mathematician.

## Associative property

In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.

## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

## August Ferdinand Möbius

August Ferdinand Möbius (17 November 1790 &ndash; 26 September 1868) was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer.

## Axiom

An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

## Axiom of choice

In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty.

## Banach algebra

In mathematics, especially functional analysis, a Banach algebra, named after Stefan Banach, is an associative algebra A over the real or complex numbers (or over a non-Archimedean complete normed field) that at the same time is also a Banach space, i.e. a normed space and complete in the metric induced by the norm.

## Banach space

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced) is a complete normed vector space.

## Barycentric coordinate system

In geometry, the barycentric coordinate system is a coordinate system in which the location of a point of a simplex (a triangle, tetrahedron, etc.) is specified as the center of mass, or barycenter, of usually unequal masses placed at its vertices.

## Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.

## Bernard Bolzano

Bernard Bolzano (born Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano; 5 October 1781 – 18 December 1848) was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.

## Big O notation

Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behaviour of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity.

## Bijection

In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.

## Bilinear map

In mathematics, a bilinear map is a function combining elements of two vector spaces to yield an element of a third vector space, and is linear in each of its arguments.

## Biquaternion

In abstract algebra, the biquaternions are the numbers, where, and are complex numbers, or variants thereof, and the elements of multiply as in the quaternion group.

## Boolean prime ideal theorem

In mathematics, a prime ideal theorem guarantees the existence of certain types of subsets in a given algebra.

## Boundary value problem

In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.

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## Cardinality

In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the "number of elements of the set".

## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

## Cartesian product

In set theory (and, usually, in other parts of mathematics), a Cartesian product is a mathematical operation that returns a set (or product set or simply product) from multiple sets.

## Categories for the Working Mathematician

Categories for the Working Mathematician (CWM) is a textbook in category theory written by American mathematician Saunders Mac Lane, who cofounded the subject together with Samuel Eilenberg.

## Category (mathematics)

In mathematics, a category (sometimes called an abstract category to distinguish it from a concrete category) is an algebraic structure similar to a group but without requiring inverse or closure properties.

## Category of abelian groups

In mathematics, the category Ab has the abelian groups as objects and group homomorphisms as morphisms.

## Category of modules

In algebra, given a ring R, the category of left modules over R is the category whose objects are all left modules over R and whose morphisms are all module homomorphisms between left R-modules.

## Cauchy sequence

In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence, named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses.

## Chapman & Hall

Chapman & Hall was a British publishing house in London, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and William Hall.

## Characteristic polynomial

In linear algebra, the characteristic polynomial of a square matrix is a polynomial which is invariant under matrix similarity and has the eigenvalues as roots.

## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

## Closure (mathematics)

A set has closure under an operation if performance of that operation on members of the set always produces a member of the same set; in this case we also say that the set is closed under the operation.

## Closure (topology)

In mathematics, the closure of a subset S of points in a topological space consists of all points in S together with all limit points of S. The closure of S may equivalently be defined as the union of S and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing S. Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in S or "near" S. A point which is in the closure of S is a point of closure of S. The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior.

## Coefficient

In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series or any expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression.

## Commutative algebra

Commutative algebra is the branch of algebra that studies commutative rings, their ideals, and modules over such rings.

## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

## Commutator

In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative.

## Compact group

In mathematics, a compact (topological) group is a topological group whose topology is compact.

## Compact operator

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a compact operator is a linear operator L from a Banach space X to another Banach space Y, such that the image under L of any bounded subset of X is a relatively compact subset (has compact closure) of Y. Such an operator is necessarily a bounded operator, and so continuous.

## Complete metric space

In mathematical analysis, a metric space M is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in M has a limit that is also in M or, alternatively, if every Cauchy sequence in M converges in M. Intuitively, a space is complete if there are no "points missing" from it (inside or at the boundary).

## Complex conjugate

In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Complex plane

In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the perpendicular imaginary axis.

## Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

## Convolution

In mathematics (and, in particular, functional analysis) convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) to produce a third function, that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the integral of the pointwise multiplication of the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.

## Convolution theorem

In mathematics, the convolution theorem states that under suitable conditions the Fourier transform of a convolution is the pointwise product of Fourier transforms.

## Coordinate space

In mathematics, a coordinate space is a space in which an ordered list of coordinates, each from a set (not necessarily the same set), collectively determine an element (or point) of the space – in short, a space with a coordinate system.

## Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

## Coordinate vector

In linear algebra, a coordinate vector is a representation of a vector as an ordered list of numbers that describes the vector in terms of a particular ordered basis.

## Coordinate-free

A coordinate-free, or component-free, treatment of a scientific theory or mathematical topic develops its concepts on any form of manifold without reference to any particular coordinate system.

## Coproduct

In category theory, the coproduct, or categorical sum, is a category-theoretic construction which includes as examples the disjoint union of sets and of topological spaces, the free product of groups, and the direct sum of modules and vector spaces.

## Coset

In mathematics, if G is a group, and H is a subgroup of G, and g is an element of G, then Only when H is normal will the set of right cosets and the set of left cosets of H coincide, which is one definition of normality of a subgroup.

## Cotangent bundle

In mathematics, especially differential geometry, the cotangent bundle of a smooth manifold is the vector bundle of all the cotangent spaces at every point in the manifold.

## Cotangent space

In differential geometry, one can attach to every point x of a smooth (or differentiable) manifold a vector space called the cotangent space at x. Typically, the cotangent space is defined as the dual space of the tangent space at x, although there are more direct definitions (see below).

## Countable set

In mathematics, a countable set is a set with the same cardinality (number of elements) as some subset of the set of natural numbers.

## Cross product

In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.

## Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

## Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

## Curve

In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.

## Cylinder

A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.

## David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

## Definite quadratic form

In mathematics, a definite quadratic form is a quadratic form over some real vector space that has the same sign (always positive or always negative) for every nonzero vector of.

## Degree of a field extension

In mathematics, more specifically field theory, the degree of a field extension is a rough measure of the "size" of the field extension.

## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

## Determinant

In linear algebra, the determinant is a value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.

## Differentiable function

In calculus (a branch of mathematics), a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain.

## Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus.

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

## Differential form

In the mathematical fields of differential geometry and tensor calculus, differential forms are an approach to multivariable calculus that is independent of coordinates.

## Differential operator

In mathematics, a differential operator is an operator defined as a function of the differentiation operator.

## Digital filter

In signal processing, a digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled, discrete-time signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal.

## Digital signal processing

Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.

## Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

## Dimension (vector space)

In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space V is the cardinality (i.e. the number of vectors) of a basis of V over its base field.

## Dimension theorem for vector spaces

In mathematics, the dimension theorem for vector spaces states that all bases of a vector space have equally many elements.

## Dirac delta function

In mathematics, the Dirac delta function (function) is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac.

## Discrete cosine transform

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies.

## Discrete Fourier transform

In mathematics, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) converts a finite sequence of equally-spaced samples of a function into a same-length sequence of equally-spaced samples of the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), which is a complex-valued function of frequency.

## Distance

Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.

## Distribution (mathematics)

Distributions (or generalized functions) are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis.

## Distributive property

In abstract algebra and formal logic, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law from boolean algebra and elementary algebra.

## Division (mathematics)

Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

## Division algebra

In the field of mathematics called abstract algebra, a division algebra is, roughly speaking, an algebra over a field in which division, except by zero, is always possible.

## Division ring

In abstract algebra, a division ring, also called a skew field, is a ring in which division is possible.

## Domain of a function

In mathematics, and more specifically in naive set theory, the domain of definition (or simply the domain) of a function is the set of "input" or argument values for which the function is defined.

## Dot product

In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.

## Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

## Dual space

In mathematics, any vector space V has a corresponding dual vector space (or just dual space for short) consisting of all linear functionals on V, together with the vector space structure of pointwise addition and scalar multiplication by constants.

## Duality (mathematics)

In mathematics, a duality, generally speaking, translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one fashion, often (but not always) by means of an involution operation: if the dual of A is B, then the dual of B is A. Such involutions sometimes have fixed points, so that the dual of A is A itself.

## Edmond Laguerre

Edmond Nicolas Laguerre (9 April 1834, Bar-le-Duc – 14 August 1886, Bar-le-Duc) was a French mathematician and a member of the Académie française (1885).

## Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.

## Einstein tensor

In differential geometry, the Einstein tensor (named after Albert Einstein; also known as the trace-reversed Ricci tensor) is used to express the curvature of a pseudo-Riemannian manifold.

## Endomorphism

In mathematics, an endomorphism is a morphism (or homomorphism) from a mathematical object to itself.

## Endomorphism ring

In abstract algebra, the endomorphism ring of an abelian group X, denoted by End(X), is the set of all endomorphisms of X (i.e., the set of all homomorphisms of X into itself) endowed with an addition operation defined by pointwise addition of functions and a multiplication operation defined by function composition.

## Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

## Equivalence relation

In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

## Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

## Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

## Exterior algebra

In mathematics, the exterior product or wedge product of vectors is an algebraic construction used in geometry to study areas, volumes, and their higher-dimensional analogs.

## Fast Fourier transform

A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm that samples a signal over a period of time (or space) and divides it into its frequency components.

## Fiber (mathematics)

In mathematics, the term fiber (or fibre in British English) can have two meanings, depending on the context.

## Fiber bundle

In mathematics, and particularly topology, a fiber bundle (or, in British English, fibre bundle) is a space that is locally a product space, but globally may have a different topological structure.

## Field (mathematics)

In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

## Field extension

In mathematics, and in particular, algebra, a field E is an extension field of a field F if E contains F and the operations of F are those of E restricted to F. Equivalently, F is a subfield of E. For example, under the usual notions of addition and multiplication, the complex numbers are an extension field of the real numbers; the real numbers are a subfield of the complex numbers.

## Flag (linear algebra)

In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, a flag is an increasing sequence of subspaces of a finite-dimensional vector space V. Here "increasing" means each is a proper subspace of the next (see filtration): If we write the dim Vi.

## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

## Fourier series

In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves.

## Free module

In mathematics, a free module is a module that has a basis – that is, a generating set consisting of linearly independent elements.

## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

## Function composition

In mathematics, function composition is the pointwise application of one function to the result of another to produce a third function.

## Function series

In calculus, a function series is a series, where the summands are not just real or complex numbers but functions.

## Function space

In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets.

## Functional (mathematics)

In mathematics, the term functional (as a noun) has at least two meanings.

## Functional analysis

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

## Fundamenta Mathematicae

Fundamenta Mathematicae is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of mathematics with a special focus on the foundations of mathematics, concentrating on set theory, mathematical logic, topology and its interactions with algebra, and dynamical systems.

## Fundamental solution

In mathematics, a fundamental solution for a linear partial differential operator is a formulation in the language of distribution theory of the older idea of a Green's function (although unlike Green's functions, fundamental solutions do not address boundary conditions).

## Game theory

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".

## General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

## Generalized flag variety

In mathematics, a generalized flag variety (or simply flag variety) is a homogeneous space whose points are flags in a finite-dimensional vector space V over a field F. When F is the real or complex numbers, a generalized flag variety is a smooth or complex manifold, called a real or complex flag manifold.

## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

## German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

## Giuseppe Peano

Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.

## Giusto Bellavitis

Giusto Bellavitis (22 November 1803 &ndash; 6 November 1880) was an Italian mathematician, senator, and municipal councilor.

## Graded vector space

In mathematics, a graded vector space is a vector space that has the extra structure of a grading or a gradation, which is a decomposition of the vector space into a direct sum of vector subspaces.

## Gram–Schmidt process

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and numerical analysis, the Gram–Schmidt process is a method for orthonormalising a set of vectors in an inner product space, most commonly the Euclidean space Rn equipped with the standard inner product.

## Grassmannian

In mathematics, the Grassmannian is a space which parametrizes all -dimensional linear subspaces of the n-dimensional vector space.

## Gravitation (book)

Gravitation is a physics book on Einstein's theory of gravity, written by Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John Archibald Wheeler and originally published by W. H. Freeman and Company in 1973.

## Green's function

In mathematics, a Green's function is the impulse response of an inhomogeneous linear differential equation defined on a domain, with specified initial conditions or boundary conditions.

## Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

## Group action

In mathematics, an action of a group is a formal way of interpreting the manner in which the elements of the group correspond to transformations of some space in a way that preserves the structure of that space.

## Group representation

In the mathematical field of representation theory, group representations describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces; in particular, they can be used to represent group elements as matrices so that the group operation can be represented by matrix multiplication.

## Group theory

In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.

## Hahn–Banach theorem

In mathematics, the Hahn–Banach theorem is a central tool in functional analysis.

## Hairy ball theorem

The hairy ball theorem of algebraic topology (sometimes called the hedgehog theorem in Europe) states that there is no nonvanishing continuous tangent vector field on even-dimensional ''n''-spheres.

## Heat equation

The heat equation is a parabolic partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat (or variation in temperature) in a given region over time.

## Henri Lebesgue

Henri Léon Lebesgue (June 28, 1875 – July 26, 1941) was a French mathematician most famous for his theory of integration, which was a generalization of the 17th century concept of integration—summing the area between an axis and the curve of a function defined for that axis.

## Hermann Grassmann

Hermann Günther Grassmann (Graßmann; April 15, 1809 – September 26, 1877) was a German polymath, known in his day as a linguist and now also as a mathematician.

## Hilbert space

The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.

## Historia Mathematica

Historia Mathematica: International Journal of History of Mathematics is an academic journal on the history of mathematics published by Elsevier.

## Homeomorphism

In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bi continuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function.

## Identity element

In mathematics, an identity element or neutral element is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set, which leaves other elements unchanged when combined with them.

## Identity function

Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation or identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the same value that was used as its argument.

## If and only if

In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.

## Image (mathematics)

In mathematics, an image is the subset of a function's codomain which is the output of the function from a subset of its domain.

## Image compression

Image compression is a type of data compression applied to digital images, to reduce their cost for storage or transmission.

## Imaginary unit

The imaginary unit or unit imaginary number is a solution to the quadratic equation.

## Index set

In mathematics, an index set is a set whose members label (or index) members of another set.

## Indicator function

In mathematics, an indicator function or a characteristic function is a function defined on a set X that indicates membership of an element in a subset A of X, having the value 1 for all elements of A and the value 0 for all elements of X not in A. It is usually denoted by a symbol 1 or I, sometimes in boldface or blackboard boldface, with a subscript specifying the subset.

## Injective function

In mathematics, an injective function or injection or one-to-one function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain.

## Inner product space

In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.

## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

## Interval (mathematics)

In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.

## Inverse element

In abstract algebra, the idea of an inverse element generalises concepts of a negation (sign reversal) in relation to addition, and a reciprocal in relation to multiplication.

## Inverse function

In mathematics, an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that "reverses" another function: if the function applied to an input gives a result of, then applying its inverse function to gives the result, and vice versa.

## Isomorphism

In mathematics, an isomorphism (from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape") is a homomorphism or morphism (i.e. a mathematical mapping) that can be reversed by an inverse morphism.

## Isomorphism theorems

In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, the isomorphism theorems are three theorems that describe the relationship between quotients, homomorphisms, and subobjects.

## Jacobi identity

In mathematics the Jacobi identity is a property of a binary operation which describes how the order of evaluation (the placement of parentheses in a multiple product) affects the result of the operation.

## Jean-Robert Argand

Jean-Robert Argand (July 18, 1768 – August 13, 1822) was an amateur mathematician.

## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

## Jordan normal form

In linear algebra, a Jordan normal form (often called Jordan canonical form) of a linear operator on a finite-dimensional vector space is an upper triangular matrix of a particular form called a Jordan matrix, representing the operator with respect to some basis.

## Jordan–Chevalley decomposition

In mathematics, the Jordan–Chevalley decomposition, named after Camille Jordan and Claude Chevalley, expresses a linear operator as the sum of its commuting semisimple part and its nilpotent parts.

## Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

## JPEG

JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.

## K-theory

In mathematics, K-theory is, roughly speaking, the study of a ring generated by vector bundles over a topological space or scheme.

## Kernel (algebra)

In the various branches of mathematics that fall under the heading of abstract algebra, the kernel of a homomorphism measures the degree to which the homomorphism fails to be injective.

## Kernel (linear algebra)

In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra and functional analysis, the kernel (also known as null space or nullspace) of a linear map between two vector spaces V and W, is the set of all elements v of V for which, where 0 denotes the zero vector in W. That is, in set-builder notation,.

## Lattice (group)

In geometry and group theory, a lattice in \mathbbR^n is a subgroup of the additive group \mathbb^n which is isomorphic to the additive group \mathbbZ^n, and which spans the real vector space \mathbb^n.

## Law of cosines

In trigonometry, the law of cosines (also known as the cosine formula or cosine rule) relates the lengths of the sides of a triangle to the cosine of one of its angles.

## Lebesgue integration

In mathematics, the integral of a non-negative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the -axis.

## Limit of a sequence

As the positive integer n becomes larger and larger, the value n\cdot \sin\bigg(\frac1\bigg) becomes arbitrarily close to 1.

## Line (geometry)

The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e., having no curvature) with negligible width and depth.

## Line bundle

In mathematics, a line bundle expresses the concept of a line that varies from point to point of a space.

## Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

## Linear approximation

In mathematics, a linear approximation is an approximation of a general function using a linear function (more precisely, an affine function).

## Linear combination

In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants).

## Linear equation

In mathematics, a linear equation is an equation that may be put in the form where x_1, \ldots, x_n are the variables or unknowns, and c, a_1, \ldots, a_n are coefficients, which are often real numbers, but may be parameters, or even any expression that does not contain the unknowns.

## Linear independence

In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if one of the vectors in the set can be defined as a linear combination of the others; if no vector in the set can be written in this way, then the vectors are said to be.

## Linear map

In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.

## Linear span

In linear algebra, the linear span (also called the linear hull or just span) of a set of vectors in a vector space is the intersection of all subspaces containing that set.

## Linearization

In mathematics, linearization is finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point.

## Local property

In mathematics, a phenomenon is sometimes said to occur locally if, roughly speaking, it occurs on sufficiently small or arbitrarily small neighborhoods of points.

## Lp space

In mathematics, the Lp spaces are function spaces defined using a natural generalization of the ''p''-norm for finite-dimensional vector spaces.

## Manifold

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.

## Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

## Mathematical optimization

In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

## Matrix multiplication

In mathematics, matrix multiplication or matrix product is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices with entries in a field, or, more generally, in a ring or even a semiring.

## Möbius strip

The Möbius strip or Möbius band, also spelled Mobius or Moebius, is a surface with only one side (when embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space) and only one boundary.

## Metric (mathematics)

In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set.

## Metric space

In mathematics, a metric space is a set for which distances between all members of the set are defined.

## Minimal polynomial (field theory)

In field theory, a branch of mathematics, the minimal polynomial of a value &alpha; is, roughly speaking, the polynomial of lowest degree having coefficients of a specified type, such that &alpha; is a root of the polynomial.

## Minimax theorem

A minimax theorem is a theorem providing conditions that guarantee that the max–min inequality is also an equality.

## Minkowski inequality

In mathematical analysis, the Minkowski inequality establishes that the L''p'' spaces are normed vector spaces.

## Minkowski space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

## Modes of convergence

In mathematics, there are many senses in which a sequence or a series is said to be convergent.

## Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).

## Module (mathematics)

In mathematics, a module is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.

## Multilinear algebra

In mathematics, multilinear algebra extends the methods of linear algebra.

## Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

## Multiplication algorithm

A multiplication algorithm is an algorithm (or method) to multiply two numbers.

## Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x&minus;1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.

## Multivector

A multivector is the result of a product defined for elements in a vector space V. A vector space with a linear product operation between elements of the space is called an algebra; examples are matrix algebra and vector algebra.

## Natural transformation

In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a natural transformation provides a way of transforming one functor into another while respecting the internal structure (i.e., the composition of morphisms) of the categories involved.

## Neighbourhood (mathematics)

In topology and related areas of mathematics, a neighbourhood (or neighborhood) is one of the basic concepts in a topological space.

## New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

## New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

## New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

## Norm (mathematics)

In linear algebra, functional analysis, and related areas of mathematics, a norm is a function that assigns a strictly positive length or size to each vector in a vector space—save for the zero vector, which is assigned a length of zero.

## Number theory

Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

## Octonion

In mathematics, the octonions are a normed division algebra over the real numbers, usually represented by the capital letter O, using boldface O or blackboard bold \mathbb O. There are three lower-dimensional normed division algebras over the reals: the real numbers R themselves, the complex numbers C, and the quaternions H. The octonions have eight dimensions; twice the number of dimensions of the quaternions, of which they are an extension.

## Ordered pair

In mathematics, an ordered pair (a, b) is a pair of objects.

## Ordered vector space

In mathematics, an ordered vector space or partially ordered vector space is a vector space equipped with a partial order that is compatible with the vector space operations.

## Ordinary differential equation

In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation containing one or more functions of one independent variable and its derivatives.

## Orientability

In mathematics, orientability is a property of surfaces in Euclidean space that measures whether it is possible to make a consistent choice of surface normal vector at every point.

## Orientation (vector space)

In mathematics, orientation is a geometric notion that in two dimensions allows one to say when a cycle goes around clockwise or counterclockwise, and in three dimensions when a figure is left-handed or right-handed.

## Origin (mathematics)

In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

## Orthogonal basis

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthogonal basis for an inner product space is a basis for whose vectors are mutually orthogonal.

## Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

## Parallel (geometry)

In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.

## Parallelogram

In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

## Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.

## Partially ordered set

In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set.

## Periodic function

In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Pi

The number is a mathematical constant.

## Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat (Between 31 October and 6 December 1607 – 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and a mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality.

## Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

## Pointwise convergence

In mathematics, pointwise convergence is one of various senses in which a sequence of functions can converge to a particular function.

## Polynomial

In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.

## Polynomial ring

In mathematics, especially in the field of abstract algebra, a polynomial ring or polynomial algebra is a ring (which is also a commutative algebra) formed from the set of polynomials in one or more indeterminates (traditionally also called variables) with coefficients in another ring, often a field.

## Pontryagin duality

In mathematics, specifically in harmonic analysis and the theory of topological groups, Pontryagin duality explains the general properties of the Fourier transform on locally compact abelian groups, such as \R, the circle, or finite cyclic groups.

## Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

## Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

## Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society

Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of mathematics published by the American Mathematical Society.

## Projective module

In mathematics, particularly in algebra, the class of projective modules enlarges the class of free modules (that is, modules with basis vectors) over a ring, by keeping some of the main properties of free modules.

## Pseudo-Riemannian manifold

In differential geometry, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold (also called a semi-Riemannian manifold) is a generalization of a Riemannian manifold in which the metric tensor need not be positive-definite, but need only be a non-degenerate bilinear form, which is a weaker condition.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

## Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

## Quaternion

In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.

## Quotient ring

In ring theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a quotient ring, also known as factor ring, difference ring or residue class ring, is a construction quite similar to the quotient groups of group theory and the quotient spaces of linear algebra.

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

## Rank–nullity theorem

In mathematics, the rank–nullity theorem of linear algebra, in its simplest form, states that the rank and the nullity of a matrix add up to the number of columns of the matrix.

## Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator.

## Real line

In mathematics, the real line, or real number line is the line whose points are the real numbers.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Reciprocal lattice

In physics, the reciprocal lattice represents the Fourier transform of another lattice (usually a Bravais lattice).

## René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

## Representation theory

Representation theory is a branch of mathematics that studies abstract algebraic structures by representing their elements as linear transformations of vector spaces, and studies modules over these abstract algebraic structures.

## Riemann curvature tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, the Riemann curvature tensor or Riemann–Christoffel tensor (after Bernhard Riemann and Elwin Bruno Christoffel) is the most common method used to express the curvature of Riemannian manifolds.

## Riemann integral

In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval.

## Riemannian manifold

In differential geometry, a (smooth) Riemannian manifold or (smooth) Riemannian space (M,g) is a real, smooth manifold M equipped with an inner product g_p on the tangent space T_pM at each point p that varies smoothly from point to point in the sense that if X and Y are differentiable vector fields on M, then p \mapsto g_p(X(p),Y(p)) is a smooth function.

## Riesz representation theorem

There are several well-known theorems in functional analysis known as the Riesz representation theorem.

## Riesz space

In mathematics, a Riesz space, lattice-ordered vector space or vector lattice is a partially ordered vector space where the order structure is a lattice.

## Riesz–Fischer theorem

In mathematics, the Riesz–Fischer theorem in real analysis is any of a number of closely related results concerning the properties of the space ''L''2 of square integrable functions.

## Ring (mathematics)

In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.

## Ring homomorphism

In ring theory or abstract algebra, a ring homomorphism is a function between two rings which respects the structure.

## Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.

## Scalar (mathematics)

A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.

## Scalar multiplication

In mathematics, scalar multiplication is one of the basic operations defining a vector space in linear algebra (or more generally, a module in abstract algebra).

## Schönhage–Strassen algorithm

The Schönhage–Strassen algorithm is an asymptotically fast multiplication algorithm for large integers.

## Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

## Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

## Section (fiber bundle)

In the mathematical field of topology, a section (or cross section) of a fiber bundle E is a continuous right inverse of the projection function \pi.

## Semigroup action

In algebra and theoretical computer science, an action or act of a semigroup on a set is a rule which associates to each element of the semigroup a transformation of the set in such a way that the product of two elements of the semigroup (using the semigroup operation) is associated with the composite of the two corresponding transformations.

## Sequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.

## Series (mathematics)

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

## Set (mathematics)

In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

## Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

## Smoothness

In mathematical analysis, the smoothness of a function is a property measured by the number of derivatives it has that are continuous.

## Sobolev space

In mathematics, a Sobolev space is a vector space of functions equipped with a norm that is a combination of ''Lp''-norms of the function itself and its derivatives up to a given order.

## Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) is an academic association dedicated to the use of mathematics in industry.

## Space (mathematics)

In mathematics, a space is a set (sometimes called a universe) with some added structure.

## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

## Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

## Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

## Spectral theorem

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis).

## Spectrum of a ring

In abstract algebra and algebraic geometry, the spectrum of a commutative ring R, denoted by \operatorname(R), is the set of all prime ideals of R. It is commonly augmented with the Zariski topology and with a structure sheaf, turning it into a locally ringed space.

## Speech coding

Speech coding is an application of data compression of digital audio signals containing speech.

## Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").

## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

## Square matrix

In mathematics, a square matrix is a matrix with the same number of rows and columns.

## Standard basis

In mathematics, the standard basis (also called natural basis) for a Euclidean space is the set of unit vectors pointing in the direction of the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system.

## Stefan Banach

Stefan Banach (30 March 1892 – 31 August 1945) was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians.

## Stone–Weierstrass theorem

In mathematical analysis, the Weierstrass approximation theorem states that every continuous function defined on a closed interval can be uniformly approximated as closely as desired by a polynomial function.

## Subset

In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.

## Subtraction

Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.

## Summation

In mathematics, summation (capital Greek sigma symbol: ∑) is the addition of a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total.

## Superposition principle

In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.

## Support (mathematics)

In mathematics, the support of a real-valued function f is the subset of the domain containing those elements which are not mapped to zero.

## Surjective function

In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if for every element y in the codomain Y of f there is at least one element x in the domain X of f such that f(x).

## Symmetric algebra

In mathematics, the symmetric algebra S(V) (also denoted Sym(V)) on a vector space V over a field K is the free commutative unital associative algebra over K containing V. It corresponds to polynomials with indeterminates in V, without choosing coordinates.

## System of linear equations

In mathematics, a system of linear equations (or linear system) is a collection of two or more linear equations involving the same set of variables.

## Tangent bundle

In differential geometry, the tangent bundle of a differentiable manifold M is a manifold TM which assembles all the tangent vectors in M. As a set, it is given by the disjoint unionThe disjoint union ensures that for any two points x1 and x2 of manifold M the tangent spaces T1 and T2 have no common vector.

## Tangent space

In mathematics, the tangent space of a manifold facilitates the generalization of vectors from affine spaces to general manifolds, since in the latter case one cannot simply subtract two points to obtain a vector that gives the displacement of the one point from the other.

## Taylor's theorem

In calculus, Taylor's theorem gives an approximation of a k-times differentiable function around a given point by a k-th order Taylor polynomial.

## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

## Tensor (intrinsic definition)

In mathematics, the modern component-free approach to the theory of a tensor views a tensor as an abstract object, expressing some definite type of multi-linear concept.

## Tensor algebra

In mathematics, the tensor algebra of a vector space V, denoted T(V) or T(V), is the algebra of tensors on V (of any rank) with multiplication being the tensor product.

## Three-dimensional space

Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).

## Topological space

In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space may be defined as a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods.

## Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

## Topology of uniform convergence

In mathematics, a linear map is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.

## Transcendental number

In mathematics, a transcendental number is a real or complex number that is not algebraic—that is, it is not a root of a nonzero polynomial equation with integer (or, equivalently, rational) coefficients.

## Triangle inequality

In mathematics, the triangle inequality states that for any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two sides must be greater than or equal to the length of the remaining side.

## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

## Tuple

In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.

## Uniform convergence

In the mathematical field of analysis, uniform convergence is a type of convergence of functions stronger than pointwise convergence.

## Uniform space

In the mathematical field of topology, a uniform space is a set with a uniform structure.

## Universal property

In various branches of mathematics, a useful construction is often viewed as the “most efficient solution” to a certain problem.

## Up to

In mathematics, the phrase up to appears in discussions about the elements of a set (say S), and the conditions under which subsets of those elements may be considered equivalent.

## Vector (mathematics and physics)

When used without any further description, vector usually refers either to.

## Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.

## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

## Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

## Weak formulation

Weak formulations are important tools for the analysis of mathematical equations that permit the transfer of concepts of linear algebra to solve problems in other fields such as partial differential equations.

## William Rowan Hamilton

Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.

## Yoneda lemma

In mathematics, specifically in category theory, the Yoneda lemma is an abstract result on functors of the type morphisms into a fixed object.

## Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory

In mathematics, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, named after mathematicians Ernst Zermelo and Abraham Fraenkel, is an axiomatic system that was proposed in the early twentieth century in order to formulate a theory of sets free of paradoxes such as Russell's paradox.

## Zero element

In mathematics, a zero element is one of several generalizations of the number zero to other algebraic structures.

## Zero of a function

In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation f(x).

## Zorn's lemma

Zorn's lemma, also known as the Kuratowski–Zorn lemma, after mathematicians Max Zorn and Kazimierz Kuratowski, is a proposition of set theory that states that a partially ordered set containing upper bounds for every chain (that is, every totally ordered subset) necessarily contains at least one maximal element.

## 1

1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

New!!: Vector space and 1 · See more »

## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

## References

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