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Index Vedas

The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent. [1]

160 relations: A Vedic Word Concordance, Adi Shankara, Advaita Vedanta, Aitareya Upanishad, Alvars, Ancient literature, Angiras (sage), Anukramaṇī, Apauruṣeyā, Aranyaka, Archery, Artha, Arthur Schopenhauer, Ashrama (stage), Atharvan, Atharvaveda, Ayurveda, Ājīvika, Āstika and nāstika, Ātman (Hinduism), Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavata Purana, Bhakti movement, Bihar, Brahma, Brahma Sutras, Brahman, Brahmana, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Bronze Age India, Buddhism, Chandogya Upanishad, Charvaka, Cremation, Dāna, Deontological ethics, Dvaita Vedanta, English language, Epistemology, Fifth Veda, Foot (prosody), Frits Staal, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Gautama Buddha, Gavin Flood, Greek language, Harvard Oriental Series, Hindu, Hindu denominations, Hindu philosophy, ..., Hindu temple architecture, Hindu texts, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, Homa (ritual), Horace Hayman Wilson, Hymn, Idea, Indian classical dance, Indian epic poetry, Indian martial arts, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-European studies, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Iron Age in India, Iyengar, Jainism, Jan Gonda, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Jyotisha, Kalpa (Vedanga), Kanva, Katha Upanishad, Kātyāyana, Kena Upanishad, Kingdom of the Videhas, Klaus Klostermaier, Knowledge, Latin, Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben, Mahabharata, Mahajanapada, Mantra, Marriage, Maurice Bloomfield, Maurya Empire, Max Müller, Memory of the World Programme, Memory of the World Register – Asia and the Pacific, Michael Witzel, Mitanni-Aryan, Motilal Banarsidass, Mukhya Upanishads, Naalayira Divya Prabhandham, Nalanda, Nasadiya Sukta, Natya Shastra, Nepal, Nirukta, Nondualism, Northern Black Polished Ware, Oral tradition, Oxford University Press, Pada (foot), Pancharatra, Patanjali, Patrick Olivelle, Paul Deussen, Pāṇini, Proto-Indo-European language, Punjab, Puranas, Pyramid Texts, Ralph T. H. Griffith, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Recension, Redaction, Rigveda, Rigvedic deities, Rigvedic rivers, Rishi, Sacred Books of the East, Sage (philosophy), Samaveda, Samhita, Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, Sanskrit, Sanskrit prosody, Sayana, Shakha, Shatapatha Brahmana, Shaunaka, Shiksha, Smriti, Sutra, Taittiriya Shakha, Tamil language, Taxila, Terminus post quem, Theosophy (Blavatskian), UNESCO, University of Hamburg, Upanishads, Upasana, Vanaprastha, Vedanga, Vedanta, Vedic and Sanskrit literature, Vedic chant, Vedic period, Vedic priesthood, Vedic Sanskrit, Vikramashila, Voltaire, Vyākaraṇa, Wit, Yajna, Yajurveda. Expand index (110 more) »

A Vedic Word Concordance

A Vedic Word Concordance (Sanskrit) is a multi-volume concordance of the corpus of Vedic Sanskrit texts.

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Adi Shankara

Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.

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Advaita Vedanta

Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.

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Aitareya Upanishad

The Aitareya Upanishad (Sanskrit: ऐतरेय उपनिषद्) is a Mukhya Upanishad, associated with the Rigveda.

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The alvars, also spelt as alwars or azhwars (āḻvārkaḷ, Tamil: ஆழ்வார்கள் ‘those immersed in god’) were Tamil poet-saints of South India who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu Supreme god Vishnu or his avatar Krishna in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.

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Ancient literature

This article presents a list of the historical events and publications of literature during ancient times.

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Angiras (sage)

Angiras (अंगिरस्, pronounced) is a Vedic rishi (sage) of Hinduism.

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The Anukramanis (अनुक्रमणी) (also) are the systematic indices of Vedic hymnsMax Müller, F. (1860) A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature So Far As It Illustrates the Primitive Religion of the Brahmans, London:Williams and Norgate, pp.215-29 recording poetic meter, content, and traditions of authorship.

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Apaurusheya (Sanskrit: अपौरुषेय), literally means "not of a man" and "superhuman".

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The Aranyakas (Sanskrit: आरण्यक) constitutes the philosophy behind ritual sacrifice of the ancient Indian sacred texts, the Vedas.

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Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.

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Artha (अर्थ) is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Ashrama (stage)

An Ashrama (Sanskrit: āśrama) in Hinduism is one of four age-based life stages discussed in ancient and medieval era Indian texts.

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Atharvan (an n-stem with nominative singular) was a legendary Vedic sage (rishi) of Hinduism who along with Angiras is supposed to have authored ("heard") the Atharvaveda.

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The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".

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Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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Ajivika (IAST) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.

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Āstika and nāstika

Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".

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Ātman (Hinduism)

Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.

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Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).

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Bhagavata Purana

Bhagavata Purana (Devanagari: भागवतपुराण) also known as Śrīmad Bhāgavata Mahā Purāṇa, Śrīmad Bhāgavatam or Bhāgavata, is one of Hinduism's eighteen great Puranas (Mahapuranas, great histories).

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Bhakti movement

The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism.

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Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.

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Brahma Sutras

The Brahma sūtras (ब्रह्म सूत्र) is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 BCE and 200 CE.

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In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.

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The Brahmanas (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇa) are a collection of ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas.

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Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism.

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Bronze Age India

The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent begins around 3000 BCE, and in the end gives rise to the Indus Valley Civilization, which had its (mature) period between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Chandogya Upanishad

The Chandogya Upanishad (Sanskrit: छांदोग्योपनिषद्, IAST: Chāndogyopaniṣad) is a Sanskrit text embedded in the Chandogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda of Hinduism.

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Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.

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Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.

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Dāna (Devanagari: दान) is a Sanskrit and Pali word that connotes the virtue of generosity, charity or giving of alms in Indian philosophies.

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Deontological ethics

In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.

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Dvaita Vedanta

Dvaita Vedanta (द्वैत वेदान्त) is a sub-school in the Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Fifth Veda

The notion of a fifth Veda (Sanskrit), that is, of a text which lies outside the four canonical Vedas, but nonetheless has the status of a Veda, is one that has been advanced in a number of post-Vedic Hindu texts, in order to accord a particular text or texts and their doctrines with the timelessness and authority that Hinduism associates with the Vedas.

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Foot (prosody)

The foot is the basic repeating rhythmic unit that forms part of a line of verse in most Western traditions of poetry, including English accentual-syllabic verse and the quantitative meter of classical ancient Greek and Latin poetry.

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Frits Staal

Johan Frederik (Frits) Staal (3 November 1930 – 19 February 2012) was the department founder and Emeritus Professor of Philosophy and South/Southeast Asian Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Gaudiya Vaishnavism

Gaudiya Vaishnavism (also known as (Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava tradition, Bengali Vaishnavism, or Chaitanya Vaishnavism) is a Vaishnava religious movement inspired by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534) in North India. "Gauḍīya" refers to the Gauḍa region (present day Bengal/Bangladesh) with Vaishnavism meaning "the worship of Vishnu or Krishna". Its theological basis is primarily that of the Bhagavad Gītā and Bhāgavata Purāṇa as interpreted by early disciples of Chaitanya such as Sanātana Gosvāmin, Rūpa Gosvāmin, Jīva Gosvāmin, Gopala Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmin, and others. The focus of Gaudiya Vaishnavism is the devotional worship (bhakti) of Radha and Krishna, and their many divine incarnations as the supreme forms of God, Svayam Bhagavan. Most popularly, this worship takes the form of singing Radha and Krishna's holy names, such as "Hare", "Krishna" and "Rama", most commonly in the form of the Hare Krishna (mantra), also known as kirtan. The movement is sometimes referred to as the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya, referring to its traditional origins in the succession of spiritual masters (gurus) believed to originate from Brahma. It classifies itself as a monotheistic tradition, seeing the many forms of Vishnu or Krishna as expansions or incarnations of the one Supreme God, adipurusha.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Gavin Flood

Gavin Dennis Flood (born 1954) FBA is a British scholar of comparative religion specialising in Shaivism and phenomenology, but with research interests that span South Asian traditions.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Harvard Oriental Series

The Harvard Oriental Series is a book series founded in 1891 by Charles Rockwell Lanman and Henry Clarke Warren.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hindu denominations

Hindu denominations are traditions within Hinduism centered on one or more gods or goddesses, such as Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma.

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Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.

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Hindu temple architecture

Hindu temple architecture has many varieties of style, though the basic nature of the Hindu temple remains the same, with the essential feature an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, where the primary Murti or the image of a deity is housed in a simple bare cell.

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Hindu texts

Hindu texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Historical Vedic religion

The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.

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Homa (ritual)

Homa is a Sanskrit word that refers to a ritual, wherein an oblation or any religious offering is made into fire.

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Horace Hayman Wilson

Horace Hayman Wilson (26 September 1786 – 8 May 1860) was an English orientalist.

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A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

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In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.

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Indian classical dance

Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be part of the Indian classical canon (Bharata Natyam, Chhau, Kathak, Kathakali, Manipuri, Mohiniattam, Odissi, Sattriya and Yakshagana) trace their roots to religious practices (...) the Indian diaspora has led to the translocation of Hindu dances to Europe, North America and the world." whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.

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Indian epic poetry

Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).

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Indian martial arts

Indian martial arts refers to the fighting systems of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indo-Aryan languages

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indo-European studies

Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct.

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Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch

The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW; "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny.

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International Society for Krishna Consciousness

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.

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Iron Age in India

In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture.

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Iyengar or Ayyangar or Aiyengar is a caste of Hindu Brahmins of Tamil origin whose members follow the Visishtadvaita philosophy propounded by Ramanuja.

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Jan Gonda

Jan Gonda, (14 April 1905 – 28 July 1991) was a Dutch Indologist and the first Utrecht professor of Sanskrit.

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Journal of the American Academy of Religion

The Journal of the American Academy of Religion, formerly the Journal of Bible and Religion, is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Religion.

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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, IAST: Jyotiṣa) is the science of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time.

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Kalpa (Vedanga)

Kalpa (कल्प) means "proper, fit" and is one of the six disciplines of the Vedānga, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.

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Kanva (Sanskrit: कण्व) was an ancient Hindu rishi of the Treta yuga, to whom some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed.

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Katha Upanishad

The Katha Upanishad (Sanskrit: कठोपनिषद् or कठ उपनिषद्) is one of the mukhya (primary) Upanishads, embedded in the last short eight sections of the school of the Krishna Yajurveda.

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Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) (c. 300 BC) was a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India.

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Kena Upanishad

The Kena Upanishad is a Vedic Sanskrit text classified as one of the primary or Mukhya Upanishads that is embedded inside the last section of the Talavakara Brahmanam of the Samaveda.

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Kingdom of the Videhas

The Kingdom of the Videhas (also known as Mithila and Tirabhukti) was an ancient kingdom in Vedic India which rose to prominence under King Janaka.

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Klaus Klostermaier

Klaus K. Klostermaier (born 1933) is a prominent German-Canadian scholar on Hinduism and Indian history and culture.

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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben

The Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben (LIV, "Lexicon of the Indo-European Verbs") is an etymological dictionary of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) verb.

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The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.

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Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.

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A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.

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Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).

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Maurice Bloomfield

Maurice Bloomfield, Ph.D., LL.D. (February 23, 1855 – June 12, 1928) was a Polish-born American philologist and Sanskrit scholar.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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Max Müller

Friedrich Max Müller (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900), generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life.

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Memory of the World Programme

UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.

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Memory of the World Register – Asia and the Pacific

The first inscriptions on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register were made in 1997.

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Michael Witzel

Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.

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Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.

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Motilal Banarsidass

Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.

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Mukhya Upanishads

Mukhya Upanishads, also known as Principal Upanishads, are the most ancient, widely studied Upanishads of Hinduism.

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Naalayira Divya Prabhandham

The Nalayira Divya Prabandham (translit) is a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses (Naalayiram in Tamil means 'four thousand') composed by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries.

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Nalanda was a Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.

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Nasadiya Sukta

The Nasadiya Sukta (after the incipit, or "not the non-existent"), also known as the Hymn of Creation, is the 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda (10:129).

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Natya Shastra

The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Nirukta (निरुक्त) means "explained, interpreted" and refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.

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In spirituality, nondualism, also called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second".

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Northern Black Polished Ware

The Northern Black Polished Ware culture (abbreviated NBPW or NBP) is an urban Iron Age culture of the Indian Subcontinent, lasting c. 700–200 BCE, succeeding the Painted Grey Ware culture and Black and red ware culture.

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Oral tradition

Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pada (foot)

Pāda is the Sanskrit term for "foot" (cognate to English foot, Latin pes, Greek pous), with derived meanings "step, stride; footprint, trace; vestige, mark".

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Pancharatra (IAST: Pāñcarātra) was a religious movement in Hinduism that originated in late 1st millennium BCE around the ideas of Narayana considered as an avatar of Vishnu.

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(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.

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Patrick Olivelle

Patrick Olivelle is an Indologist.

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Paul Deussen

Paul Jakob Deussen (7 January 1845 – 6 July 1919) was a German Indologist and professor of Philosophy at University of Kiel.

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(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.

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Pyramid Texts

The Pyramid Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom.

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Ralph T. H. Griffith

Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826–1906) was an English Indologist.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Recension is the practice of editing or revising a text based on critical analysis.

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Redaction is a form of editing in which multiple source texts are combined (redacted) and altered slightly to make a single document.

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Rigvedic deities

There are 1000 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

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Rigvedic rivers

Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah ("seven rivers" सप्त सिन्धव) play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, and consequently in early Hindu religion.

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Rishi (Sanskrit: ऋषि IAST: ṛṣi) is a Vedic term for an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas.

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Sacred Books of the East

The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910.

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Sage (philosophy)

A sage (σοφός, sophos), in classical philosophy, is someone who has attained the wisdom which a philosopher seeks.

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The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, from "song" and "knowledge"), is the Veda of melodies and chants.

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Samhita literally means "put together, joined, union", a "collection", and "a methodically, rule-based combination of text or verses".

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Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya

Sampurnanand Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya (IAST: Sampūrnānand Samskrit Vișvavidyālaya, Vāraṇāsī) is an Indian institution of higher learning located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, specializing in the study of Sanskrit and related fields.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sanskrit prosody

Sanskrit prosody or Chandas refers to one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies.

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(Kannada; with honorific; died 1387) was an important commentator on the Vedas.

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A shakha (Sanskrit, "branch" or "limb"), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.

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Shatapatha Brahmana

The Shatapatha Brahmana (IAST:, "Brāhmaṇa of one hundred parts") is a prose text describing Vedic rituals, history and mythology associated with the Śukla Yajurveda.

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Shaunaka (शौनक) is the name applied to teachers, and to a Shakha of the Atharvaveda.

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Shiksha (शिक्षा IAST) is a Sanskrit word, which means "instruction, lesson, learning, study of skill".

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Smriti (स्मृति, IAST), literally "that which is remembered" are a body of Hindu texts usually attributed to an author, traditionally written down but constantly revised, in contrast to Śrutis (the Vedic literature) considered authorless, that were transmitted verbally across the generations and fixed.

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A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

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Taittiriya Shakha

The Taittiriya Shakha is a notable shakha ("rescension") of the Krishna Yajurveda.

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Tamil language

Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.

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Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.

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Terminus post quem

Terminus post quem ("limit after which", often abbreviated to TPQ) and terminus ante quem ("limit before which", abbreviated to TAQ) specify the known limits of dating for events.

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Theosophy (Blavatskian)

Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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University of Hamburg

The University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg, also referred to as UHH) is a comprehensive university in Hamburg, Germany.

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The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.

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Upasana (Sanskrit: उपासना) literally means "Worship" and "sitting near, attend to".

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Vanaprastha (वनप्रस्थ) literally means "giving up worldly life".

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The Vedanga (वेदाङ्ग, "limbs of the Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines in Vedic culture that developed in ancient times, and has been connected with the study of the Vedas.

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Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.

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Vedic and Sanskrit literature

Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).

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Vedic chant

The oral tradition of the Vedas (Śrauta) consists of several pathas, "recitations" or ways of chanting the Vedic mantras.

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Vedic period

The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.

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Vedic priesthood

Priests of the Vedic religion are officiants of the yajna service.

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Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.

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Vikramashila (IAST) was one of the two most important centres of learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit: "explanation, analysis") refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, ancillary science connected with the Vedas, which are scriptures in Hinduism.

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Wit is a form of intelligent humour, the ability to say or write things that are clever and usually funny.

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Yajna (IAST) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.

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The Yajurveda (Sanskrit: यजुर्वेद,, from meaning "prose mantra" and veda meaning "knowledge") is the Veda of prose mantras.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedas

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