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Veganism is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. [1]

342 relations: Abolitionism (animal rights), Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Acid rain, Adventism, Agave nectar, Ahimsa, Alcott House, Allantoin, Almond milk, Alpha hydroxy acid, Alpha-Linolenic acid, Alpro, American Vegan Society, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amos Bronson Alcott, Ancient Greece, Andrew Linzey, Angora wool, Animal fat, Animal product, Animal protectionism, Animal rights, Animal science, Animal testing, Animal welfare, Anna Kingsford, Arame, Artificial leather, Bacteria, Baking powder, Barley malt syrup, Batter (cooking), Bean, Beauty Without Cruelty, Beef, Beeswax, Bioavailability, Biodiversity, Blood, Blue Diamond Growers, Body mass index, Bok choy, Bone char, Bone china, Bone density, Breakfast cereal, Bruce Friedrich, Brussels sprout, Calcium, ..., Caldwell Esselstyn, Calorie, Canadian Paediatric Society, Cancer, Carbon dioxide, Cardiovascular disease, Carmine, Casein, Cashmere wool, Cassava, Cell division, Cell signaling, Cheese analogue, Chick culling, Chocolate brownie, Cholecalciferol, Cholesterol, Chreese, Chronic condition, Climate change, Cochineal, Coconut milk, Colgate (toothpaste), Collagen, Commodification, Commodity, Complete protein, Confounding, Conrad Beissel, Consequentialism, Conservation (ethic), Cooking plantain, Coprophagia, Cowspiracy, Cup (unit), Dairy cattle, Dairy product, Daiya, Daniel Dombrowski, David Kaplan (philosopher), Dean Foods, Dean Ornish, Deontological ethics, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diet for a New America, Diet for a Small Planet, Dietary fiber, Dietary Reference Intake, Dietitians of Canada, DNA synthesis, Donald Watson, Earthlings (film), Eating Animals, Eatwell plate, Edamame, Edible mushroom, Edible seaweed, Egg (food), Egg white, Elastin, Empedocles, Emu oil, Energy bar, Environmental vegetarianism, Ergocalciferol, Ergosterol, Erik Marcus, Essential amino acid, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Fanny Kemble, Folic acid, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food and drink prohibitions, Food fortification, Food pyramid (nutrition), Food, Inc., Forks Over Knives, Fowl, Frances Moore Lappé, Fruit, Fruitlands (transcendental center), Game (hunting), Gary L. 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Colin Campbell, Tablespoon, Tallow, Tannin, Tapioca, Tempeh, Temple School (Massachusetts), Textured vegetable protein, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, The China Study, The Ecologist, The Vegan Society, Theophrastus, Tofu, Tofutti, Tom Regan, Tonne, United Nations Environment Programme, United States Department of Agriculture, Urinary system, Val Plumwood, Vasodilation, Veal, Veganz, Vegetable, Vegetarian cuisine, Vegetarian Diet Pyramid, Vegetarian Society, Vegetarianism, Veggie burger, Vegucated, Victor Herbert (hematologist), Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Wakame, Western pattern diet, Wheat gluten (food), Whey, Whole grain, Wikipedia, William Alcott, World Vegan Day, Yeast, Yellow grease, Zinc, 6th century BC. Expand index (292 more) »

Abolitionism (animal rights)

Abolitionism is the advocacy of animal rights that oppose all animal usage by humans and maintains that all sentient beings, humans or nonhumans, share a basic right: the right not to be treated as the property of others.

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Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the United States' largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with close to 72,000 members.

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Acid rain

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).

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Adventism is a branch of Protestantism which began in the 19th century in the context of the Second Great Awakening revival in the United States.

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Agave nectar

Agave nectar (more accurately called agave syrup) is a sweetener commercially produced from several species of agave, including Agave tequilana (blue agave) and Agave salmiana.

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Ahimsa (अहिंसा; IAST:, Pāli) is a term meaning 'not to injure' and 'compassion'.

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Alcott House

Alcott House in Ham, Surrey (now in Richmond in Greater London), was the home of a utopian spiritual community and progressive school which lasted from 1838 to 1848.

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Allantoin is a chemical compound with formula C4H6N4O3.

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Almond milk

Almond milk is a plant milk with a creamy texture and nutty taste.

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Alpha hydroxy acid

α-Hydroxy acids, or alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.

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Alpha-Linolenic acid

α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n−3 fatty acid, it is one of two essential fatty acids (EFAs), so called because they are necessary for health, and they cannot be produced within the human body.

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Alpro is a company based in Belgium that markets organic and non-organic, non-genetically modified, soy based food and drink products.

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American Vegan Society

The American Vegan Society (AVS) is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization that promotes veganism in the United States.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amos Bronson Alcott

Amos Bronson Alcott (November 29, 1799 – March 4, 1888) was an American teacher, writer, philosopher, and reformer.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Andrew Linzey

Andrew Linzey is a British Anglican priest, theologian, author, and prominent figure in the Christian vegetarian movement.

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Angora wool

Angora hair or Angora fibre refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit.

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Animal fat

Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals.

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Animal product

An animal product is any material derived from the body of an animal.

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Animal protectionism

Animal protectionism is a position within animal rights theory that favors incremental change in pursuit of non-human animal interests.

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Animal rights

Animal rights is the idea that some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

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Animal science

Animal Science is described as "studying the biology of animals that are under the control of humankind".

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Animal testing

Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research, and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments (although some research about animals involves only natural behaviors or pure observation, such as a mouse running a maze or field studies of chimp troops).

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Animal welfare

Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.

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Anna Kingsford

Anna Kingsford, née Bonus (16 September 1846 – 22 February 1888), was an English anti-vivisection, vegetarian and women's rights campaigner.

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, sea oak is a species of kelp best known for its use in Japanese cuisine.

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Artificial leather

Artificial leather is a fabric or finish intended to substitute for leather in fields such as upholstery, clothing, and fabrics, and other uses where a leather-like finish is required but the actual material is cost-prohibitive, unsuitable, or unusable for ethical reasons.

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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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Baking powder

Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid, and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods.

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Barley malt syrup

Barley malt syrup is an unrefined sweetener produced from sprouted i.e., malted barley, containing approximately 65 percent maltose, 30 percent complex carbohydrate, 3% protein.

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Batter (cooking)

Batter is a liquid mixture of one or more flours made with ground grains or soaked grains that are ground.

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Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae) which are used for human or animal food.

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Beauty Without Cruelty

Beauty Without Cruelty (BWC) is a British company that manufactures vegan cosmetics.

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Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially cattle.

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Beeswax (Cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis.

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In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Global Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on Earth and the variations within species.

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Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blue Diamond Growers

Blue Diamond Growers is a California agricultural cooperative and marketing organization that specializes in almonds.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index, is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Bok choy

Bok choy or pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) is a type of Chinese cabbage.

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Bone char

Bone char (carbo animalis.) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bones.

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Bone china

Bone china is a type of soft-paste porcelain that is composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, and kaolin.

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Bone density

Bone density (or bone mineral density) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimeter of bones.

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Breakfast cereal

Breakfast cereal (or just cereal) is a food made from processed grains that is often eaten as the first meal of the day.

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Bruce Friedrich

Bruce Friedrich (born August 7, 1969) is Senior Policy Director for Farm Sanctuary.

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Brussels sprout

The Brussels sprout is a member of the Gemmifera Group of cabbages (Brassica oleracea), grown for its edible buds.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Caldwell Esselstyn

Caldwell Blakeman Esselstyn Jr. (born December 12, 1933), heartattackproof.com.

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The name calorie is used for two units of energy.

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Canadian Paediatric Society

The Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) is a national association of paediatricians, committed to working together to advance the health of children and youth by nurturing excellence in health care, advocacy, education, research and support of its membership.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Carmine Carmine, also called crimson lake, cochineal, natural red 4, C.I. 75470, or E120, is a pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminium salt of carminic acid; it is also a general term for a particularly deep-red color of the same name.

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Casein (or, from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).

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Cashmere wool

Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a fiber obtained from cashmere goats and other types of goat.

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Manihot esculenta, with common names cassava, Brazilian arrowroot, manioc, and tapioca, is a woody shrub of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, native to South America.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions.

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Cheese analogue

Cheese analogues (more widely known as cheese alternatives) are products used as culinary replacements for cheese.

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Chick culling

Chick culling is the process of killing newly hatched poultry for which the industry has no use.

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Chocolate brownie

A chocolate brownie is a flat, baked dessert square that was developed in the United States at the end of the 19th century and popularized in both the U.S. and Canada during the first half of the 20th century.

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Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is one of the five forms of vitamin D. It is a secosteroid, that is, a steroid molecule with one ring open.

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Cholesterol, from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid) followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic molecule.

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Chreese is a vegan, plant-based, cheese substitute made with nutritional yeast.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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The cochineal (or; Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived.

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Coconut milk

Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a brown coconut.

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Colgate (toothpaste)

Colgate (sub-brand of Colgate-Palmolive) is an oral hygiene product line of toothpastes, toothbrushes, mouthwashes and dental floss.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animals.

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Commodification is the transformation of goods and services, as well as ideas or other entities that normally may not be considered goods, into a commodity (in the Marxist sense of the word).

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In economics, a commodity is a marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs.

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Complete protein

A complete protein (or whole protein) is a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of humans or other animals.

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In statistics, a confounding variable (also confounding factor, a confound, or confounder) is an extraneous variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and the independent variable.

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Conrad Beissel

Johann Conrad Beissel (March 1, 1691 – July 6, 1768) was the German-born religious leader who in 1732 founded the Ephrata Community in Pennsylvania, USA.

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Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.

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Conservation (ethic)

Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection.

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Cooking plantain

A plantain, or cooking plantain, is one of the less sweet cultivated varieties (cultivars) of the genus Musa whose fruit is also known as the banana.

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Coprophagia or coprophagy is the consumption of feces.

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Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret is a 2014 documentary film produced and directed by Kip Andersen and Keegan Kuhn.

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Cup (unit)

The cup is a unit of measurement for volume, used in cooking to measure liquids (fluid measurement) and bulk foods such as granulated sugar (dry measurement).

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Dairy cattle

Dairy cattle (also called dairy cows or milk cows) are cattle cows bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made.

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Dairy product

A dairy product or milk product is food produced from the milk of mammals.

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Daiya Foods Inc. is a Canada-based dairy alternative food company located in Vancouver, British Columbia.

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Daniel Dombrowski

Daniel A. Dombrowski (born 1953) is Professor of Philosophy at Seattle University.

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David Kaplan (philosopher)

David Benjamin Kaplan (born 1933) is an American philosopher and logician teaching at UCLA.

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Dean Foods

Dean Foods is an American food and beverage company that specializes in dairy products.

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Dean Ornish

Dean Michael Ornish (born July 16, 1953) is a physician and president and founder of the nonprofit Preventive Medicine Research Institute in Sausalito, California, as well as Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.

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Deontological ethics

Deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin.

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Diet for a New America

Diet for a New America is a 1987 bestselling book by John Robbins.

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Diet for a Small Planet

Diet for a Small Planet is a 1971 bestselling book by Frances Moore Lappé, the first major book to note the environmental impact of meat production as wasteful and a contributor to global food scarcity.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Dietary Reference Intake

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).

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Dietitians of Canada

Dietitians of Canada (DC) is the professional organization and "nation-wide voice of dietitians in Canada".

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DNA synthesis

DNA synthesis is the natural or artificial creation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules.

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Donald Watson

Donald Watson (2 September 1910 – 16 November 2005) was an English animal rights advocate who coined the word vegan and founded the Vegan Society.

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Earthlings (film)

Earthlings is a 2005 American documentary film about humanity's use of other animals as pets, food, clothing, entertainment, and for scientific research.

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Eating Animals

Eating Animals is the third book by the American writer Jonathan Safran Foer, published in 2009.

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Eatwell plate

The Eatwell Plate is a pictorial summary of the main food groups and their recommended proportions for a healthy diet.

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or edamame bean is a preparation of immature soybeans in the pod, found in the cuisine of China, Japan, Korea and Hawaii.

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Edible mushroom

Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye).

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Edible seaweed

Edible seaweed are algae that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food.

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Egg (food)

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.

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Egg white

Egg white is the common name for the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.

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Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.

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Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily.

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Emu oil

Emu oil is oil derived from adipose tissue harvested from certain subspecies of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae, a flightless bird indigenous to Australia.

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Energy bar

Energy bars are supplemental bars containing cereals and other high energy foods targeted at people that require quick energy but do not have time for a meal.

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Environmental vegetarianism

Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of vegetarianism or veganism based on the indications that animal production, particularly by intensive farming, is environmentally unsustainable.

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Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is a form of vitamin D. Ergocalciferol is a secosteroid formed by a photochemical bond breaking of a steroid, specifically, by the action of ultraviolet light on ergosterol.

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Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.

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Erik Marcus

Erik Marcus (born October 25, 1966) is a writer and public speaker who runs the website Vegan.com, which discusses veganism news, vegan topics of interest, animal rights and animal welfare through a short, weekly podcast.

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Essential amino acid

An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism being considered, and therefore must be supplied in its diet.

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European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

The European Journal of Clinical Nutrition is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering nutrition science and published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study is a Europe-wide prospective cohort study of the relationships between diet and cancer, as well as other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease.

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Fanny Kemble

Frances Anne "Fanny" Kemble (27 November 180915 January 1893) was a notable British actress from a theatre family in the early and mid-19th century.

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Folic acid

Folic acid or folate is a B vitamin.

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food and drink prohibitions

People, or some people, abstain from consuming various foods and beverages for a variety of religious, cultural, legal or other societal prohibitions.

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Food fortification

Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.

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Food pyramid (nutrition)

A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a pyramid-shaped diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups.

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Food, Inc.

Food, Inc. is a 2008 American documentary film directed by Emmy Award-winning filmmaker Robert Kenner.

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Forks Over Knives

Forks Over Knives (2011) is an American documentary film that advocates a low-fat, whole-food, plant-based diet as a way to avoid or reverse several chronic diseases.

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Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes).

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Frances Moore Lappé

Frances Moore Lappé (born February 10, 1944) is the author of 18 books including the three-million copy Diet for a Small Planet.

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In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues.

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Fruitlands (transcendental center)

Fruitlands was a Utopian agrarian commune established in Harvard, Massachusetts by Amos Bronson Alcott and Charles Lane in the 1840s, based on Transcendentalist principles.

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Game (hunting)

Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.

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Gary L. Francione

Gary Lawrence Francione (born May 1954) is an American legal scholar.

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Gary Steiner

Gary Steiner is an American moral philosopher, and the John Howard Harris Professor of Philosophy at Bucknell University.

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Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colourless, brittle (when dry), flavourless foodstuff, derived from collagen obtained from various animal by-products.

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George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 18562 November 1950) was a Nobel-Prize-winning Irish playwright, critic and passionate socialist whose influence on Western theater, culture and politics stretched from the 1880s to his death in 1950, at 94 one of the world's most famous men.

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Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a protein composite found in wheat and related grains, including barley and rye.

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Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol (sugar alcohol) compound.

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Grains are small, hard, dry seeds, with or without attached hulls or fruit layers, harvested for human or animal consumption.

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H. Jay Dinshah

Hom Jay Dinshah (November 2, 1933 – June 8, 2000) was founder and president of the American Vegan Society and editor of its publication, Ahimsa magazine (1960–2000).

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Ham Common, London

Ham Common is an area of common land in Ham, London.

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Hemp milk

Hemp milk or hemp seed milk, is a plant milk made from hemp seeds that are soaked and ground in water, yielding a beany-nutty cream flavored substance.

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Henry Stephens Salt

Henry Stephens Salt (20 September 1851 – 19 April 1939) was an English writer and campaigner for social reform in the fields of prisons, schools, economic institutions, and the treatment of animals.

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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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High Holborn

High Holborn is a street in Holborn, central London, which forms a part of the A40 route from London to Fishguard.

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History of USDA nutrition guides

The history of USDA nutrition guides includes over 100 years of American nutrition advice.

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Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.

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A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Howard Williams (humanitarian)

Howard Williams (1837-1931) was an English humanitarian and vegetarian, and author of the book The Ethics of Diet, an anthology of vegetarian thought.

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Human iron metabolism

Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions maintaining human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level.

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A humectant is a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist; it is the opposite of a desiccant.

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Hummus or houmous (or; حُمُّص) is a Levantine and Egyptian food dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Infant formula

Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).

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Influenza vaccine

The influenza vaccine, also known as flu shot, is an annual vaccination using a vaccine that is specific for a given year to protect against the highly variable influenza virus.

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Intensive animal farming

Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also called factory farming, is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the keeping of livestock, such as cattle, poultry (including in "battery cages") and fish at higher stocking densities than is usually the case with other forms of animal agriculture—a practice typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses.

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International Vegetarian Union

The International Vegetarian Union (IVU) is an international non-profit organization whose purpose is to promote vegetarianism.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Iodised salt

Iodised salt (also spelled iodized salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine.

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Iron overload

Iron overload, also known as haemochromatosis, indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.

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Iron-deficiency anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia, also spelled iron-deficiency anaemia, is defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood due to not enough iron.

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Isinglass is a substance obtained from the dried swim bladders of fish.

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Israel Central Bureau of Statistics

The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.

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James Pierrepont Greaves

James Pierrepont Greaves (1 February 1777 – 11 March 1842), was an English mystic, educational reformer, socialist and progressive thinker who founded Alcott House, a short-lived utopian community and free school in Surrey.

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Jason Gaverick Matheny

Jason Gaverick Matheny became director of Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity in 2015, after serving as a program manager, associate office director, and office director.

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Joanne Stepaniak

Jo Stepaniak (born 1954) is an American writer specializing in veganism and nutrition.

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John A. McDougall

John A. McDougall is an American physician and author who claims that degenerative disease can be prevented and treated with a low-fat, whole foods, plant-based/vegan diet—especially one based on starches such as potatoes, rice, and corn—which excludes all animal foods and added vegetable oils.

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John Robbins (author)

John Robbins (born October 26, 1947) is an American author, who popularized the links among nutrition, environmentalism, and animal rights.

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Jonathan Safran Foer

Jonathan Safran Foer (born February 21, 1977) is an American writer.

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Kale or boerenkool is a vegetable of the plant species Brassica oleracea with green or purple leaves, in which the central leaves do not form a head.

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Kathy Freston

Kathy Freston is an American self-help New York Times bestselling author of vegan books and contributor to The Huffington Post.

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Kelps are large seaweeds (algae) belonging to the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) in the order Laminariales.

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Keratin is a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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Kiwi (shoe polish)

Kiwi is the brand name of a shoe polish, first launched and sold in Australia in 1906 and sold in almost 180 countries.

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Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H.

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Lambswool is wool which is 50mm or shorter from the first shearing of a sheep,Preparation of Australian Wool Clips, Code of Practice 2010-2012, Australian Wool Exchange (AWEX), 2010 at around the age of seven months.

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Lanolin (from Latin lāna, ‘wool’, and oleum, ‘oil’), also called wool wax or wool grease, is a wax secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals.

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Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms.

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A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant.

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List of diets

An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that he or she habitually consumes.

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List of vegans

Veganism extends from observing a vegan diet—which is a diet that includes no animals or animal products of any kind—to an entire lifestyle that precludes animal products from all aspects of life.

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List of vegetarian festivals

This is a list of vegetarian and vegan festivals.

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List of vegetarian organizations

This is a list of vegetarian organizations or list of vegan organizations.

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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor.

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Livestock's Long Shadow

Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options is a United Nations report, released by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) on 29 November 2006, that "aims to assess the full impact of the livestock sector on environmental problems, along with potential technical and policy approaches to mitigation".

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Lori Gruen

Lori Gruen (born 1962 in Chicago, Illinois) is a feminist philosopher who works at the intersections of ethical theory and ethical practice, with a particular focus on issues that impact those often overlooked in traditional ethical investigations, e.g. women, people of color, non-human animals.

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Louisa May Alcott

Louisa May Alcott (November 29, 1832 – March 6, 1888) was an American novelist and poet best known as the author of the novel Little Women (1868) and its sequels Little Men (1871) and Jo's Boys (1886).

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Lush (company)

Lush is a cosmetics retailer headquartered in Poole, Dorset United Kingdom, founded by Mark Constantine, a trichologist and Liz Weir, a beauty therapist.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India.

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Mark Bittman

Mark Bittman (born February 17, 1950) is an American food journalist, author, and columnist for The New York Times.

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Meat analogue

Two slices of vegetarian bacon A meat analogue, also called a meat alternative, meat substitute, mock meat, faux meat, imitation meat, or (where applicable) vegetarian meat or vegan meat, approximates certain aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) and/or chemical characteristics of specific types of meat.

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Meat-free days

Meat-free days are declared to discourage or prohibit the consumption of meat or boneless on certain or all days of the week.

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Megaloblastic anemia

Megaloblastic anemia (or megaloblastic anaemia) is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) that results from inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production.

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Melanin (μέλας - melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms (arachnids are one of the few groups in which it has not been detected).

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Michael Greger

Michael Greger is an American physician, author, and professional speaker on public health issues.

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In the metric system, a microgram (µg; in the U.S. recommended when communicating medical information: mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth of a kilogram, one millionth of a gram, or one thousandth of a milligram.

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A microorganism (from the μικρός, mikros, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.

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is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, known in Japanese as, and sometimes rice, barley, or other ingredients.

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Monica Reinagel

Monica Reinagel is a Baltimore-based licensed nutritionist.

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Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.

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MyPlate is the current nutrition guide published by the United States Department of Agriculture, a food circle (i.e. a pie chart) depicting a place setting with a plate and glass divided into five food groups.

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National Academy of Medicine

The National Academy of Medicine, known as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) until June 30, 2015, is an American non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private non-profit organization in the United States.

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National Health and Medical Research Council

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is Australia's peak funding body for medical research, with a budget of roughly $700 million a year.

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National Health Service

The four publicly funded health care systems in the countries of the United Kingdom are referred to as the National Health Service (NHS).

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a biomedical research facility primarily located in Bethesda, Maryland.

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National School Lunch Act

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (79 P.L. 396, 60 Stat. 230) is a United States federal law that created the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) to provide low-cost or free school lunch meals to qualified students through subsidies to schools.

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Neal D. Barnard

Neal D. Barnard (born 1953) is an American doctor, author, clinical researcher, and founding president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), an international network of doctors, scientists, and laypeople who promote preventive medicine, conduct clinical research, and promote higher standards in research.

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A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον, neuron, and the suffix -λογία -logia "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Night soil

Night soil is a euphemism for human feces collected at night from cesspools, privies, etc.

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Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, nitro, or NOS is a chemical compound with the formula.

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is the Japanese name for edible seaweed species of the red algae genus Porphyra, including P. yeeziensis and P. tenera.

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Nut (fruit)

A nut is a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.

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Nutrition Reviews

Nutrition Reviews is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal publishing review articles in the field of nutrition science.

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Nutritional yeast

Nutritional yeast is a deactivated yeast, often a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is sold commercially as a food product.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.

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Oktoberfest is the world's largest Volksfest (beer festival and travelling funfair).

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Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega-3 fatty acids — also called ω-3 fatty acids or n-3 fatty acids — are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C.

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Omega-6 fatty acid

Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.

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An omnivore is an animal whose species normally derives its energy and nutrients from a diet consisting of a variety of food sources that may include plants, animals, algae, fungi and bacteria.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where decreased bone strength increases the risk of a broken bone.

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Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

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Parsley or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of Petroselinum in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Algeria, and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as a herb, a spice, and a vegetable.

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Paul Watson

Paul Franklin Watson (born December 2, 1950) is a Canadian environmental activist, who founded the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, a direct action group focused on marine conservation.

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Peaceable Kingdom: The Journey Home

Peaceable Kingdom: The Journey Home is a documentary released in 2009 which relates the personal transformation of farmers as they reexamine their relationship to animals.

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Penny (British pre-decimal coin)

The pre-decimal penny (1d) was a coin worth one two-hundred-and-fortieth of a pound sterling.

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People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA; stylized PeTA) is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric, as well as epic, poets in the English language.

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Pescetarianism (also spelled pescatarianism) is the practice of following a diet that includes fish or other seafood, but not the flesh of other animals.

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Peter Singer

Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.

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Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., which promotes a vegan diet, preventive medicine, alternatives to animal research, and encourages what it describes as "higher standards of ethics and effectiveness in research.", accessed January 11, 2011.

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Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto means "plant" in Greek).

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Plamil Foods

Plamil Foods Ltd is a British manufacturer of vegan food products.

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Plant milk

Plant milk has been consumed for centuries in various cultures, both as a regular drink (such as the Catalan horchata) and as a substitute for dairy milk.

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Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; c. 204/5 – 270) was a major philosopher of the ancient world.

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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος); c. AD 46 – AD 120) was a Greek historian, biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig (Sus domesticus).

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Porphyry (philosopher)

Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphyrios; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat, their feathers, or sometimes as pets.

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Practical Ethics

Practical Ethics is an introduction to applied ethics by modern bioethical philosopher Peter Singer.

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Priority Products and Materials report

The report Priority Products and Materials: Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production is one of a series of scientific assessments published by the International Resource Panel (IRP) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

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A prohormone refers to a committed precursor of a hormone, usually having minimal hormonal effect by itself.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein (nutrient)

Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.

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Protein combining

Protein combining (also protein complementing) is a dietary strategy for protein nutrition by using complementary sources to optimize biological value.

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Pythagoras of Samos (Samian, or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek) was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and has been credited as the founder of the movement called Pythagoreanism.

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Quinoa (from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a species of the goosefoot genus (Chenopodium quinoa), a grain crop grown primarily for its edible seeds.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Reed Mangels

Ann Reed Mangels is a registered dietitian and lecturer in nutrition at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, specializing in vegan and vegetarian nutrition.

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Reincarnation is the religious or philosophical concept that the soul or spirit, after biological death, can begin a new life in a new body.

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Rendering (animal products)

Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials.

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Rennet is a complex of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals which is used in the production of most cheeses.

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Retinol is one of the animal forms of vitamin A. It is a diterpenoid and an alcohol.

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Rice and beans

Beans and rice are a staple food in many cultures around the world.

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Rice milk

Rice milk is a grain milk made from rice.

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Robert Garner

Robert Garner (born 1960) is professor of political theory at the University of Leicester in the UK.

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Roger Crab

Roger Crab (1621 – 11 September 1680)Bowlt 2007, p. 101–102 was an English soldier, haberdasher, herbal doctor and writer who is best known for his ascetic lifestyle which included Christian vegetarianism.

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Round Table Conferences (India)

The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences organized by the British Government to discuss constitutional reforms in India.

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The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals.

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Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through bacterial actions.

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Sanjay Gupta

Sanjay Gupta, MD (born October 23, 1969) is an American neurosurgeon and an assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine and associate chief of the neurosurgery service at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia.

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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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Sarah Bernhardt

Sarah Bernhardt (c. 22/23 October 1844 – 26 March 1923) was a French stage and early film actress.

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Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a fat that consists of triglycerides containing only fatty acids that are saturated.

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A sausage is a food usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef or veal, along with salt, spices and breadcrumbs, with a skin around it.

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Scale insect

The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.

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School meal programs in the United States

School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families.

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Sea Shepherd Conservation Society

The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (SSCS) is a non-profit, marine conservation organization based in Friday Harbor on San Juan Island, Washington, in the United States.

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering known as the seed coat.

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Seneca the Younger

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known as Seneca the Younger or simply Seneca; c. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Shearling is a skin from a recently sheared sheep or lamb that has been tanned and dressed with the wool left on.

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Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.

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The shiitake (species Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries.

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Silk (plant milk)

Silk is a brand of dairy-substitute products (including soy milk, soy yogurt, almond milk and coconut milk) owned by WhiteWave Foods.

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Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally-occurring lactobacilli and yeast.

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Soy milk

Soy milk, also referred to as soymilk or soya milk, is a plant milk produced by soaking dried soybeans and grinding them in water.

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The soybean in the US, also called the soya bean in Europe (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses.

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Speciesism involves the assignment of different values, rights, or special consideration to individuals solely on the basis of their species membership.

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Speciesism: The Movie

Speciesism: The Movie is a 2013 documentary film by American director Mark Devries.

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Spirulina (dietary supplement)

Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that can be consumed by humans and other animals.

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Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.

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Stearic acid

Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid.

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Stonehouse, Gloucestershire

Stonehouse, Gloucestershire is town and urban area within the Stroud District, in the UK.

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In ecology, sustainability is the capacity to endure; it is how biological systems remain diverse and productive indefinitely.

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Sustainable diet

Sustainable diets are eating patterns based on looking at the impact that food consumption has on planetary resources and attempting to create healthy eating patterns that can promote the needs of the environment, society, and the economy.

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Sylvester Graham

The Reverend Sylvester Graham (July 5, 1794 – September 11, 1851), a 19th-century Presbyterian minister, was an American dietary reformer, best known for his emphasis on vegetarianism, the temperance movement, and his invention of graham bread, graham flour, and the graham cracker.

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Systematic review

A systematic review (also systematic literature review or structured literature review, SLR) is a literature review focused on a research question that tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to that question.

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T. Colin Campbell


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A tablespoon is a large spoon used for eating or serving.

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Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, processed from suet.

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A tannin (also known as vegetable tannin, natural organic tannins, or sometimes tannoid, i.e. a type of biomolecule, as opposed to modern synthetic tannin) is an astringent, bitter plant polyphenolic compound that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.

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Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta).

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Tempeh (témpé) is a traditional soy product originally from Indonesia.

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Temple School (Massachusetts)

The Temple School (1834-ca.1841) in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, was established by Bronson Alcott in 1834, and featured a teaching style based on conversation.

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Textured vegetable protein

Textured or texturized vegetable protein (TVP), also known as textured soy protein (TSP), soy meat, or soya chunks is a defatted soy flour product, a by-product of extracting soybean oil.

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The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of clinical nutrition.

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The China Study

The China Study is a book by T. Colin Campbell, Jacob Gould Schurman Professor Emeritus of Nutritional Biochemistry at Cornell University, and his son Thomas M. Campbell II, a physician.

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The Ecologist

The Ecologist is the title of a British environmental journal, then magazine, that was published from 1970 to 2009.

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The Vegan Society

The Vegan Society is a registered charity and the oldest vegan society in the world, founded on 1 November 1944, in the UK by Donald Watson, Elsie "Sally" Shrigley, and 23 others.

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Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school.

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Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food made by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.

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Tofutti Brands Inc. is a US company founded by New York restaurateur David Mintz that makes a range of soy-based, dairy-free foods.

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Tom Regan

Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938) is an American philosopher who specializes in animal rights theory.

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The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency that coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

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Urinary system

The urinary system, also known as the renal system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.

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Val Plumwood

Val Plumwood (11 August 1939 – 29 February 2008) was an Australian ecofeminist philosopher and activist known for her work on anthropocentrism.

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Vasodilation (or vasodilatation) refers to the widening of blood vessels.

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Veal is the meat of young cows, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.

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Veganz GmbH is the first vegan supermarket chain in Europe.

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In everyday usage, a vegetable is any part of a plant that is consumed by humans as food as part of a savoury meal.

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Vegetarian cuisine

Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products.

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Vegetarian Diet Pyramid

Vegetarian Diet Pyramid is a nutrition guide that represents a traditional healthy vegetarian diet.

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Vegetarian Society

The Vegetarian Society is a British registered charity which was established on 30 September 1847 with the original objective "to induce habits of abstinence from the flesh of animals as food, by the dissemination of information upon the subject, by means of tracts, essays, and lectures, proving the many advantages of a physical, intellectual, and moral character resulting from vegetarian habits of diet; and efforts of its members, the adoption of a principle which will tend essentially to the increase of human happiness generally.".

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Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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Veggie burger

A veggie burger is a hamburger-style, or chicken-style, patty that does not contain meat, but may contain animal products such as egg or milk.

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Vegucated is a 2011 American documentary film that explores the challenges of converting to a vegan diet.

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Victor Herbert (hematologist)

Victor Herbert (February 22, 1927 in New York City – November 19, 2002 in New York City) (MD, JD, MACP, FRSM London) was an American hematologist who did ground-breaking work on folate and how its deficiency led to megaloblastic anemia and was a proponent of accurate and responsible nutrition information.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid), is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols.

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is a sea vegetable, or edible seaweed.

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Western pattern diet

The Western pattern diet, also called Western dietary pattern or the meat-sweet diet, is a dietary habit chosen by many people in some developed countries, and increasingly in developing countries.

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Wheat gluten (food)

Wheat gluten, also called seitan (Japanese: セイタン), wheat meat, gluten meat, or simply gluten, is a food made from gluten, the main protein of wheat.

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Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained.

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Whole grain

A whole grain is a cereal grain that contains the germ, endosperm, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

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Wikipedia is a free-access, free-content Internet encyclopedia, supported and hosted by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation.

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William Alcott

William Andrus Alcott (August 6, 1798 – March 29, 1859), also known as William Alexander Alcott, was an American educator, educational reformer, physician, and author of 108 books.

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World Vegan Day

World Vegan Day is an annual event celebrated on 1 November, by vegans around the world.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom with 1,500 species currently identified and are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species.

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Yellow grease

Yellow grease, also termed used cooking oil (UCO), used vegetable oil (UVO), recycled vegetable oil, or waste vegetable oil (WVO) is recovered from businesses and industry that use the oil for cooking.

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Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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6th century BC

The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC.

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Redirects here:

Beegan, Benivore, Criticisms of veganism, Dietary veganism, Edenic Diet, Ethical veganism, Feminist veganism, No animal products, Paris exception, Paris exemption, Straight veg, Strict vegetarian, Strict vegetarianism, The Paris Exemption, True vegetarian, Vegan, Vegan athletics, Vegan cooking, Vegan cuisine, Vegan diet, Vegan food, Vegan vegetarianism, Veganist, Vegans, Vegen.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veganism

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