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Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter. [1]

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Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen "A.

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Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935) was the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), Jewish thinker, Halakhist, Kabbalist and a renowned Torah scholar.

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The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the United States' largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with close to 72,000 members.

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In human nutrition and biology, advanced glycation end products, known as AGEs, are substances that can be a factor in the development or worsening of many degenerative diseases, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic renal failure, and Alzheimer's disease.

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Adventist Health Studies (AHS) is a series of long-term medical research projects of Loma Linda University with the intent to measure the link between lifestyle, diet, disease and mortality of Seventh-day Adventists.

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Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics and esthetics also known in Greek as Αισθητική, or "Aisthētiké") is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Ahimsa (अहिंसा; IAST:, Pāli) is a term meaning 'not to injure' and 'compassion'.

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The Akhand Kirtani Jatha (AKJ) (ਅਖੰਡ ਕੀਰਤਨੀ ਜਥਾ) is an organization (Jatha) of the Sikh Panth that believe that the Sikhs are losing the original message that was given to them by the Gurus.

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Alcott House in Ham, Surrey (now in Richmond in Greater London), was the home of a utopian spiritual community and progressive school which lasted from 1838 to 1848.

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Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world.

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Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.

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The onion genus Allium comprises monocotyledonous flowering plants and includes the onion, garlic, chives, scallion, shallot, and the leek as well as hundreds of wild species.

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α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n−3 fatty acid, it is one of two essential fatty acids (EFAs), so called because they are necessary for health, and they cannot be produced within the human body.

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Alternative medicine is any practice that is put forward as having the healing effects of medicine, but does not originate from evidence gathered using the scientific method, is not part of biomedicine, or is contradicted by scientific evidence or established science.

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Amaranth has been cultivated as a grain for 8,000 years.

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The American Dialect Society (ADS), founded in 1889, is a learned society "dedicated to the study of the English language in North America, and of other languages, or dialects of other languages, influencing it or influenced by it." The Society publishes the academic journal, American Speech.

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Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Ánanda Márga (Sanskrit: আনন্দ মার্গ "The Path of Bliss", also spelled Anand Marg and Ananda Marg) or officially Ánanda Márga Pracáraka Saḿgha (organisation for the propagation of the path of bliss) is a socio-spiritual organisation and movement founded in Jamalpur, Bihar, India in 1955 by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar.

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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.

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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Anemia or anaemia (also spelled anæmia) is usually defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood.

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Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa).

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Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed.

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Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals is a 1975 book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer.

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An animal product is any material derived from the body of an animal.

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Animal rights is the idea that some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

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The animal rights movement, sometimes called the animal liberation movement, animal personhood, or animal advocacy movement, is a social movement which seeks an end to the rigid moral and legal distinction drawn between human and non-human animals, an end to the status of animals as property, and an end to their use in the research, food, clothing, and entertainment industries.

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Animal slaughter is the killing of nonhuman animals, usually referring to killing domestic livestock.

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Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.

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An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.

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Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).

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Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.

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Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskēsis, "exercise" or "training") describes a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from worldly pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Asexuality (or nonsexuality) is the lack of sexual attraction to anyone, or low or absent interest in sexual activity.

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Ash Wednesday, a day of fasting, is the first day of Lent in Western Christianity.

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Ashoka Maurya (IAST:;; 304–232 BCE), commonly known as Ashoka and Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE.

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Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.

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Ayurveda (Sanskrit: आयुर्वेद ''Āyurveda''., "life-knowledge"; English pronunciation) or Ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional Hindu medicine native to the Indian subcontinent.

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B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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The Bahá'í Faith (fa Bahá'iyyat, بهائية Bahá'iyya In English, "Bahá'í" is pronounced with two syllables according to the on the Bahá'í World News Service Website (Bahá'í: Ba-HIGH). In Persian, بهائی is pronounced with three syllables. The exact realization of the English pronunciation varies. The Oxford English Dictionary has, Merriam-Webster has, and the Random House Dictionary has, all with three syllables. See and – A Guide to Pronunciation part 1 and 2, for more pronunciation instructions.) is a monotheistic religion which emphasizes the spiritual unity of all humankind.

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A balut (spelled standardized as balot) is a developing duck embryo (fertilized duck egg) that is boiled and eaten in the shell.

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Battery cages are a housing system used for various animal production methods, but primarily for egg-laying hens.

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Muhammad Raheem Bawa Muhaiyaddeen (died December 8, 1986) was a Tamil-speaking teacher and Sufi mystic from the island of Sri Lanka who first came to the United States on October 11, 1971 and established the Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship in Philadelphia.

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Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae) which are used for human or animal food.

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Beeswax (Cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis.

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The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, or red or golden beet.

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The Bible Christian Church was a Christian vegetarian sect founded by William Cowherd in North West England in 1809.

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The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.

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The black turtle bean is a small, shiny variety of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), especially popular in Latin American cuisine, though it can also be found in Cajun and Creole cuisines of south Louisiana.

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The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean, a legume, is a subspecies of the cowpea, grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean.

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Bone char (carbo animalis.) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bones.

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Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the Lentivirus genus.

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Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 HTLV-I. The natural host of BLV is cattle.

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Breakfast cereal (or just cereal) is a food made from processed grains that is often eaten as the first meal of the day.

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The breast is one of two prominences found on the upper ventral region of the torso of male and female primates.

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Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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British Columbia, also commonly referred to by its initials BC, is a province located on the west coast of Canada.

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The British Dietetic Association (BDA) is a professional association and trade union for dietitians in the United Kingdom.

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The British Mandate for Palestine, shortly Mandate for Palestine, or the Palestine Mandate was a League of Nations mandate for the territory that had formerly constituted the Ottoman Empire sanjaks of Nablus, Acre, the Southern part of the Vilayet of Syria, the Southern portion of the Beirut Vilayet, and the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, prior to the Armistice of Mudros.

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The British Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the rule of Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowerhead is eaten as a vegetable.

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Brown rice (or "hulled" or "unmilled" rice) is whole grain rice.

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Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds, and also used as a cover crop.

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In Buddhism, the views on vegetarianism vary between different schools of thought.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.

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Cabbage (Brassica oleracea or variants) is a leafy green or purple biennial plant, grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Canola refers to both an edible oil (also known as canola oil) produced from the seed of any of several varieties of the rape plant, and to those plants, namely a cultivar of either rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) or field mustard/turnip rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera, syn. B. campestris L.). Consumption of the oil is common and, unlike rapeseed, does not cause harm in humans and livestock.

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Carotenoids are organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms, including some bacteria and some fungi.

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The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.

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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Cerebrovascular disease is a vascular disease of the cerebral circulation.

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Chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, Cicla-Group and Flavescens-Group) is a leafy green vegetable often used in Mediterranean cooking.

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Chick culling is the process of killing newly hatched poultry for which the industry has no use.

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The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.

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The China–Cornell–Oxford Project was a large observational study conducted throughout the 1980s in rural China, jointly funded by Cornell University, the University of Oxford, and the government of China.

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Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa, subspecies pekinensis and chinensis) can refer to two groups of Chinese leaf vegetables often used in Chinese cuisine: the Pekinensis Group (napa cabbage) and the Chinensis Group (bok choy).

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Cholesterol, from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid) followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic molecule.

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The cocoa bean, also cacao bean or simply cocoa or cacao, is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter are extracted.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animals.

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Collard greens (collards) are various loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea, part of the Acephala group, which also contains cabbage and broccoli.

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A colloquialism is a word, phrase or other form used in informal language.

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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).

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Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four types of biological tissue that support, connect, or separate different types of tissues and organs in the body.

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Cornell University is an American private Ivy League and federal land-grant research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), atherosclerotic heart disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease, is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden coronary death.

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Dairy cattle (also called dairy cows or milk cows) are cattle cows bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made.

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A dairy product or milk product is food produced from the milk of mammals.

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The Damdami Taksal (ਦਮਦਮੀ ਟਕਸਾਲ) is a Sikh educational organization in India.

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David Cohen (1887–1972) (also known as “Rav Ha-Nazir,” The Nazirite Rabbi) was a rabbi, talmudist, philosopher, and kabbalist.

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Delicatessen is a term meaning "delicacies" or "fine foods".

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Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin.

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Diet in Hinduism is traditionally governed by the rules laid out in the Dharmaśāstras, a genre of Sanskrit texts pertaining to Hindu religious and legal duty.

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Dietitians of Canada (DC) is the professional organization and "nation-wide voice of dietitians in Canada".

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Discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing is perceived to belong to rather than on individual merit.

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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, sperm, testicles and retina.

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The durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio.

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The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.

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Ebionites, or Ebionaioi (Greek: Ἐβιωναῖοι; derived from Hebrew אביונים ebyonim, ebionim, meaning "the poor" or "poor ones"), is a patristic term referring to a Jewish Christian movement that existed during the early centuries of the Christian Era.

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An economic vegetarian is a person who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint that the consumption of meat is expensive, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just because of necessity.

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The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.

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An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches.

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Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.

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Elephant meat refers to the flesh and other edible parts of elephants.

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The environmental impact of meat production varies because of the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world.

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Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of vegetarianism or veganism based on the indications that animal production, particularly by intensive farming, is environmentally unsustainable.

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Environmentalism or Environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements.

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Ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is a form of vitamin D. Ergocalciferol is a secosteroid formed by a photochemical bond breaking of a steroid, specifically, by the action of ultraviolet light on ergosterol.

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Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.

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Ergot or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.

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An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism being considered, and therefore must be supplied in its diet.

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In many societies, controversy and debate have arisen over the ethics of eating animals.

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Fiber or fibre (from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic string used as a component of composite materials, or, when matted into sheets, used to make products such as paper, papyrus, or felt.

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The Five Precepts (Pali: pañcasīlāni; Sanskrit pañcaśīlāni) constitute the basic code of ethics undertaken by upāsaka and upāsikā ("lay followers") of Buddhism.

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Flax (also known as common flax or linseed), with the binomial name Linum usitatissimum, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.

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With regard to biology, flesh is the soft substance of the body of a living thing.

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Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.

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Folic acid or folate is a B vitamin.

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People, or some people, abstain from consuming various foods and beverages for a variety of religious, cultural, legal or other societal prohibitions.

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Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.

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Free-range eggs are eggs produced from birds that are permitted outdoors for at least part of the day.

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Fruitarianism is a diet that consists entirely or primarily fruits in the botanical sense, and possibly nuts and seeds, without animal products.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms.

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Gamma-linolenic acid or GLA (γ-Linolenic acid), (INN and USAN gamolenic acid) is a fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils.

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Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality located in the Flemish Region of Belgium.

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Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of typically covalent bonding of a protein or lipid molecule with a sugar molecule, such as fructose or glucose, without the controlling action of an enzyme.

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Good Friday is a Christian religious holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Guru Gobind Singh (born Gobind Rai; 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) was a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.

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Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the central religious text of Sikhism, considered by Sikhs to be the final, sovereign guru among the lineage of 10 Sikh Gurus of the religion.

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Guru Nanak (ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ; गुरु नानक, Urdu:, Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) is the founder of Sikhism and the first of the Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated world-wide on Kartik Puranmashi, the full-moon day which falls on different dates each year in the month of Katak, October–November. Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. He set up a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue. It is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity, divinity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them.

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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Halāl (حلال, 'permissible'), also spelled hallal or halaal is any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law.

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Ham Common is an area of common land in Ham, London.

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Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, established in 1636.

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Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a commonly used term for high-growing varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed.

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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.

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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Hinduism Today is a quarterly magazine published by the Himalayan Academy, a nonprofit educational institution, in Kapaʻa, Hawaiʻi, USA.

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The Hominidae, also known as great apes"Great ape" is a common name rather than a taxonomic label, and there are differences in usage.

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The Hominini is a tribe of the subfamily Homininae; it comprises three subtribes: Hominina, with its one genus ''Homo''; Australopithecina, comprising several extinct genera (see taxobox); and Panina, with its one genus Pan, the chimpanzees (see the evolutionary tree below).

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Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.

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The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

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Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases.

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Hummus or houmous (or; حُمُّص) is a Levantine and Egyptian food dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and garlic.

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Hyperhomocysteinemia or hyperhomocysteinaemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high level of homocysteine in the blood, conventionally described as above 15 µmol/L.

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In vitro meat, also called victimless meat, cultured meat, tubesteak, cruelty-free meat, shmeat, and test-tube meat, is an animal-flesh product that has never been part of a living animal with exception of the fetal calf serum taken from a slaughtered cow.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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H2N2 is a subtype of the influenza A virus.

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Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu).

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Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.

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Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also called factory farming, is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the keeping of livestock, such as cattle, poultry (including in "battery cages") and fish at higher stocking densities than is usually the case with other forms of animal agriculture—a practice typical in industrial farming by agribusinesses.

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Intensive farming or intensive agriculture also known as industrial agriculture is characterized by a low fallow ratio and higher use of inputs such as capital and labour per unit land area.

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The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava religious organisation.

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The International Vegetarian Union (IVU) is an international non-profit organization whose purpose is to promote vegetarianism.

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Isaac ben Moses Arama (1420 – 1494) was a Spanish rabbi and author.

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Ital or I-tal is food often celebrated by those in the Rastafari movement.

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Jain vegetarian diet is practiced by the followers of Jain culture and philosophy.

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Jainism, traditionally known as the Jina śāsana or Jain dharma, is one of the oldest Indian religions and belongs to the śramaṇa tradition.

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James Pierrepont Greaves (1 February 1777 – 11 March 1842), was an English mystic, educational reformer, socialist and progressive thinker who founded Alcott House, a short-lived utopian community and free school in Surrey.

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Jhatka or Chatka meat (झटका; ਝਟਕਾ (Gurmukhi), جھٹکا (Shahmukhi); from Sanskrit "killing") is meat from an animal that has been killed by a single strike of a sword or axe to sever the head, as opposed to ritualistically slow slaughter (kutha) like the Jewish slaughter (shechita) or Islamic slaughter (dhabihah).

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Joseph Albo (Hebrew: יוסף אלבו; ca. 1380–1444) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived in Spain during the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of Sefer ha-Ikkarim ("Book of Principles"), the classic work on the fundamentals of Judaism.

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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "receiving/tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.

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Kale or boerenkool is a vegetable of the plant species Brassica oleracea with green or purple leaves, in which the central leaves do not form a head.

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Kerry S. Walters (born 1954) is a Professor of Philosophy at Gettysburg College and award-winning author of numerous books on philosophy and religion.

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The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

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The kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry (sometimes shortened to kiwi) is the edible berry of a woody vine in the genus Actinidia.

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Kutha (Kuttha) meat is defined as "meat of animal or fowl slaughtered slowly", as prescribed by the Halal and Kosher rituals.

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Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

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A lacto vegetarian (sometimes referred to as a lactarian; from the Latin root lact-, milk) diet is a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, ghee, cream, and kefir, but excludes eggs.

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Langar (ਲੰਗਰ, लंगर) is the term used in the Sikh religion for common kitchen/canteen where food is served in a Gurdwara to all the visitors (without distinction of background) for free.

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Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, vegetable greens, leafy greens or salad greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.

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Lent (Latin: Quadragesima - English: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the liturgical calendar of many Christian denominations that begins on Ash Wednesday and covers a period of approximately six weeks before Easter Sunday.

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The lentil (Lens culinaris) is an edible pulse.

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Life magazine, stylized LIFE, was an American magazine that ran weekly from 1883 to 1972, published initially as a humor and general interest magazine.

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Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Linoleic acid (LA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid.

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An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that he or she habitually consumes.

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This is a list of vegetarian and vegan restaurants.

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This is a list of notable people who have adhered to a vegetarian diet at some point during their life.

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Lobh is a Gurmukhi word which translates in English to greed; it is a strong desire for worldly possessions and a constant focus on possessing material items, especially the urge to possess what rightfully belongs to others.

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Lupin or lupini beans are the yellow legume seeds of Lupinus genus and are a traditional food of the Mediterranean basin (L. albus) and Latin America (L. mutabilis).

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A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics), is a dietary regimen which involves eating grains as a staple food, supplemented with other foods such as local vegetables, and avoiding the use of highly processed or refined foods and most animal products.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Mahāyāna (महायान mahāyāna, literally the "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, under some classifications) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Maya Tiwari (born April 16, 1952 in Liverpool Village, Guyana) is a world peace leader and author.

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Measles, also known as morbilli, rubeola, or red measles, is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus.

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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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Meat-free days are declared to discourage or prohibit the consumption of meat or boneless on certain or all days of the week.

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Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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The Mediterranean diet is a modern nutritional recommendation originally inspired by the traditional dietary patterns of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain.

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Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries.

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The basic tenet of a meta-analysis is that there is a common truth behind all conceptually similar studies, but which has been measured with a certain error within individual studies.

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The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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The Moesi (or; Μοισοί) was a Thracian tribe which inhabited present day Northern Bulgaria and Serbia, which gave its name to the Roman province of Moesia after its defeat in 29 BC.

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Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous by-product of the refining of sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.

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Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.

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Moral equivalence is a term used in political debate, usually to criticize any denial that a moral hierarchy can be assessed of two sides in a conflict, or in the actions or tactics of two sides.

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Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Murrain is an antiquated term for various infectious diseases affecting cattle and sheep.

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N(6)-Carboxymethyllysine (CML), also known as N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, is an advanced glycation endproduct (AGE).

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Namdhari are a sect of Sikhism.

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The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States of America, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a biomedical research facility primarily located in Bethesda, Maryland.

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In the Hebrew Bible, a nazirite or nazarite, (in Hebrew: נזיר, nazir), refers to one who voluntarily took a vow described in.

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New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible.

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Nonviolence (from Sanskrit ahimṣā, non-violence, "lack of desire to harm or kill") is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.

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Norman Frank Cantor (November 19, 1929 in Winnepeg, Manitoba, Canada - September 18, 2004 in Miami, Florida) was a Canadian-American historian who specialized in the medieval period.

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Nutmeg (also known as pala in Indonesia) is one of the two spices – the other being mace – derived from several species of tree in the genus Myristica.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food (e.g. phytonutrients, anthocyanins, tannins, etc.) in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Oatmeal is oat groats (i.e. grains) that have been ground, steel-cut, crushed, or rolled.

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The olive or, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "european olive", (syn. Olea sylvestrishttp://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-355062) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in much of Africa, the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion.

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Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

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Omega-3 fatty acids — also called ω-3 fatty acids or n-3 fatty acids — are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C.

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An omnivore is an animal whose species normally derives its energy and nutrients from a diet consisting of a variety of food sources that may include plants, animals, algae, fungi and bacteria.

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Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

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Ovo vegetarianism is a type of vegetarianism which allows for the consumption of eggs but not dairy products, in contrast with lacto vegetarianism.

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An ovo-lacto vegetarian (or lacto-ovo vegetarian) is a vegetarian who does not eat any meat, fish, or poultry.

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People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA; stylized PeTA) is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president.

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Pepita (from Mexican pepita de calabaza, "little seed of squash") is a Spanish culinary term for the pumpkin seed, the edible seed of a pumpkin or other cultivar of squash (genus Cucurbita).

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Pertussis, also known as whooping cough or 100 day cough, is a highly contagious bacterial disease.

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Pescetarianism (also spelled pescatarianism) is the practice of following a diet that includes fish or other seafood, but not the flesh of other animals.

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Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.

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Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto means "plant" in Greek).

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The pistachio, (-, پسته; Pistacia vera) a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.

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Pita or pitta is a soft, slightly leavened flatbread baked from wheat flour.

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Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clogging blood vessel injuries.

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.

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Pongidae, or the Pongids, is an obsolete primate taxon containing the gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans.

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Portulaca oleracea (common purslane, also known as verdolaga, pigweed, little hogweed, red root, pursley, and moss rose) is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which may reach in height.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (derived from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat, their feathers, or sometimes as pets.

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Prasad (also called prasada or prasadam) is a material substance of food that is a religious offering in both Hinduism and Sikhism.

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The President of India is the formal head of the executive and legislature of India and is the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.

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Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey, United States.

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The prostate (from Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein combining (also protein complementing) is a dietary strategy for protein nutrition by using complementary sources to optimize biological value.

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Psychology Today is a magazine published every two months in the United States.

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Pythagoras of Samos (Samian, or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek) was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and has been credited as the founder of the movement called Pythagoreanism.

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The Quakers (or Religious Society of Friends) is a Christian movement which professes the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine it derives from.

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Quinoa (from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a species of the goosefoot genus (Chenopodium quinoa), a grain crop grown primarily for its edible seeds.

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Rābiʻa al-ʻAdawiyya al-Qaysiyya (رابعة العدوية القيسية) or simply Rābiʿah al-Baṣrī (رابعة البصري) (717–801 C.E.) was a female Muslim saint and Sufi mystic.

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A raisin is a dried grape.

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Rastafari is an Abrahamic belief which developed in Jamaica in the 1930s, following the coronation of Haile Selassie I as Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930.

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Raw veganism is a diet that combines the concepts of veganism and raw foodism.

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In gastronomy, red meat is mammal meat which is red when raw and not white when cooked; it includes the meat of most adult mammals.

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Rennet is a complex of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals which is used in the production of most cheeses.

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long lasting autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Ritual purification is a feature of many religions.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family.

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Salvia hispanica, commonly known as chia, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native to central and southern Mexico and Guatemala.

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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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The Sattvic diet is a diet based on foods with the sattva quality (guna).

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A saturated fat is a fat that consists of triglycerides containing only fatty acids that are saturated.

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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A semi-vegetarian or flexitarian diet is one that is plant-based with the occasional inclusion of meat products.

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Sentience is the ability to feel, perceive, or experience subjectively.

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Serbia (Србија, Srbija), officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија, Republika Srbija), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads between Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.

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Serious Eats is a website and blog focused on food enthusiasts, created by food critic and author Ed Levine.

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The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.

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The Hebrew term shechita (anglicized:; שחיטה), also transliterated shehitah, shechitah, shehita, means the slaughtering of certain mammals and birds for food according to Jewish dietary laws.

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Shlomo Ephraim ben Aaron Luntschitz (1550 – 21 April, 1619) was a rabbi, poet and Torah commentator, best known for his Torah commentary Keli Yakar.

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Shoghí Effendí Rabbání (March 1, 1897 – November 4, 1957), better known as Shoghi Effendi, was the Guardian and appointed head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1921 until his death in 1957.

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The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) is a scaled-down version of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).

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Siddha Medicine (Tamil Citta- or Tamiḻ-maruttuvam) is a system of traditional medicine originating in Tamil Nadu in South India.

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The Sikh Gurus (Prophet-Masters) established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.

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The Sikh Rahit Maryada (alternate transliterations include Sikh Rahit Marayada and Sikh Reht Maryada) is a code of conduct for Sikhism.

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Sikhism, or Sikhi (from Sikh, meaning a disciple, or a learner), is a monotheistic religion founded in South Asia in the 15th century.

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Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle.

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Soy milk, also referred to as soymilk or soya milk, is a plant milk produced by soaking dried soybeans and grinding them in water.

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The soybean in the US, also called the soya bean in Europe (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses.

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Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.

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Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that can be consumed by humans and other animals.

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In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.

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Stearidonic acid (SDA) is an ω-3 fatty acid, sometimes called moroctic acid.

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Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.

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Sugar beet, cultivated Beta vulgaris, is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose.

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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, is one of the several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

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Sustainable development (SD) is a process for meeting human development goals while maintaining the ability of natural systems to continue to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.

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A taboo is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either too sacred or too accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake, under threat of supernatural punishment.

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Tahini (also tahina; طحينة) is an oily paste made from toasted ground hulled sesame seeds used in North African, Greek, Iranian, Turkish, and Middle Eastern cuisine.

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Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia.

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Tempeh (témpé) is a traditional soy product originally from Indonesia.

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Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The China Study is a book by T. Colin Campbell, Jacob Gould Schurman Professor Emeritus of Nutritional Biochemistry at Cornell University, and his son Thomas M. Campbell II, a physician.

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The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.

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The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes, Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Southeastern Europe.

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Thyme is an evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal and ornamental uses.

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Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food made by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.

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Tomato juice is a juice made from tomatoes.

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Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.

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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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In some religions, an unclean animal is an animal whose consumption or handling is taboo.

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The Unified Buddhist Church (Église Bouddhique Unifiée) was founded by Thich Nhat Hanh in France in 1969, during the Vietnam War (not part of the Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam).

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The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

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The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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The Universal House of Justice (بیت‌العدل اعظم) is the supreme governing institution of the Bahá'í Faith.

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The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University or simply Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the best moral action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Vaishnavism (Vaisnava dharma) is one of the major branches of Hinduism along with Shaivism, Smartism, Shaktism.

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Veal is the meat of young cows, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.

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Veganism is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.

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In everyday usage, a vegetable is any part of a plant that is consumed by humans as food as part of a savoury meal.

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Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products.

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Vegetarian Diet Pyramid is a nutrition guide that represents a traditional healthy vegetarian diet.

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The Vegetarian Society is a British registered charity which was established on 30 September 1847 with the original objective "to induce habits of abstinence from the flesh of animals as food, by the dissemination of information upon the subject, by means of tracts, essays, and lectures, proving the many advantages of a physical, intellectual, and moral character resulting from vegetarian habits of diet; and efforts of its members, the adoption of a principle which will tend essentially to the increase of human happiness generally.".

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Vegetarian Times is a monthly magazine published nine times a year (three double issues) by Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc.

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Vegetarianism is strongly linked with a number of religions that originated in ancient India (Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism).

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Vegetarianism and Romanticism refers to the rise of vegetarianism during the Romanticism movement in Western Europe from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century.

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A vitamin (and) is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts.

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Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.

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Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as hypocobalaminemia, refers to low blood levels of vitamin B12.

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A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.

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A whole grain is a cereal grain that contains the germ, endosperm, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

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Whole-wheat bread or wholemeal bread is a type of bread made using flour that is partly or entirely milled from whole or almost-whole wheat grains, see whole-wheat flour and whole grain.

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Reverend William Cowherd (1763 – 1816) was a Christian minister serving a congregation in the City of Salford, immediately west of Manchester, and one of the philosophical forerunners of the Vegetarian Society founded in 1847.

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The Worldwatch Institute is a globally focused environmental research organization based in Washington, D.C. Worldwatch was named as one of the top ten sustainable development research organizations by Globescan Survey of Sustainability Experts.

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The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), and some plants (Ginkgo).

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Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom with 1,500 species currently identified and are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species.

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`Abdu’l-Bahá' (Persian/عبد البهاء‎, 23 May 1844 – 28 November 1921), born ‘Abbás Effendí (عباس افندی), was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.

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The 1918 flu pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.

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Redirects here:

Anti-vegetarianism, Diet, vegetarian, Meatless diet, Pro-vegetarianism, Pure vegetarianism, Types of Vegetarians, Vegaquarian, Vegetairian, Vegetarian, Vegetarianizm, Vegetarians, Vegetarinaism, Vegeterian, Vegeterianism, Vegeterianizm, Vegitarian, Vegitarianism, 素食.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetarianism

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