117 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal aorta, Ambulatory phlebectomy, American Medical Association, Anatomy, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient Iranian medicine, André Frédéric Cournand, Andreas Vesalius, Anterior cardiac veins, Anticoagulant, Arachnoid granulation, Artery, Atrium (heart), Avicenna, Ayurveda, Baroreflex, Blood, Blood vessel, Budd–Chiari syndrome, Capillary, Carbon dioxide, Cardiac catheterization, Cardiac muscle, Circulatory system, Communicating vein, Connective tissue, Coronary sinus, Deep vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Diana McSherry, Dickinson W. Richards, Doppler ultrasonography, Dural venous sinuses, Ebers Papyrus, Endothelium, Erasistratus, Esophageal varices, Fascial compartment, Foot, Galen, Great cardiac vein, Great saphenous vein, Hand, Heart, Heart valve, Herophilos, Hieronymus Fabricius, Hippocrates, ..., Histology, History of India, Hypophyseal portal system, Ibn al-Nafis, Impedance phlebography, Inferior vena cava, Iran, Laser, List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine, Lung, Marcello Malpighi, May–Thurner syndrome, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Michael Servetus, Middle cardiac vein, National Informatics Centre, Neurogenic shock, Nutcracker syndrome, Oxygen, Papyrus, Perforator vein, Peripheral vascular system, Phlebologist, Portal hypertension, Portal vein, Portal venous system, Post-thrombotic syndrome, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonary vein, Pulse, Realdo Colombo, Regurgitation (circulation), Retroperitoneal space, Rome, Sclerotherapy, Skeletal-muscle pump, Small cardiac vein, Smallest cardiac veins, Smooth muscle tissue, Subcutaneous tissue, Superficial vein, Superior vena cava, Sushruta, Syncope (medicine), Systemic venous system, Systole, Telangiectasia, The Canon of Medicine, Thoracic outlet syndrome, Thrombophlebitis, Thrombus, Tunica externa, Tunica intima, Tunica media, Ultrasound, Umbilical vein, University of Padua, Varicose veins, Vein stripping, Venae cavae, Venous blood, Ventricle (heart), Vertebral column, Werner Forssmann, William Harvey. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity.
Ambulatory phlebectomy is a minisurgical treatment for superficial varicose veins and so-called side branches.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history.
André Frédéric Cournand (September 24, 1895 – February 19, 1988) was a French physician and physiologist.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
The anterior cardiac veins (or anterior veins of right ventricle) comprise three or four small vessels which collect blood from the front of the right ventricle and open into the right atrium; the right marginal vein frequently opens into the right atrium, and is therefore sometimes regarded as belonging to this group.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Arachnoid granulations (also arachnoid villi, and pacchionian granulations or bodies) are small protrusions of the arachnoid mater (the thin second layer covering the brain) into the outer membrane of the dura mater (the thick outer layer).
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
The baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that helps to maintain blood pressure at nearly constant levels.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Budd–Chiari syndrome is a very rare condition, affecting one in a million adults.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Communicating veins are veins that communicate two different points of the venous system.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium).
A deep vein is a vein that is deep in the body.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Diana McSherry (born 1945) is an American computer scientist and biophysicist.
Dickinson Woodruff Richards, Jr. (October 30, 1895 – February 23, 1973) was an American physician and physiologist.
Doppler ultrasonography is medical ultrasonography that employs the Doppler effect to generate imaging of the movement of tissues and body fluids (usually blood), and their relative velocity to the probe.
The dural venous sinuses (also called dural sinuses, cerebral sinuses, or cranial sinuses) are venous channels found between the endosteal and meningeal layers of dura mater in the brain.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.
Esophageal varices (sometimes spelled oesophageal varices) are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower third of the esophagus.
A fascial compartment is a section within the body that contains muscles and nerves and is surrounded by fascia.
The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
The great cardiac vein (left coronary vein) begins at the apex of the heart and ascends along the anterior longitudinal sulcus to the base of the ventricles.
The great saphenous vein (GSV, alternately "long saphenous vein") is a large, subcutaneous, superficial vein of the leg.
A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.
Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος; 335–280 BC), sometimes Latinised Herophilus, was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.
Hieronymus Fabricius or Girolamo Fabrizio, known also by his full Latin and Italian names, Fabricius ab Aquapendente or Girolamo Fabrizi d'Acquapendente, (20 May 1537 – 21 May 1619) was a pioneering anatomist and surgeon known in medical science as "The Father of Embryology.".
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The hypophyseal portal system is a system of blood vessels in the microcirculation at the base of the brain, connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary.
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
Impedance phlebography, or impedance plethysmography (IPG), is a non-invasive medical test that measures small changes in electrical resistance of the chest, calf or other regions of the body.
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".
In medicine, May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), also known as the iliac vein compression syndrome, is a condition in which compression of the common venous outflow tract of the left lower extremity may cause discomfort, swelling, pain or blood clots (deep venous thrombosis) in the iliofemoral veins.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
The middle cardiac vein commences at the apex of the heart; ascends in the posterior longitudinal sulcus, and ends in the coronary sinus near its right extremity.
The National Informatics Centre (NIC) (Rashtriya Suchna Vigyan Kendra) is the premier science & technology organisation of Government of India in informatics services and information and communication technology (ICT) applications.
Neurogenic shock is a distributive type of shock resulting in low blood pressure, occasionally with a slowed heart rate, that is attributed to the disruption of the autonomic pathways within the spinal cord.
The nutcracker syndrome (NCS) results most commonly from the compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta (AA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), although other variants exist.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.
The peripheral vascular system consists of the veins and arteries not in the chest or abdomen (i.e. in the arms, hands, legs and feet).
A phlebologist is a medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of venous origin.
Portal hypertension is hypertension (high blood pressure) in the hepatic portal system – made up of the portal vein and its branches, that drain from most of the intestine to the liver.
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
In the circulatory system of animals, a portal venous system occurs when a capillary bed pools into another capillary bed through veins, without first going through the heart.
Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), also called postphlebitic syndrome and venous stress disorder is a medical condition that may occur as a long-term complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
Realdo Colombo (c. 1515, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559.
Regurgitation is blood flow in the opposite direction from normal, as the backward flowing of blood into the heart or between heart chambers.
The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sclerotherapy (the word reflects the Greek skleros, meaning "hard") is a procedure used to treat blood vessels or blood vessel malformations (vascular malformations) and also those of the lymphatic system.
The skeletal-muscle pump is a collection of skeletal muscles that aid the heart in the circulation of blood.
The small cardiac vein runs in the coronary sulcus between the right atrium and ventricle and opens into the right extremity of the coronary sinus.
The smallest cardiac veins (or Thebesian veins) are minute valveless veins in the walls of all four heart chambers.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
Superficial vein is a vein that is close to the surface of the body.
The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
In human anatomy, the systemic venous system refers to veins that drain into the right atrium without passing through two vascular beds (i.e. they originate from a set of capillaries and do not pass through a second set of capillaries before reaching the right side of the heart).
The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.
Telangiectasias, also known as spider veins, are small dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, measuring between 0.5 and 1 millimeter in diameter.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition in which there is compression of the nerves, arteries, or veins in the passageway from the lower neck to the armpit.
Thrombophlebitis is a phlebitis (inflammation of a vein) related to a thrombus (blood clot).
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
The tunica externa (New Latin "outer coat") — also known as the tunica adventitia (New Latin "additional coat"), or adventitia for short — is the outermost tunica (layer) of a blood vessel, surrounding the tunica media.
The tunica intima (New Latin "inner coat"), or intima for short, is the innermost tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.
The tunica media (New Latin "middle coat"), or media for short, is the middle tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The umbilical vein is a vein present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta into the growing fetus.
The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.
Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted.
Vein stripping is a surgical procedure done under general or local anaesthetic to aid in the treatment of varicose veins and other manifestations of chronic venous disease.
The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.
Venous blood is deoxygenated blood which travels from the peripheral vessels, through the venous system into the right atrium of the heart.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Werner Theodor Otto Forßmann (Forssmann in English; 29 August 1904 – 1 June 1979) was a physician from Germany who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Medicine (with Andre Frederic Cournand and Dickinson W. Richards) for developing a procedure that allowed cardiac catheterization.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.