218 relations: Administrative centre, Administrative divisions of Novgorod Oblast, Administrative divisions of Russia in 1727–1728, Alexander Nevsky, Alexey Shchusev, Alsace, Anna Porphyrogenita, Annales Bertiniani, Anthony of Rome, Antoniev Monastery, Aristocracy, Astrakhan, Île-de-France, Baltic region, Baltic Sea, Baltic states, Battle of the Neva, Battle on the Ice, Belarus, Bielefeld, Birch bark letter no. 292, Birch bark manuscript, Boris and Gleb, Boris Godunov, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Canonization, Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod, China, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Church of the Transfiguration on Ilyina Street, City of federal subject significance, City-state, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, Commuter rail, Constantine VII, Constantinople, De Administrando Imperio, Dendrochronology, Denmark, Diocese of Novgorod, Dnieper, Dobrynya, East–West Schism, Entrepôt, Estonia, Euthymius II of Novgorod, Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, Finland, Finnish–Novgorodian wars, ..., Folklore, Fox, France, Garðaríki, German Army (Wehrmacht), Germany, Golden Horde, Gord (archaeology), Gostomysl, Gotland, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Hanseatic League, Harald Hardrada, Hertfordshire, Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings, Ingelheim am Rhein, Islet, Ivan I of Moscow, Ivan III of Russia, Ivan the Terrible, Jacob De la Gardie, Karelia, Kazan, Khagan, Khutyn Monastery, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Knight, Knyaz, Kohtla-Järve, Konstantin Dobrynich, Kontor, Krechevitsy Airport, Lake Ilmen, Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega, Leningrad Oblast, LiAZ (Russia), List of Frankish kings, List of minor planets: 3001–4000, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Louis the Pious, M10 highway (Russia), Magdeburg, Magnus the Good, Marmot, Marxist historiography, Massacre of Novgorod, Maxim Gorky, Metropolitan bishop, Millennium of Russia, Minor planet, Minsk, Minsk railway station, Mongol invasion of Rus', Moscow, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow Leningradsky railway station, Moskovsky railway station (Saint Petersburg), Moss, Norway, Mstislav I of Kiev, Murmansk, Nanterre, Nereditsa Church, New York (state), Nikolai Chernykh, Niphont of Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, North Rhine-Westphalia, Norway, Novgorod Airport, Novgorod Codex, Novgorod First Chronicle, Novgorod Governorate, Novgorod Kremlin, Novgorod Oblast, Novgorod Republic, Novgorod uprising of 1650, Novgorod veche, Novgorodsky District, Oblast, Ohio, Olaf II of Norway, Olaf Tryggvason, Old Church Slavonic, Old High German, Old Novgorod dialect, Oleg of Novgorod, Ostromir, Pannonian Avars, Paris, Patriarch Nikon of Moscow, Płock, Peryn Chapel, Piracy, Poland, Posadnik, Pulkovo Airport, Raskol, Red Army, Rochester, New York, Rurik, Rurikovo Gorodische, Rus' Khaganate, Russia, Russian Empire, Russkaya Pravda, Sable, Sadko, Saga, Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Novgorod, Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Governorate, Serbia, Shandong, Sigtuna, Sister city, Sofia First Chronicle, Soviet Union, State Duma, Stoat, Strasbourg, Sweden, Swedish–Novgorodian Wars, Theophanes the Greek, Time of Troubles, Toponymy, Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, Transfiguration Church in Kovalyovo, Treaty of Nöteborg, Treaty of Stolbovo, Trolleybus, Tver, Types of inhabited localities in Russia, Tysyatsky, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United States, Ural Mountains, Ushkuiniks, Uusikaupunki, Valentin Yanin, Varangians, Vasily Klyuchevsky, Viceroy, Vikings, Visby, Vitebsky railway station, Vladimir of Novgorod, Vladimir the Great, Vladimir-Suzdal, Volga trade route, Volkhov River, Vologda Mechanical Plant, Volotovo Church, Vsevolod of Pskov, Vyborg, Watford, World Heritage site, World War II, Yaroslav the Wise, Yaroslav's Court, Yaroslavl, Yuriev Monastery, Yury of Moscow, Zibo, ZiU-9. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located.
Administratively, Novgorod Oblast is divided into three cities and towns of oblast significance and twenty-one districts.
The administrative reform of 1727 was carried out soon after Peter the Great's death, when it became apparent that previous reform was not working as planned.
Alexey Viktorovich Shchusev (Алексе́й Ви́кторович Щу́сев; – 24 May 1949) was an acclaimed Russian and Soviet architect whose works may be regarded as a bridge connecting Revivalist architecture of Imperial Russia with Stalin's Empire Style.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Anna Porphyrogenita (Άννα Πορφυρογέννητη, Анна Византийская, Анна Порфірогенета; 13 March 963 – 1011) was a Grand Princess consort of Kiev; she was married to Grand Prince Vladimir the Great.
Annales Bertiniani (or Annals of Saint Bertin) are late Carolingian, Frankish annals that were found in the Abbey of Saint Bertin, Saint-Omer, France, after which they are named.
St. Anthony of Rome or Anthony the Roman (Антоний Римлянин) was the founder of the Antoniev Monastery in Novgorod.
The Antoniev Monastery ("St Anthony's Monastery", Антониев монастырь) rivalled the Yuriev Monastery as the most important monastery of medieval Novgorod the Great.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Battle of the Neva (Невская битва, Nevskaya bitva, slaget vid Neva, Finnish: Nevan taistelu) was fought between the Novgorod Republic and Karelians against Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish and Tavastian armies on the Neva River, near the settlement of Ust-Izhora, on 15 July 1240.
The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bielefeld is a city in the Ostwestfalen-Lippe Region in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The birch bark letter given the document number 292 is the oldest known document in any Finnic language.
Birch bark manuscripts are documents written on pieces of the inner layer of birch bark, which was commonly used for writing before the advent of mass production of paper.
Boris and Gleb (Борисъ и Глѣбъ, Borisŭ i Glěbŭ; Борис и Глеб, Boris i Gleb; Борис і Гліб, Borys i Hlib), Christian names Roman and David, respectively (Романъ, Давꙑдъ, Romanŭ, Davydŭ), were the first saints canonized in Kievan Rus' after the Christianization of the country.
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
The Cathedral of St. Sophia (the Holy Wisdom of God) in Veliky Novgorod is the cathedral church of the Archbishop of Novgorod and the mother church of the Novgorodian Eparchy.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.
The Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior (Церковь Спаса Преображения на Ильине улице) is a former Russian Orthodox Church that stands on Ilyina (Elijah) Street in Veliky Novgorod just east of the Marketplace.
City of federal subject significance is an umbrella term used to refer to a type of an administrative division of a federal subject of Russia which is equal in status to a district but is organized around a large city; occasionally with surrounding rural territories.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Cleveland Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, and an inner-ring suburb of Cleveland.
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km (10 miles) and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Novgorod and Staraya Russa Diocese (Новгородская и Старорусская епархия) is one of the oldest offices in the Russian Orthodox Church.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
Dobrynya (Добрыня) was Vladimir the Great's maternal uncle and tutor.
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
An entrepôt or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Evfimy II, Archbishop of Novgorod the Great and Pskov from 1429 to 1458, was one of the most prolific patrons of the arts and architecture of all the Novgorodian archbishops.
The Feast of Saints Peter and Paul or Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul is a liturgical feast in honour of the martyrdom in Rome of the apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, which is observed on 29 June.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnish–Novgorodian wars were a series of conflicts between Finnic tribes in eastern Fennoscandia and the Republic of Novgorod from the 11th or 12th century to the early 13th century.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Garðaríki (anglicized Gardariki or Gardarike) or Garðaveldi is the Old Norse term used in medieval times for the states of Kievan Rus'.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
A gord is a medieval Slavic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites.
Karamzin'' (1836), depicting the history of Russia. Gostomysl is a fictitious 9th-century posadnik of Novgorod who was introduced into the historiography by Vasily Tatishchev, an 18th-century historian.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Harald Sigurdsson (– 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (harðráði, modern Norwegian: Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was King of Norway (as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066.
Hertfordshire (often abbreviated Herts) is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south.
Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings is a composite World Heritage Site which includes a number of medieval monuments in and around Veliky Novgorod, Russia.
Ingelheim am Rhein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany on the Rhine’s west bank.
An islet is a very small island.
Ivan I Daniilovich Kalita (Russian: Ива́н I Дании́лович Калита́; 1288 – 31 March 1340 or 1341Basil Dmytryshyn, Medieval Russia:A source book, 850-1700, (Academic International Press, 2000), 194.) was Grand Duke of Moscow from 1325 and Vladimir from 1332.
Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Field Marshal and Count Jacob Pontusson De la Gardie (Reval, 20 June 1583 – Stockholm, 22 August 1652) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish Empire.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
Khutyn Monastery of Saviour's Transfiguration and of St.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.
Kohtla-Järve (Кохтла-Ярве) is a city and municipality in north-eastern Estonia, founded in 1924 and incorporated as a town in 1946.
Konstantin Dobrynich (died 1022) was an 11th-century posadnik of Novgorod.
A kontor was a foreign trading post of the Hanseatic League.
Krechevits is an air base located 11 km northeast of Veliky Novgorod, Russia (near Krechevitsy).
Lake Ilmen (p) is a large lake in the Novgorod Oblast of Russia.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.
Leningrad Oblast (lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
LiAZ is a bus manufacturing company located in Likino-Dulyovo, Russia.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
#d6d6d6 | 3089 Oujianquan || || December 3, 1981 || Nanking || Purple Mountain Obs.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
The M10 is a federal highway in Russia connecting the country's two largest cities, Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Magnus Olafsson (Old Norse: Magnús Óláfsson, Norwegian and Danish: Magnus Olavsson; c. 1024 – 25 October 1047), better known as Magnus the Good (Old Norse: Magnús góði, Norwegian and Danish: Magnus den gode), was the King of Norway from 1035 and King of Denmark from 1042, ruling over both countries until his death in 1047.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism.
The Massacre of Novgorod was an attack launched by Tsar Ivan IV (The Terrible)'s oprichniki on the city of Novgorod, Russia in 1570.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
The Millennium of Russia (Russian Тысячелетие России) is a bronze monument in the Novgorod Kremlin.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Minsk-Pasažyrski (Мінск-Пасажырскі, Минск-Пассажирский) is the main passenger railway station in Minsk, Belarus.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Moscow Leningradsky railway terminal (Ленинградский вокзал, Leningradsky vokzal) also known as Moscow Passazhirskaya station (Москва-Главная-Пассажирская) is the oldest of Moscow's nine railway terminals.
St.Petersburg-Glavny, is a railway station terminal in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
is a coastal town and a municipality in Østfold county, Norway.
Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great (Мстислав Владимирович Великий, Мстислав Володимирович Великий, Мсціслаў Уладзіміравіч Вялікі) (June 1, 1076, Turov – April 14, 1132, Kiev) was the Grand Prince of Kiev (1125–1132), the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
Nanterre is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine department, the western suburbs of Paris.
The Saviour Church on Nereditsa (Церковь Спаса на Нередице, Tserkov Spasa na Nereditse) is an orthodox church built in 1198.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh (Николай Степанович Черных) (6 October 1931 – 26 May 2004) was a Russian-born Soviet astronomer and discoverer of minor planets and comets at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in Nauchnij, on the Crimean peninsula.
Nifont was Archbishop of Novgorod from 1130 to 1156, the first prelate of Novgorod the Great to hold that title, though it appears the title was held personally and did not extend to the office until 1165.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Novgorod Yurievo Airport is a former airport serving the city of Velikiy Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located southwest of the city centre.
The Novgorod Codex (Новгородский кодекс) is the oldest book of the Rus’, unearthed on July 13, 2000 in Novgorod.
The Novgorod First Chronicle (Новгородская первая летопись) or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1471 is the most ancient extant chronicle of the Novgorod Republic.
Novgorod Governorate (Новгоро́дская губе́рния, Novgorodskaya guberniya, Government of Novgorod), was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire and the Russian SFSR, which existed from 1727 to 1776 and from 1796 to 1927.
Novgorod Kremlin (also Detinets) stands on the left bank of the Volkhov River in Veliky Novgorod about two miles north of where it empties out of Lake Ilmen.
Novgorod Oblast (Новгоро́дская о́бласть, Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
The Novgorod uprising of 1650 (Новгородское восстание 1650 года) was an uprising in Novgorod, caused by the Russian government's bulk purchasing of grain (traded to Sweden) and the resulting increases in the price of bread.
According to the traditional scholarship, the veche (p) was the highest legislative and judicial authority in Veliky Novgorod until 1478, when the Novgorod Republic was brought under the direct control of the Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III.
Novgorodsky District (Новгородский район) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #400-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – 29 July 1030), later known as St.
Olaf Tryggvason (960s – 9 September 1000) was King of Norway from 995 to 1000.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Novgorod dialect (Russian: древненовгородский диалект, dryevnyenovgorodsky dialekt; also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak to describe the dialect found in the Old East Slavic birch bark writings ("berestyanaya gramota").
Oleg of Novgorod (Old East Slavic: Олег, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the late 9th and early 10th centuries.
Ostromir (Остромир in Russian; Christian name - Joseph) (died c. 1057) was a statesman, voivod and posadnik of Novgorod in 1054-1057 and probably for some decades previous.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Nikon (Ни́кон, Old Russian: Нїконъ), born Nikita Minin (Никита Минин; 7 May 1605 – 17 August 1681) was the seventh Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus' of the Russian Orthodox Church, serving officially from 1652 to 1666.
Płock (pronounced) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland.
Peryn Chapel or the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos on Peryn (Церковь Рождества Богородицы на Перыни, Tserkov Rozhdestva Bogoroditsy na Peryni) in the environs of Veliky Novgorod is one of the city's oldest churches, dating from the 1220s.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Posadnik (Cyrillic: посадник, (literally: по-садник - pre-sident) was the mayor in some East Slavic cities or towns. Most notably, the posadnik (equivalent to a stadtholder, burgomeister, or podestà in the medieval west) was the mayor of Novgorod and Pskov. The term comes from the Old Church Slavic "posaditi," meaning to put or place; they were so-called because the prince in Kiev originally placed them in the city to rule on his behalf. Beginning in the 12th century, they were elected locally.
Pulkovo Airport (p) is an international airport serving Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Raskol (раскол,, meaning "split" or "schism") was the event of splitting of the Russian Orthodox Church into an official church and the Old Believers movement in the mid-17th century.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
Rurik (also Riurik; Old Church Slavonic Рюрикъ Rjurikŭ, from Old Norse Hrøríkʀ; 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod.
Rurikovo Gorodische (t), known in Scandinavian sources as Holmgård, was the original 9th century settlement of Veliky Novgorod.
The Rus' Khaganate is the name applied by some modern historians to a hypothetical polity postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe, roughly the late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russkaya Pravda (Rus' Justice or Rus’ Law; Правда роусьскаꙗ, Pravda Rusĭskaya (13th century, 1280), Правда Руськая, Pravda Rus'kaya (second half of the 15th century); Русская правда, Russkaya Pravda; Руська Правда, Rus'ka Pravda) was the legal code of Kievan Rus' and the subsequent Rus' principalities during the times of feudal division.
The sable (Martes zibellina) is a marten species, a small carnivorous mammal inhabiting forest environments, primarily in Russia from the Ural Mountains throughout Siberia, northern Mongolia.
Sadko (Садко) is the principal character in an East Slavic epic Bylina.
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
Saint Nicholas Cathedral (Николо-Дворищенский собор, Nikolo-Dvorishchensky Cathedral, Saint Nicholas Cathedral on Yaroslav's Court), founded by Mstislav the Great in 1113 and consecrated in 1136, is the oldest surviving building in the central part of Veliky Novgorod after the Saint Sophia Cathedral.
Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod was a church for Varangians which existed from the 11th century until the 14th century in the Russian city of Novgorod.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint Petersburg Governorate (Санкт-Петербу́ргская губе́рния, Sankt-Peterburgskaya guberniya), or Government of Saint Petersburg, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed in 1708–1927.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Sigtuna is a locality situated in Sigtuna Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 8,444 inhabitants in 2010.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Sofia First Chronicle (Софийская первая летопись) is a Russian chronicle associated with the St. Sophia Cathedral, Novgorod, Russia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish–Novgorodian Wars were a series of conflicts in the 12th and 13th centuries between the Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden over control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital to the Hanseatic League and part of the Varangian-Byzantine trade route.
Theophanes the Greek (sometimes "Feofan Grek" from the Феофан Грек, Greek: Θεοφάνης; c. 1340 – c. 1410) was a Byzantine Greek artist and one of the greatest icon painters of Muscovite Russia, and was noted as the teacher and mentor of the great Andrei Rublev.
The Time of Troubles (Смутное время, Smutnoe vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Shlyakh' z varahaw u hreki, Shlyakh iz varyahiv u hreky, Put' iz varjag v greki, Εμπορική οδός Βαράγγων–Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Transfiguration Church in Kovalyovo (Церковь Спаса на Ковалёве, Tserkov Spasa na Kovalyove) in Novgorodsky District, Novgorod Oblast, Russia, was built around 1345.
The Treaty of Nöteborg, also known as the Treaty of Oreshek (Freden i Nöteborg, Russian: Ореховецкий мир, Pähkinäsaaren rauha), is a conventional name for the peace treaty signed at Orekhovets (Nöteborg, Pähkinäsaari) on 12 August 1323.
The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.
The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.
A tysyatsky (p, "thousandman"), sometimes translated dux or herzog, was a military leader in ancient Rus' who commanded a people's volunteer army called a thousand (tysyacha).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
The Ushkuiniks (ушкуйники) were medieval Novgorodian pirates who led the Viking-like life of fighting, killing, and robbery.
Uusikaupunki (Nystad), is a town and municipality of Finland.
Valentin Lavrentievich Yanin (Валентин Лаврентьевич Янин; born 6 February 1929 in Vyatka) is a leading Russian historian who has authored 700 books and articles.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Vasily Osipovich Klyuchevsky (Василий Осипович Ключевский; in Voskresnskoye Village, Penza Guberniia, Russia –, Moscow) was a leading Russian historian of the late imperial period.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants,.
St Petersburg-Vitebsky (Ви́тебский вокза́л) is a railway station in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Vladimir Yaroslavich (Владимир Ярославич, Old Norse Valdamarr Jarizleifsson; 1020 – October 4, 1052) reigned as prince of Novgorod from 1036 until his death.
Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
Vladimir-Suzdal (Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River.
The Volkhov (Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia.
Vologda Mechanical Plant is a Russian machine company located in the city of Vologda, specializing in the production of public vehicles: trolleybuses and buses.
The Volotovo Church or the Assumption Church in Volotovo (Церковь Успения на Волотовом поле, Tserkov Uspeniya na Volotovom Pole) in the village of Volotovo in Novgorodsky District, Novgorod Oblast, Russia was built in 1352.
Vsevolod Mstislavich (Всеволод Мстиславич), the patron saint of the city of Pskov, ruled as Prince of Novgorod in 1117–32, Prince of Pereslavl (1132) and Prince of Pskov in 1137–38.
Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Watford is a town and borough in North West London, England, situated northwest of central London and inside the circumference of the M25 motorway.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.
Yaroslav's Court (Ярославово Дворище, Yaroslavovo Dvorishche) was the princely compound in the city of Novgorod the Great.
Yaroslavl (p) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow.
Yuriy Danilovich, also known as Georgiy Danilovich (Юрий Данилович in Russian) (1281 – 21 November 1325) was Prince of Moscow (1303–1325) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (from 1318).
Zibo (pronounced) is a prefecture-level city in central Shandong province, China.
ZiU-9, or ZIU-9 (Cyrillic: ЗиУ-9) is a Soviet (and later Russian) trolleybus vehicle.
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