42 relations: Accelerometer, Alpha wave, Anemometer, Apsis, Astronomical unit, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 81, Beta Regio, Cherenkov detector, Coordinated Universal Time, Densitometer, Doppler effect, Earth, Electron, Gamma ray, Heliocentric orbit, Ion, Lava, Lavochkin, List of missions to Venus, Low Earth orbit, Magnetometer, Mass spectrometry, Nephelometer, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital period, Photometer, Proton, Proton (rocket family), Radiometer, Robotic spacecraft, Soviet Union, Spectrometer, Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes, Transmissometer, Ultraviolet, Venera, Venera 11, Venera 9, Venus, 4MV.
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.
Alpha waves are neural oscillations in the frequency range of 7.5–12.5 Hz arising from synchronous and coherent (in phase or constructive) electrical activity of thalamic pacemaker cells in humans.
An anemometer is a device used for measuring the speed of wind, and is also a common weather station instrument.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Site 81 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch site used, along with Site 200, by Proton rockets.
Beta Regio is a region of the planet Venus known as a volcanic rise.
A Cherenkov (Черенко́в) detector is a particle detector using the speed threshold for light production, the speed-dependent light output or the velocity-dependent light direction of Cherenkov radiation.
A densitometer is a device that measures the degree of darkness (the optical density) of a photographic or semitransparent material or of a reflecting surface.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
NPO Lavochkin (НПО Лавочкина, OKB-301, also called Lavochkin Research and Production Association or shortly Lavochkin Association, LA) is a Russian aerospace company.
This is a list of space missions to the planet Venus.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring concentration of suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
A photometer, generally, is an instrument that measures light intensity or the optical properties of solutions or surfaces.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
A radiometer or roentgenometer is a device for measuring the radiant flux (power) of electromagnetic radiation.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
This timeline of artificial satellites and space probes includes unmanned spacecraft including technology demonstrators, observatories, lunar probes, and interplanetary probes.
A transmissometer is an instrument for measuring the extinction coefficient of the atmosphere and sea water, and for the determination of visual range.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Venera series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus.
The Venera 11 (Венера-11 meaning Venus 11) was a Soviet unmanned space mission part of the Venera program to explore the planet Venus.
Venera 9 (Венера-9 meaning Venus 9), manufacturer's designation: 4V-1 No.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The 4MV planetary probe (short for 4th generation Mars-Venus) is a designation for a common design used by Soviet unmanned probes to Mars and Venus.