641 relations: A New Era, Adriano González León, Afro-Venezuelan, Age of majority, Agence France-Presse, Agnosticism, Agriculture, Agriculture in Venezuela, ALBA, Alberto Arvelo Torrealba, Alemannic German, Algemeiner Journal, Alluvium, Alonso de Ojeda, Alpine tundra, Aluminium, Amazon basin, Amazon rainforest, Amazon river dolphin, American Revolution, Amerigo Vespucci, Amphibian, Andes, Andrés Bello, Andrés Eloy Blanco, Angel Falls, Anti-Defamation League, Antillean Creole, Antisemitism in Venezuela, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, Antonio José de Sucre, Antonio Ledezma, Apure River, Arab Venezuelans, Arable land, Arawak language, Arepa, Armando Reverón, Armed Forces of National Liberation (Venezuela), Arturo Uslar Pietri, Aruba, Arutani language, Asphalt, Associated Press, Association football, Atheism, Atlantic Ocean, Auaké, Bachelor's degree or higher, Bambuco, ..., Baniwa language, Baralt Theater, Barí language, Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz, Barquisimeto, Basketball, Basque language, Battle of Carabobo, Battle of Lake Maracaibo, BBC News, Benedict the Moor, Bloomberg L.P., Bolivarian missions, Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela, Bolivarian Revolution, Bolivarianism, Bolivia, Brazil, British Guiana, British West Indies, Buddhism, Bulletin of Latin American Research, Caballo Viejo, Cabinet (government), Cacique, Calypso music, Cambridge University Press, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canary Islands, Capital District (Venezuela), Captaincy General of Venezuela, Capybara, Caquetio, Car, Caracas, Caracazo, Cariaco Basin, Carib language, Caribbean Sea, Carlos Andrés Pérez, Carlos Cruz-Diez, Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, Carlos Raúl Villanueva, Caroní River, Cassava, Catholic Church, Cattleya mossiae, Caudillo, Cement, Center for Economic and Policy Research, Central Bank of Venezuela, Central University of Venezuela, Chacao Municipality, Chaima, China Railway, Chinese language, Chinese people, Cholera, Christian democracy, Christopher Columbus, Cipriano Castro, Ciudad Guayana, Civil law (legal system), Cloud forest, CNN, CNNMoney, Cocaine, Cocoa bean, Coffee, Colombia, Colonia Tovar, Colonia Tovar dialect, Commander-in-chief, Common Era, Communist Party of Venezuela, Compulsory voting, CONMEBOL, Constitution of Venezuela, Constitutional republic, Continent, Continental shelf, Conurbation, Copa América, Copei, Cordillera de la Costa Central, Coro region, Corruption in Venezuela, Corruption Perceptions Index, Credit rating agency, Crisis in Venezuela (2012–present), Cristóbal Rojas (artist), Cuatro (instrument), Cuerpo de Investigaciones Científicas, Penales y Criminalísticas, Culture of Spain, Cumaná, Curaçao, Default (finance), Delcy Rodríguez, Delta Amacuro, Democratic Action (Venezuela), Democratic Unity Roundtable, Depression (economics), Deputy (legislator), Deserts and xeric shrublands, Diario 2001, Diario Las Américas, Dictator, Diego de Losada, Dios y Federación, Diphtheria, Dorling Kindersley, Drainage basin, Drainage system (geomorphology), Drink, Dutch disease, Dutch–Venezuelan crisis of 1908, Economic inequality, Economic policy of the Hugo Chávez administration, Economic policy of the Nicolás Maduro administration, Ecuador, El Callao Municipality, El Impulso (Venezuela), El Nuevo Herald, El Sistema, El Trienio Adeco, El Universal (Caracas), Eleazar López Contreras, Electricity sector in Venezuela, Electronics, Endemism, Energy Information Administration, English language, Equator, Essequibo River, Evangelicalism, Exclusive economic zone, Express kidnapping, Face, Fascism, Fatherland for All, Fauna of Venezuela, Federal Dependencies of Venezuela, Federal republic, Federal War, Federation, Fencing at the 2012 Summer Olympics, Fermín Toro, FIBA AmeriCup, Fifth Republic Movement, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, First Republic of Venezuela, Flag of Venezuela, Food, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Foreign Policy, Formula One, Fox Business Network, Fox News, Francisco de Miranda, French Revolution, Gaita zuliana, Galician language, Garbage, Gasoline, Gasoline and diesel usage and pricing, Gego, General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge, German Venezuelans, Giant anteater, GlobalPost, Gloria al Bravo Pueblo, Gold, Government of Canada, Government of Venezuela, Gran Colombia, Grenada, Gross domestic product, Grover Cleveland, Guahibo language, Guaicaipuro, Guayana Esequiba, Guayana Region, Venezuela, Guiana Shield, Gulf of Paria, Gulf of Venezuela, Guri Dam, Gustavo Dudamel, Guyana, Habitat, Hallaca, Head of government, Head of state, Heavy crude oil, Henrique Capriles, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis D, Hodï language, HuffPost, Hugo Chávez, Human Rights Watch, Human skin color, Hydropower, Hyperinflation, Ibis, Illegal drug trade in Colombia, Illegal drug trade in Venezuela, Illegal immigration, Immigration, Immigration to Venezuela, Independence, Index of Venezuela-related articles, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples in Venezuela, Infant mortality, Inflation, Insular Region, Venezuela, Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, Inter-American Democratic Charter, International Futures, International Monetary Fund, International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, Iraq War, Iron ore, Irreligion, Isaías Medina Angarita, Islam, Island, Islet, ISO 4217, Italian language, Italo-Venezuelans, Jaguar, Japanese people, Japreria language, Jesús Rafael Soto, Johns Hopkins University Press, Joropo, José Antonio Páez, José Gil Fortoul, José Prudencio Padilla, Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo, Juan Vicente Gómez, Juan Vicente Torrealba, Judaism, Judiciary, Justice First, Kalina people, Kapóng language, Kinetic art, Kingfisher, Klein-Venedig, Koreans, La Chinita International Airport, La Guaira, Lake Maracaibo, Languages of Venezuela, Late Pleistocene, Latin America, Latin American debt crisis, Latin American Integration Association, Laureano Vallenilla Lanz, Law of Venezuela, Leaf, Lebanese people, Leeward Antilles, Left-wing populism, Leopoldo López, Library of Congress Country Studies, Light skin, Lingua franca, List of airports in Venezuela, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries by oil exports, List of countries by proven oil reserves, List of countries by road network size, List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela, List of national parks of Venezuela, List of political parties in Venezuela, List of Venezuelan artists, Llanero, Los Llanos (South America), Los Teques, Machiques, Maize, Malaria, Malnutrition, Mammal, Man and the Biosphere Programme, Manatee, Mangrove, Manuel Cabré, Mapoyo-Yabarana language, Maracaibo, Maracaibo Basin, Maracaibo Metro, Maracay, Marcos Pérez Jiménez, Margarita Island, Mariano Picón Salas, Mariche people, Marisol Escobar, Martín Fernández de Enciso, Mérida (state), Mérida, Mérida, Mónica Spear, Megadiverse countries, Mercosur, Mestizos in Venezuela, Miguel Otero Silva, Millennium Development Goals, Mission Barrio Adentro, Mixed economy, Mochima National Park, Modernism, Monagas, 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Oil, Money, and Power, The Proms, The San Diego Union-Tribune, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The Weekly Standard, Third Way, Thor Halvorssen (human rights activist), Three-toed sloth, Time in Venezuela, Timoto–Cuica people, Topography, Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidadians, Tropaeolum tuberosum, Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, Two-party system, Two-toed sloth, Typhoid fever, Ullucus, Unicameralism, Union of South American Nations, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations Development Programme, United Press International, United Socialist Party of Venezuela, United States, United States Department of State, Universal health care, Universal suffrage, Universidad de Oriente, University of Brasília, University of the Andes (Venezuela), University of Zulia, Valencia Metro (Venezuela), Valencia, Carabobo, Vehicle armour, Venezuela national football team, Venezuelan Air Force, Venezuelan Andes, Venezuelan Army, Venezuelan art, Venezuelan banking crisis of 1994, Venezuelan bolívar, Venezuelan Constituent Assembly election, 1952, Venezuelan Constituent Assembly election, 2017, Venezuelan constitutional referendum, 2007, Venezuelan crisis of 1895, Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03, Venezuelan cuisine, Venezuelan Declaration of Independence, Venezuelan general election, 1947, Venezuelan general election, 1968, Venezuelan general election, 1973, Venezuelan general strike of 2002–03, Venezuelan literature, Venezuelan National Guard, Venezuelan parliamentary election, 2015, Venezuelan presidential election, 1998, Venezuelan presidential election, 2006, Venezuelan presidential election, 2013, Venezuelan presidential election, 2018, Venezuelan Professional Baseball League, Venezuelan protests (2014–present), Venezuelan recall referendum, 2004, Venezuelan Spanish, Venezuelan troupial, Venezuelans, Venezuelans of European descent, Venice, Vice President of Venezuela, Viceroyalty of New Granada, Violence, Warao language, Warao people, Water supply and sanitation in Venezuela, Wayuu language, Wayuu people, Welfare, Welser, Western Hemisphere, Wetland, Wildlife, Wiley-Blackwell, William Lindsay Scruggs, Workweek and weekend, World Heritage site, World Justice Project, World Network of Biosphere Reserves, World War II, Yanomamö language, Yanomami, Yaruro language, Ye'kuana, Ye'kuana language, Yellow fever, Yucef Merhi, Yukpa language, Yukpa people, Zulia, .ve, 13th parallel north, 1812 Caracas earthquake, 1948 Venezuelan coup d'état, 1973 oil crisis, 1980s oil glut, 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts, 1999 Constituent National Assembly, 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt, 2012 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament for Men, 2012 Spanish Grand Prix, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2017 Constituent National Assembly, 59th meridian west, 74th meridian west. 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A New Era (Un Nuevo Tiempo, UNT) is a centre-left political party in Venezuela.
Adriano González León (Valera, Trujillo State, 1931 - Caracas, 12 January 2008) was a Venezuelan writer who is known in his country for the novel País Portátil (1968), widely regarded as the premier Venezuelan novel of the latter half of the 20th century, and for his many years of hosting a television program dedicated to promoting literary appreciation among the general public.
Afro-Venezuelans (Spanish: Afrovenezolanos) are Venezuelans of African descent.
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture in Venezuela has a much smaller share of the economy than in any other Latin American country.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alberto Arvelo Torrealba (September 3, 1905 - March 28, 1971), was a Venezuelan lawyer, educator and folklorical poet.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
The Algemeiner Journal is a New York-based newspaper, covering American and international Jewish and Israel-related news.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Alonso de Ojeda (Torrejoncillo del Rey, Cuenca-1468 (some sources state 1466); Santo Domingo-1515) was a Spanish navigator, governor and conquistador.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
The Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), also known as the boto, bufeo or pink river dolphin, is a species of toothed whale classified in the family Iniidae.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Andrés de Jesús María y José Bello López (November 29, 1781 – October 15, 1865) was a Venezuelan humanist, diplomat, poet, legislator, philosopher, educator and philologist, whose political and literary works constitute an important part of Spanish American culture.
Andrés Eloy Blanco Meaño (6 August 1896 – 21 May 1955) was an important Venezuelan poet and politician.
Angel Falls (Salto Ángel; Pemon language: Kerepakupai Meru meaning "waterfall of the deepest place", or Parakupá Vená, meaning "the fall from the highest point") is a waterfall in Venezuela.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
Antillean Creole is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles.
Antisemitism in Venezuela has happened occasionally in Venezuela throughout the history of the Jews in Venezuela.
Antonio José Ramón de La Trinidad y María Guzmán Blanco (28 February 1829 – 28 July 1899) was a Venezuelan military leader, statesman, diplomat and politician.
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" ("Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence leader who served as the fourth President of Peru and the second President of Bolivia.
Antonio José Ledezma Díaz (born 1 May 1955) is a Venezuelan lawyer, politician and former political prisoner.
The Apure River is a river of southwestern Venezuela, formed by the confluence of the Sarare and Uribante near Guasdualito, in Venezuela, at, and flowing across the llanos into the Orinoco.
Arab Venezuelans (عرب فنزويلا; Arabo-Venezolano) refers to Venezuelan citizens of Arab origin or descent.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Lokono (Lokono Dian, literally 'people’s talk' by its speakers), also referred to as Arawak (Arowak/Aruák), is an Arawak language spoken by the Lokono people of South America in eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana.
Arepa is a type of food made of ground maize dough or cooked flour prominent in the cuisine of Colombia and Venezuela.
Armandro Reverón (1889–1954) was a Venezuelan painter and sculptor, precursor of Arte Povera and considered one of the most important of the 20th century in Latin America.
The Armed Forces of National Liberation (in Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional, FALN) was a Venezuelan guerrilla group of National Liberation Front formed by Communist Party of Venezuela to foment revolution against the democratically elected governments of Rómulo Betancourt and Raul Leoni.
Arturo Uslar Pietri (16 May 1906 in Caracas – 26 February 2001) was a Venezuelan intellectual, historian, writer, television producer and politician.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Arutani (Orotani, Urutani, also known as Awake, Auake, Auaqué, Aoaqui, Oewaku, ethnonym Uruak) is a nearly extinct language spoken by only 17 individuals in Roraima, Brazil and two others in the Karum River area of Bolivar State, Venezuela.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Auaké is a Native South American nation of the Amazon rainforest of Venezuela and Brazil.
Bachelor's degree or higher is a commonly used term by the United States Census Bureau and other U.S. government agencies on the federal as well as state and local level.
Bambuco is a traditional music genre originated from Colombia.
Baniwa (Baniva), or Karu, or in older sources Itayaine (Iyaine), is an Arawakan language spoken in Colombia, Venezuela, and Amazonas, Brazil.
El Teatro Baralt is an important Venezuelan cultural institution dating from the first half of the 19th century, and headquartered in downtown Maracaibo, at the north-western corner of Plaza Bolivar, at the intersection of the streets Urdaneta and Venezuela.
Barí is a Chibchan language spoken in Northwestern South America by the Barí (Motion).
The Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz Metropolitan Area, better known as Greater Barcelona, is a Venezuelan conurbation formed by the localities of Barcelona (capital of the Anzoátegui State), Puerto La Cruz, Guanta and Lecheria, forming one of the largest metropolitan areas of the country.
Barquisimeto is a city in Venezuela.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Battle of Carabobo, on 24 June 1821, was fought between independence fighters, led by Venezuelan General Simón Bolívar, and the Royalist forces, led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre.
The Battle of Lake Maracaibo also known as the "Naval Battle of the Lake" was fought on 24 July 1823 on Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo between fleets under the commands of Republican Admiral José Prudencio Padilla and royalist Captain Ángel Laborde.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benedict the Moor, O.F.M., (Benedetto da San Fratello, 1526 – April 4, 1589) was an Italian Franciscan friar in Sicily who is venerated as a saint in the Catholic and Lutheran churches.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
The Bolivarian missions are a series of social programs implemented under the administration of former Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez and continued by Chávez's successor, Nicolás Maduro; with the programs focusing on social justice, social welfare, anti-poverty, educational, and military recruiting.
The Navy of Venezuela is officially called the Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela (Armada Bolivariana de Venezuela).
The Bolivarian Revolution is a political process in Venezuela led by late Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, the founder of the Fifth Republic Movement and later the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV).
Bolivarianism is a mix of pan-American, socialist and national-patriotic ideals fixed against perceived injustices of imperialism, inequality and corruption named after Simón Bolívar, the 19th-century Venezuelan general and liberator from the Spanish monarchy then in abeyance, who led the struggle for independence throughout much of South America.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
British Guiana was the name of the British colony, part of the British West Indies (Caribbean), on the northern coast of South America, now known as the independent nation of Guyana.
The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Montserrat and the British Virgin Islands.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulletin of Latin American Research is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on Latin American studies, including Latin America, the Caribbean, inter-American relations, and the Latin American diaspora.
"Caballo Viejo" (English: Old Horse) is a Venezuelan folk song written and composed by Simón Díaz, which appears on the 1980 album Golpe Y Pasaje.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
A cacique (feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles.
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
The Capital District (Distrito Capital) is Venezuela's federal district.
The Captaincy General of Venezuela (Capitanía General de Venezuela) was an administrative district of colonial Spain, created on September 8, 1777, through the Royal Decree of Graces of 1777, to provide more autonomy for the provinces of Venezuela, previously under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and the Audiencia of Santo Domingo.
The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is a mammal native to South America.
Caquetio, Caiquetio, or Caiquetia, were natives of northwestern Venezuela, living along the shores of Lake Maracaibo at the time of the Spanish conquest.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
The Caracazo, or sacudón, is the name given to the wave of protests, riots, looting, shootings and massacres. that began on 27 February 1989 in Venezuela's capital, Caracas, and the surrounding towns. The weeklong clashes resulted in the deaths of hundreds of people, thousands by some accounts, mostly at the hands of security forces and the military.Amnesty International, March 1990, Reports of Arbitrary Killings and Torture:, February/March 1989, AI Index: AMR 53/02/90, https://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR53/002/1991/en/4e4929fa-ee43-11dd-99b6-630c5239b672/amr530021991en.pdf The riots and the protests began mainly in response to the government's economic reforms and the resulting increase in the price of gasoline and transportation.
The Cariaco Basin lies off the north central coast of Venezuela and forms the Gulf of Cariaco.
Carib or Kari'nja is a Cariban language spoken by the Kalina people (Caribs) of South America.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez (1922 –, 2010) also known as CAP and often referred to as El Gocho (due to his Andean origins), was a Venezuelan politician, President of Venezuela from 12 March 1974 to 12 March 1979 and again from 2 February 1989 to 21 May 1993.
Carlos Cruz-Diez (born August 17, 1923 in Caracas) is a Venezuelan artist considered to be one of the greatest artistic innovators of the 20th and 21st centuries.
Carlos Román Delgado Chalbaud Gómez (20 January 1909 – 13 November 1950) was a Venezuelan career military officer.
Carlos Raúl Villanueva Astoul (London, May 30, 1900 - Caracas, August 16, 1975) was a Venezuelan Modernist architect.
The Caroni River is the second most important river of Venezuela, the second in flow, and one of the longest, from the Tepui Kuquenan, where it originates with the same name Kuquenan, up to its confluence with the River Orinoco to which it belongs.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cattleya mossiae (literally "Moss' Cattley's"), commonly known as easter orchid, is a species of labiate Cattleya orchid.
A caudillo (Old Spanish: cabdillo, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head") was a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
The Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) is an economic policy think-tank, co-founded by economists Dean Baker and Mark Weisbrot, and is based in Washington, D.C. It has been described as left-leaning.
The Central Bank of Venezuela (Banco Central de Venezuela, BCV) is the central bank of Venezuela.
The Central University of Venezuela (or Universidad Central de Venezuela, UCV, in Spanish) is a premier public university of Venezuela located in Caracas.
Chacao is one of the five political and administrative subdivisions of the city of Caracas, Venezuela.
Chaima (شيما) is a feminine given name of Arabic origin that may refer to.
China Railway, commonly known as CR, full name China Railway Corporation is a state-owned sole proprietorship enterprise that undertakes railway passenger and cargo transportation services in the People's Republic of China and is a state-owned industrial enterprise established under the "Law of the People's Republic of China on All-Ownership Industrial Enterprises." The Ministry of Finance acts on behalf of the State Council to perform the duties of investors..
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
José Cipriano Castro Ruiz (12 October 1858 – 4 December 1924) was a high-ranking member of the Venezuelan military, politician and the President of Venezuela from 1899 to 1908.
Ciudad Guayana is a city in Bolívar State, Venezuela.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
A cloud forest, also called a water forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
CNNMoney.com is a financial news and information website, operated by CNN.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colonia Tovar (Tovar Colony) is a town of Venezuela, capital of the municipality Tovar in Aragua state.
Alemán Coloniero, spoken in Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, is a dialect that belongs to the Low Alemannic branch of German.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Communist Party of Venezuela (Partido Comunista de Venezuela, PCV) is a communist party and the oldest continuously existing party in Venezuela.
Compulsory voting refers to laws which require eligible citizens to register and vote in national and/or local elections.
The South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL,; Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol; Confederação Sul-Americana de Futebol or CSF) is the continental governing body of association football in South America (apart from Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana) and it is one of FIFA's six continental confederations.
The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
Copa América (America Cup), known until 1975 as the South American Football Championship (Campeonato Sudamericano de Fútbol in Spanish and Campeonato Sul-americano de Futebol (Portugal) ou Copa Sul-Americana de Futebol (Brazil) in Portuguese), is an international men's football tournament contested between national teams from CONMEBOL.
COPEI, also called Social Christian Party (Partido Socialcristiano) or Green Party (Partido Verde), is a Christian democratic party in Venezuela.
The Cordillera de la Costa Central is a range of the Venezuelan Coastal Ranges System (Cordillera de la Costa), in northern Venezuela.
The Sistema Coriano also known as Lara-Falcón Formation, Coro region or Coriano system is one of the eight natural regions of Venezuela.
Corruption in Venezuela is high by world standards and is prevalent throughout many levels of Venezuela's society.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.
The crisis in Venezuela is the socioeconomic and political crisis that Venezuela has been experiencing since 2012 under the presidency of Hugo Chávez and which has continued into the current presidency of Nicolás Maduro.
Cristóbal Rojas (December 15, 1857 in Cúa, Miranda – November 8, 1890 in Caracas) was one of the most important and high-profile Venezuelan painters of the 19th century.
The cuatro is the name of a family of Latin American instruments found in South America, and in Puerto Rico and other parts of the West Indies.
The Cuerpo de Investigaciones Científicas, Penales y Criminalísticas (CICPC) is Venezuela's largest national police agency, responsible for criminal investigations and forensic services.
The cultures of Spain are European cultures based on a variety of historical influences, primarily based on pre-Roman Celtic and Iberian culture.
Cumaná is the capital of Venezuela's Sucre State. It is located east of Caracas. Cumaná was one of the first settlements founded by Europeans in mainland America and is the oldest continuously-inhabited, European-established settlement in the continent. Attacks by indigenous peoples meant it had to be refounded several times. The municipality of Sucre, which includes Cumaná, had a population of 358,919 at the 2011 Census; the latest estimate (as at mid 2016) is 423,546. The city, located at the mouth of the Manzanares River on the Caribbean coast in the Northeast coast of Venezuela, is home to one of five campuses of the Universidad de Oriente and a busy maritime port, home of one of the largest tuna fleets in Venezuela. The city is close to Mochima National Park a popular tourist beaches destination amongst Venezuelans. The city of Cumaná saw the birth of key heroes of and contributors to the Venezuelan independence movement: Antonio Jose de Sucre, the ‘Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho’, a leading general and President of Bolivia; as well as Brigadier General D. Juan Francisco Echeto. Cumaná is also the birthplace to eminent poets, writers and politicians like Andrés Eloy Blanco, an important figure in Latin-American literature and who later rose to the national political scene; as well as José Antonio Ramos Sucre, another distinguished poet and diplomat. Important scientists including Pehr Löefling from Sweden, Alexander von Humboldt from Germany and Aimé Bonpland from France did part of their experimental works and discoveries when visiting and living in Cumaná in the 18th century. The city is also home to a Toyota plant, which manufactures the Hilux and Toyota Fortuner.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
In finance, default is failure to meet the legal obligations (or conditions) of a loan, for example when a home buyer fails to make a mortgage payment, or when a corporation or government fails to pay a bond which has reached maturity.
Delcy Eloína Rodríguez Gómez (born 18 May 1969) is a Venezuelan politician who has been Vice President of Venezuela since 14 June 2018.
Delta Amacuro State (Estado Delta Amacuro) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela, and is the location of the Orinoco Delta.
Democratic Action (Acción Democrática, AD) is a Venezuelan social democratic political party established in 1941.
The Democratic Unity Roundtable (Mesa de la Unidad Democrática, MUD) is a catch-all electoral coalition of Venezuelan political parties formed in January 2008 to unify the opposition to President Hugo Chávez's United Socialist Party of Venezuela in the Venezuelan parliamentary election, 2010.
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
A deputy is a legislator in many countries, particularly those with legislatures styled as a 'Chamber of Deputies' or 'National Assembly'.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
2001 (Diario 2001) is a Venezuelan newspaper.
Diario las Américas is the oldest Spanish newspaper in Miami for the Hispanic community.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
Diego de Lozada (1511 – 1569) was a Spanish conquistador and the founder of Santiago de León de Caracas, the current capital of Venezuela.
Dios y Federación (God and Federation) is considered the traditional state motto of Venezuela.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Dorling Kindersley (DK) is a British multinational publishing company specializing in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
In geomorphology, drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
In economics, the Dutch disease is the apparent causal relationship between the increase in the economic development of a specific sector (for example natural resources) and a decline in other sectors (like the manufacturing sector or agriculture).
In 1908 a dispute broke out between the Netherlands and Venezuela when the Venezuelan president, Cipriano Castro, cut off trade with the Dutch island of Curaçao on the grounds that it was harbouring political refugees from Venezuela.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
From his election in 1998 until his death in March 2013, the administration of the late Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez proposed and enacted economic policies known as the Bolivarian Revolution.
When elected in 2013, Nicolás Maduro continued the majority of existing economic policies of his predecessor Hugo Chávez.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The El Callao Municipality is one of the 11 municipalities (municipios) that makes up the Venezuelan state of Bolívar and, according to the 2011 census by the National Institute of Statistics of Venezuela, the municipality has a population of 21,769.
El Impulso was a Venezuelan regional newspaper, headquartered in Barquisimeto, in the state of Lara.
El Nuevo Herald is a newspaper published daily in Spanish in Southeast Florida, United States.
El Sistema is a publicly financed voluntary sector music education program in Venezuela, founded in 1975 by Venezuelan educator, musician and activist José Antonio AbreuLesniak which later adopted the motto "Music for Social Change".
El Trienio Adeco was a three-year period in Venezuelan history, from 1945 to 1948, under the government of the popular party Democratic Action (Accion Democratica, its adherents adecos).
El Universal is a major Venezuelan newspaper, headquartered in Caracas with an average daily circulation of about 150,000.
José Eleazar López Contreras (5 May 1883 – 2 January 1973) was President of Venezuela between 1935 and 1941.
The electricity sector in Venezuela is one of the few in the world to rely primarily on hydroelectricity, which accounted for 64% in 2015 (71% in 2004).
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The Essequibo River (Río Esequibo) is the largest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
Express kidnapping (secuestro exprés, sequestro relâmpago), is a method of abduction where a small immediate ransom is demanded, often by the victim being forced to withdraw money from his or her ATM account.
The face is a central body region of sense and is also very central in the expression of emotion among humans and among numerous other species.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fatherland for All (Patria Para Todos, PPT) is a leftist political party in Venezuela.
The fauna of Venezuela consists of a huge variety of animals.
The Federal Dependencies of Venezuela (Spanish Dependencias Federales de Venezuela) encompass most of Venezuela's offshore islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Venezuela, excluding those islands which form the State of Nueva Esparta.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
The Federal War (Guerra Federal) — also known as the Great War or the Five Year War — was a civil war (1859–1863) in Venezuela between the Conservative party and the Liberal party over the monopoly the Conservatives held over government positions and land ownership, and their intransigence to granting any reforms.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The fencing competitions at the 2012 Olympic Games in London were held from 28 July to 5 August at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre.
Fermín Toro y Blanco (Caracas- El Valle, 14 July 1806 - Caracas, 23 December 1865) was a Venezuelan humanist, politician, diplomat and author.
The FIBA AmeriCup (previously known as the FIBA Americas Championship) is the name commonly used to refer to the American Basketball Championship that takes place every two years between national teams of the Western Hemisphere continents.
The Fifth Republic Movement (Spanish: Movimiento V República, MVR) was a Socialist political party in Venezuela.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The First Republic of Venezuela (Primera República de Venezuela in Spanish) was the first independent government of Venezuela, lasting from July 5, 1811, to July 25, 1812.
The current flag of Venezuela was introduced in 2006.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
Fox Business Network (FBN), also known as Fox Business, is an American cable and satellite business news television channel that is owned by the Fox Entertainment Group division of 21st Century Fox.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza (March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816), commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan military leader and revolutionary.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Gaita is a style of Venezuelan folk music from Maracaibo in Zulia State.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Garbage, trash, rubbish, or refuse is waste material that is discarded by humans, usually due to a perceived lack of utility.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The usage and pricing of gasoline (or petrol) results from factors such as crude oil prices, processing and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, and the availability of local sources of gasoline (supply).
Gertrud Louise Goldschmidt (1 August 1912 – 17 September 1994) also known as Gego, was a modern Venezuelan artist and sculptor.
The General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge is located at the outlet of Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela.
German Venezuelans (Deutsch-Venezolaner; Germano-venezolanos) are Venezuelan citizens who descend from Germans or German people with Venezuelan citizenship.
The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), also known as the ant bear, is a large insectivorous mammal native to Central and South America.
GlobalPost is an online US digital journalism company that focuses on international news founded on January 12, 2009 by Philip S. Balboni and Charles M. Sennott.
"Gloria al Bravo Pueblo" (Glory to the Brave People) was adopted as Venezuela's national anthem by President Antonio Guzmán Blanco on May 25, 1881.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.
Venezuela is a federal presidential republic.
Gran Colombia ("Great Colombia") is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885–1889 and 1893–1897).
Guahibo, the native language of the Guahibo people, is a Guahiban language that is spoken by about 23,006 people in Colombia and additional 8,428 in Venezuela.
Guaicaipuro (c. 1530–1568) was a native (indigenous) Venezuelan chief of both the Teques and Caracas tribes.
Guayana Esequiba is a territory administered by Guyana and claimed by Venezuela.
The Guayana Region is an administrative region of eastern Venezuela.
The Guiana Shield is one of the three cratons of the South American Plate.
The Gulf of Paria (Golfo de Paria) is a shallow (37m at its deepest) semi-enclosed inland sea located between the island of Trinidad (Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) and the east coast of Venezuela.
The Gulf of Venezuela is a gulf of the Caribbean Sea bounded by the Venezuelan states of Zulia and Falcón and by Guajira Department, Colombia.
The Simón Bolívar Hydroelectric Plant also Guri Dam (Central Hidroeléctrica Simón Bolívar or Represa de Guri) is a concrete gravity and embankment dam in Bolívar State, Venezuela on the Caroni River built from 1963 to 1969.
Gustavo Adolfo Dudamel Ramírez (born January 26, 1981) is a Venezuelan and Spanish conductor and violinist.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
In Latin American cuisine, an hallaca (alt. spelling, hayaca and ayaca) is corn dough stuffed with a stew of beef, pork, and chicken, fish or other seafoods in some places, and it is "adorned" with raisins, capers, olives and wedges of fowl meat.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions.
Henrique Capriles Radonski is a Venezuelan politician and lawyer, serving as 36th Governor of Miranda from 2008-17.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis D (hepatitis delta) is a disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped virusoid.
The Hodï (Jodï, Jotí, Hoti) language, also known as Yuwana (Yoana), Waruwaru, or Chikano (Chicano), is a small unclassified language of Venezuela.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
The ibises (collective plural ibis; classical plurals ibides and ibes) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains.
Illegal drug trade in Colombia (Narcotráfico en Colombia) refers to a practice of Colombian criminal groups of producing and distributing illegal drugs.
Illegal drug trade in Venezuela is the practice of illegal drug trade in Venezuela.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Immigration to Venezuela has been significant.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Indigenous peoples in Venezuela, or Native Venezuelans, form about 2% of the total population of Venezuela,Van Cott (2003), "Andean Indigenous Movements and Constitutional Transformation: Venezuela in Comparative Perspective", Latin American Perspectives 30(1), p52 although many Venezuelans share some indigenous ancestry.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The Insular Region is one of the eight natural regions of Venezuela and also, one of the 10 administrative regions in which Venezuela was divided for its development plans; it comprises all of the nation's islands, and is formed by the state of Nueva Esparta and the Federal Dependencies.
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) is a term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that all countries that signed the UNFCCC were asked to publish in the lead-up to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Paris, France, in December 2015.
The Inter-American Democratic Charter was adopted on 11 September 2001 by a special session of the General Assembly of the Organization of American States, held in Lima, Peru.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Abkhazia and South Ossetia are partially recognised republics in the Caucasus, claiming independence from Georgia.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isaías Medina Angarita (6 July 1897 – 15 September 1953) was a Venezuelan military and political leader, 46th President of Venezuela from 1941 until 1945, leader of World War II.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
An islet is a very small island.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian-Venezuelans are Venezuelan citizens of Italian descent.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Japrería (Yapreria) is a Cariban language of Venezuela.
Jesús Rafael Soto (June 5, 1923 – January 14, 2005) was a Venezuelan op and kinetic artist, a sculptor and a painter.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The Joropo or Música llanera is a musical style resembling the fandango, and an accompanying dance.
José Antonio Páez Herrera (13 June 1790 – 6 May 1873), commonly known as José Antonio Páez, was a Venezuelan leader who fought against the Spanish Crown for Simón Bolívar during the Venezuelan War of Independence.
José Gil Fortoul (Barquisimeto, Lara, 25 November 1861 – Caracas, 15 June 1943) was a writer, historian, politician and member of Venezuelan positivism, appointed as Provisional President in 1913.
Admiral José Prudencio Padilla López (19 March 1784, in Riohacha, Colombia – 2 February 1828) was a Colombian military leader who fought in the Spanish American wars of independence.
Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo (13 December 1903 – 3 September 1979), was a prominent Venezuelan diplomat, politician and lawyer primarily responsible for the inception and creation of OPEC.
Juan Vicente Gómez Chacón (24 July 1857 – 17 December 1935) was a military general and de facto ruler of Venezuela from 1908 until his death in 1935.
Juan Vicente Torrealba (born 20 February 1917, Caracas) is a Venezuelan harpist and composer of popular music.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Justice First (Primero Justicia) is a centrist political party in Venezuela.
The Kalina, also known as the Caribs, Kali'na, mainland Caribs and several other names, are an indigenous people native to the northern coastal areas of South America.
Kapóng is a Cariban language spoken mainly in Guyana, most commonly in the region of the Upper Mazaruni.
Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect.
Kingfishers or Alcedinidae are a family of small to medium-sized, brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes.
Klein-Venedig (Little Venice) was the most significant territory of the German colonization of the Americas, from 1528 to 1546, in which the Welser banking family of the Free Imperial City of Augsburg obtained colonial rights in the Province of Venezuela in return for debts owed by Charles I of Spain (counted Charles V as Emperor).
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
La Chinita International Airport is an airport serving Maracaibo, in the Zulia state of Venezuela.
La Guaira is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Vargas and the country's main port.
Lake Maracaibo (Lago de Maracaibo) is a large brackish tidal bay (or tidal estuary) in Venezuela and an "inlet of the Caribbean Sea." It is sometimes considered a lake rather than a bay or lagoon.
There are at least 40 languages around Venezuela, but Spanish is the language spoken by the majority of Venezuelans.
The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Latin American debt crisis (Crisis de la deuda latinoamericana) was a financial crisis that originated in the early 1980s (and for some countries starting in the 1970s), often known as the "lost decade", when Latin American countries reached a point where their foreign debt exceeded their earning power and they were not able to repay it.
The Latin American Integration Association / Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración / Associação Latino-Americana de Integração (LAIA / ALADI) is an international and regional scope organization.
Laureano Vallenilla Lanz (November 10, 1870 – November 16, 1936) was a Venezuelan intellectual and sociologist who occupied the presidency of the congress for 20 years during the Gomez regime.
The legal system of Venezuela belongs to the Continental Law tradition.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.
The Leeward Antilles (Dutch: Benedenwindse Eilanden) are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – specifically, the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and, in turn, the Antilles and the West Indies) along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland.
Left-wing populism is a political ideology which combines left-wing politics and populist rhetoric and themes.
Leopoldo Eduardo López Mendoza (born 29 April 1971) is a Venezuelan politician currently under house arrest.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Light skin is a naturally occurring human skin color, which has little eumelanin pigmentation and which has been adapted to environments of low UV radiation.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Venezuela, officially known as the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of oil-producing countries by oil exports based on The World Factbook and other Sources.
This is a list of countries by proven oil reserves.
This is a list of countries by total road network size, both paved and unpaved.
The following is a list of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela since 1830, when Venezuela achieved independence after the dissolution of Gran Colombia.
National Parks of Venezuela are protected areas in Venezuela, covering a wide range of habitats.
This article lists political parties in Venezuela.
This is a list of artists, in chronological and period order, who were born in Venezuela or whose artworks are closely associated with the country.
A llanero (plainsman) is a Latino herder.
Los Llanos ("The Plains") is a vast tropical grassland plain situated to the east of the Andes in Colombia and Venezuela, in northwestern South America.
Los Teques is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Miranda and the center of the Altos Mirandinos Metropolitan Area.
Machiques is a city in Zulia State, Venezuela, located in the northwest portion of the country.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Manuel Cabré (January 25, 1890 – February 26, 1984) was a noted Spanish-Venezuelan landscape painter who is remembered as "the painter of El Ávila" (El pintor de El Ávila).
Mapoyo, or Mapoyo–Yavarana, is a Carib language spoken along the Suapure and Parguaza Rivers, Venezuela.
Maracaibo is a city and municipality in northwestern Venezuela, on the western shore of the strait that connects Lake Maracaibo to the Gulf of Venezuela.
The Maracaibo Basin, also known as Lake Maracaibo natural region, Lake Maracaibo depression or Lake Maracaibo Lowlands, is a foreland basin and one of the eight natural regions of Venezuela, found in the northwestern corner of Venezuela in South America.
The Maracaibo Metro, also known as Metro del Sol Amado, is a six-station rapid transit system in Maracaibo, Venezuela.
Maracay is a city in north-central Venezuela, near the Caribbean coast, and is the capital and most important city of the state of Aragua.
Marcos Evangelista Pérez Jiménez (25 April 1914 – 20 September 2001) was a Venezuelan military and general officer of the Army of Venezuela and the leader of Venezuela from 1950 to 1958, ruling as unelected military strongman from 1948 to 1950 and as President from 1952 to 1958.
Margarita Island (Isla de Margarita) is the largest island in the Venezuelan state of Nueva Esparta, situated off the northeastern coast of the country, in the Caribbean Sea.
Mariano Federico Picón Salas, an influential Venezuelan diplomatic, cultural critic and writer of the 20th century, was born in Mérida (Mérida State) on January 26, 1901, and died in Caracas on January 1, 1965.
Mariche is the name of a former native Venezuelan tribe.
Marisol Escobar (May 22, 1930 – April 30, 2016), otherwise known simply as Marisol, was a French sculptor of Venezuelan heritage who worked in New York City.
Martín Fernández de Enciso (c. 1470 – 1528) was a navigator and geographer from Seville, Spain.
The Bolivarian State of Mérida (Estado Bolivariano de Mérida), commonly known simply as Mérida State (Estado Mérida) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.
Mérida, officially known as Santiago de los Caballeros de Mérida, is the capital of the municipality of Libertador and the state of Mérida, and is one of the principal cities of the Venezuelan Andes.
Mónica Spear Mootz (1 October 1984 – 6 January 2014) was a Venezuelan actress, model and beauty pageant titleholder who won Miss Venezuela 2004.
The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.
Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.
Mestizo Venezuelans are Venezuelan people who are the result of a mixture of European, Amerindian and African.
Miguel Otero Silva (October 26, 1908 - August 28, 1985), was a Venezuelan writer, journalist, humorist and politician.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Mission Barrio Adentro (English: Into the Neighborhood Mission) is a Bolivarian national social welfare program established under late Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Mochima National Park is located in the States of Anzoátegui and Sucre (state), on the northeastern coast of Venezuela.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Monagas State (Estado Monagas) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.
Morning Star is a left-wing British daily tabloid newspaper with a focus on social, political and trade union issues.
Morrocoy National Park is located in the easternmost coast of Falcón state and northwestern of Golfo Triste, in the west central Venezuelan coast, near the towns of Boca de Aroa, Tucacas, Sanare, Chichiriviche, Flamenco and Tocuyo de la Costa, and consists of 32,090 acres.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
The Movement toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo, or MAS) is a social-democratic political party in Venezuela.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Several styles of the traditional music of Venezuela, such as salsa and merengue, are common to its Caribbean neighbors.
NACLA Report on the Americas is a political magazine produced by the North American Congress on Latin America.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) is a de jure legislature for Venezuela that was first elected in 2000.
The Venezuelan National Militia, officially the National Bolivarian Militia of Venezuela, is a militia branch of the National Armed Forces of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
The National Center for Foreign Commerce, (Centro Nacional de Comercio Exterior, CENCOEX), formerly the Commission for the Administration of Currency Exchange (Comisión de Administración de Divisas CADIVI), is the Venezuelan government body which administers legal currency exchange in Venezuela.
The National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral) (CNE) is one of the five branches of government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela that is designed to be independent.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
New Andalusia Province or Province of Cumaná (1537–1864) was a province of the Spanish Empire, and later of Gran Colombia and Venezuela.
The Nheengatu language, often spelled Nhengatu, is an indigenous language of the Americas from the Tupi–Guarani language family.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
Yanam, or Ninam, is a Yanomaman language spoken in Roraima, Brazil (800 speakers) and southern Venezuela near the Mucajai, upper Uraricaá, and Paragua rivers.
North American Congress in Latin America (NACLA) is a left-wing non-profit organization founded in 1966 to provide information on trends in Latin America and relations between Latin America and the United States.
New Sparta State, in Spanish Estado Nueva Esparta, is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
The National Anti-Drug Office or ONA (in Spanish: Oficina Nacional Antidrogas) is a Venezuelan law enforcement agency of executive authority responsible for drafting state policy, legal regulation, control and monitoring in combating trafficking drugs, psychotropic substances, and their precursors.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.
Omar Enrique Barboza Gutiérrez is the president of the Venezuelan political party Un Nuevo Tiempo (A New Era) in opposition to Nicolás Maduro, the current President of Venezuela.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.
The Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) is a critically endangered crocodile.
The Orinoco Delta is a vast river delta of the Orinoco River, located in eastern Venezuela.
The Orquesta Sinfónica Simón Bolívar (Simón Bolívar Symphony Orchestra) is a Venezuelan orchestra.
The osprey or more specifically the western osprey (Pandion haliaetus) — also called sea hawk, river hawk, and fish hawk — is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey with a cosmopolitan range.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Venezuela: Venezuela – sovereign country located in northern South America.
Pabellón criollo is a traditional Venezuelan dish, the local version of the rice and beans combination found throughout the Caribbean.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Panare is a Cariban language, spoken by approximately 3,000–4,000 people in Bolivar State in southern Venezuela.
The Paria Peninsula,, is a large peninsula on the Caribbean Sea, in Sucre State, northern Venezuela.
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Pastor Rafael Maldonado Motta (born 9 March 1985) is a Venezuelan professional racing driver, who competed in Formula One for the Williams (2011–2013) and Lotus (2014–2015) teams.
Páramo can refer to a variety of alpine tundra ecosystems.
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) (Petroleum of Venezuela) is the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company.
Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.
Pedro Francisco Carmona Estanga (born 6 July 1941), is a former Venezuelan trade organization leader who was briefly installed as President of Venezuela in place of Hugo Chávez, following the attempted military coup on April 2002.
Pedro Elías Gutiérrez (March 14, 1870–May 31, 1954) was a Venezuelan musician who is mainly remembered for the song Alma Llanera, whose music he composed for the zarzuela of the same name.
The Pemon or Pemón (Pemong) are indigenous people living in areas of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana.
The Pemon language, or Arekuna, is an indigenous language of the Cariban family spoken by some 30,000 Pemon people, in Venezuela's Southeast, particularly in the Canaima National Park, in the Roraima State of Brazil and in Guyana.
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The petro, or petromoneda, launched in February 2018, is a cryptocurrency developed by the government of Venezuela.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Piapoco is an Arawakan language of Colombia and Venezuela.
Piaroa (also called Guagua ~ Kuakua ~ Quaqua, Adole ~ Ature, Wo’tiheh) is an indigenous language of Colombia and Venezuela, native to the Piaroa people.
The Piaroa are an indigenous people of the middle Orinoco Basin in present-day Venezuela, living in an area equivalent to the size of Belgium, roughly circumscribed by the Parguaza (north), the Ventuari (south-east), the Manapiare (north-east) and the right bank of the Orinoco (west).
Pico Bolívar is the highest mountain in Venezuela, at 4,978 metres (16,332 ft).
The Pico Piedras Blancas (also known as Misamán), at, is the highest mountain of the Sierra de la Culata range in the Mérida State, and the fifth-highest mountain in Venezuela.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
A hand plane is a tool for shaping wood using muscle power to force the cutting blade over the wood surface.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.
The Poliedro de Caracas ("Caracas Polyhedron Arena") is an indoor sports arena, located on the grounds adjacent to Hipodromo La Rinconada, in Caracas, Venezuela.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
Popular democracy is a notion of direct democracy based on referendums and other devices of empowerment and concretization of popular will.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese Venezuelans (or Luso-Venezuelans) are Portuguese-born citizens with Venezuelan citizenship or Venezuelan-born citizens of Portuguese ancestry or citizenship.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
The President of the National Assembly (Presidente de la Asamblea Nacional) is the presiding officer (speaker) of the National Assembly, Venezuela's unicameral legislature.
The President of Venezuela (Presidente de Venezuela), officially known as the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is the head of state and head of government in Venezuela's presidential system.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The price of oil, or the oil price, (generally) refers to the spot price of a barrel of benchmark crude oil—a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent ICE, Dubai Crude, OPEC Reference Basket, Tapis Crude, Bonny Light, Urals oil, Isthmus and Western Canadian Select (WCS).
A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
Venezuela Project (in Spanish: Proyecto Venezuela) is a centre-right political party in Venezuela.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Puerto Cabello is a city on the north coast of Venezuela.
Puinave, Waipunavi (Guaipunabi) or Wanse (Wãnsöhöt), is a poorly attested and generally unclassified language of South America.
Punto Fijo is the capital city of the municipality of Carirubana in northern Falcón State, Venezuela.
The Puntofijo Pact was a formal arrangement arrived at between representatives of Venezuela's three main political parties in 1958, Acción Democrática (AD), COPEI (Social Christian Party), and Unión Republicana Democrática (URD), for the acceptance of the 1958 presidential elections, and the preservation of the new democratic regime.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Rafael Bolívar Coronado was a Venezuelan composer and author.
Rafael Antonio Caldera Rodríguez (24 January 1916 – 24 December 2009) was a Venezuelan politician who served as the 56th and 63rd President of Venezuela from 1969 to 1974 and again from 1994 to 1999.
Rafael José Urdaneta y Faría (October 24, 1788 – August 23, 1845) was a Venezuelan General and hero of the Spanish American wars of independence.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
Rómulo Ángel del Monte Carmelo Gallegos Freire (2 August 1884 – 5 April 1969) was a Venezuelan novelist and politician.
The Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo (Real Audiencia de Santo Domingo) was the first court of the Spanish crown in America.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Revolutionary Left Movement (Spanish: Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria, MIR) was a left-wing Marxist political party in Venezuela.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rubén Dario Limardo Gascón (born August 3, 1985) is an épée fencer from Venezuela.
Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators, absolute monarchs and military leaders.
The Sabana Grande district is divided into several middle class neighborhoods located in the Parroquia El Recreo of the Libertador Municipality, in the geographical center of the Metropolitan District of Caracas and owes its name to the old town of Sabana Grande.
San Cristóbal is the capital city of the Venezuelan state of Táchira.
Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.
Sanumá is a Yanomaman language spoken in Venezuela and Brazil.
Sapé a.k.a. Kaliana is a nearly extinct language spoken along the Paragua and Karuna rivers.
The Second Republic of Venezuela (Segunda República de Venezuela in Spanish) is the name used to refer to the reestablished Venezuelan Republic declared by Simón Bolívar on August 7, 1813.
Serenata Guayanesa is a vocal and instrumental quartet that plays typical Venezuelan folk music.
In economics, a shortage or excess demand is a situation in which the demand for a product or service exceeds its supply in a market.
Shortages in Venezuela have been prevalent following the enactment of price controls and other policies during the economic policy of the Hugo Chávez government.
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
Simón Bolívar International Airport or Maiquetía "Simón Bolívar" International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional de Maiquetia "Simón Bolívar") is an international airport located in Maiquetía, Vargas, Venezuela about from downtown Caracas, the capital of the country.
The Simón Bolívar University (Universidad Simón Bolívar in Spanish) or USB, is a public institution located in Miranda State, Venezuela with scientific and technological orientation.
Simón Narciso Díaz Márquez (August 8, 1928 – February 19, 2014) was a Venezuelan singer and Grammy Award-winning composer of EBV music.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
A social movement is a type of group action.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate creating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge The easterly side is a divergent boundary with the African Plate forming the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
A Spanish Venezuelan is a Venezuelan citizen of Spanish origin or descent.
The State Railways Institution ("Instituto de Ferrocarriles del Estado", or IFE.) is a state-run organization of Venezuela that manages the railway systems of the country.
Venezuela is a federation made up of twenty-three states (estados), a Capital District (Distrito Capital) and the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales), which consist of a large number of islands and islets on the Caribbean Sea.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a research institute at Tel Aviv University in Israel.
Stilt houses are houses raised on piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water.
Sucre State (Estado Sucre) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
The Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia or TSJ) is the highest court of law in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and is the head of the judicial branch.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
Tabebuia chrysantha (araguaney or yellow ipê), known as guayacan in Colombia, as tajibo in Bolivia, and as ipê-amarelo in Brazil, is a native tree of the intertropical broadleaf deciduous forests of South America above the Tropic of Capricorn.
Tamanaco was a native Venezuelan chief, who as leader of the Mariches and Quiriquires tribes led (during part of the 16th century) the resistance against the Spanish conquest of Venezuelan territory in the central region of the country, specially in the Caracas valley.
Táchira State (Estado Táchira) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.
The Venezuelan Numbering Plan is an open telephone numbering plan with three-digit area codes and seven-digit telephone numbers that directs telephone calls to particular regions on a public switched telephone network (PSTN) or to a mobile telephone network, where they are further routed by the local network.
Telesur (stylised as teleSUR) is a multi-state funded, Latin American terrestrial and satellite television network headquartered in Caracas, Venezuela.
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers.
A tepui, or tepuy, is a table-top mountain or mesa found in the Guiana Highlands of South America, especially in Venezuela and western Guyana.
María Teresa Carreño García de Sena (22 December 185312 June 1917) was a Venezuelan pianist, singer, composer, and conductor.
The Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex (Complejo Cultural Teresa Carreño), also known as Teresa Carreño Theater (Teatro Teresa Carreño), is the most important theatre of Caracas and Venezuela, where performances include symphonic and popular concerts, opera, ballet and plays.
Teresa de la Parra (October 5, 1889 – April 23, 1936) was a Venezuelan novelist.
Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.
The Chosun Ilbo is one of the major newspapers in South Korea.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power is Daniel Yergin's history of the global petroleum industry from the 1850s through 1990.
The Proms is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall in central London.
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Weekly Standard is an American conservative opinion magazine published 48 times per year.
The Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economic and centre-left social policies.
Thor Leonardo Halvorssen Mendoza (born 1976)—commonly known as Thor Halvorssen—is a Venezuelan human rights advocate and film producer with contributions in the field of public policy, public interest advocacy, individual rights and civil liberties, and pro-democracy advocacy.
The three-toed sloths are tree-living mammals from South and Central America.
Venezuela uses the UTC−04:00 time offset, and they had previously used UTC−04:30 from December 9, 2007 until April 30, 2016.
Timoto–Cuica people were an indigenous group composed primarily of two tribes, the Timote and the Cuica, that inhabited in the Andean region of western Venezuela.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Trinidadians, colloquially known as Trinis, are the people who are identified with the country of Trinidad and Tobago.
Tropaeolum tuberosum (mashua, see below for other names) is a species of flowering plant in the family Tropaeolaceae, grown in the Andes, particularly in Peru and Bolivia, and to a lesser extent in Ecuador as well as in Boyacá Department, Colombia, for its edible tubers, which are eaten cooked or roasted as a vegetable.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government.
Choloepus is a genus of mammals of Central and South America, within the family Megalonychidae consisting of two-toed sloths.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Ullucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Basellaceae, with one species, Ullucus tuberosus, a plant grown primarily as a root vegetable, secondarily as a leaf vegetable.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by the late President Hugo Chávez.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Oriente Venezuela (Universidad de Oriente Venezuela, UDO) is one of the most important universities of Venezuela, located in Eastern Venezuela.
The University of Brasília (Universidade de Brasília, UnB) is a Brazilian public university funded by the Brazilian federal government.
The University of the Andes (Spanish: Universidad de Los Andes, ULA) is the second-oldest university in Venezuela, whose main campus is located in the city of Mérida, Venezuela.
The University of Zulia (La Universidad del Zulia, also known as LUZ literally meaning "light" in Spanish), is a public university whose main campus is located in the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela.
The Valencia Metro (Spanish: Metro Valencia or Metro de Valencia) is the public mass transit system of Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela and its suburbs Naguanagua Municipality and San Diego Municipality.
Valencia is the capital city of Carabobo State, and the third largest city in Venezuela.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
The Venezuela national football team (Selección de fútbol de Venezuela) represents Venezuela in men's international association football and is controlled by the Venezuelan Football Federation (FVF), the governing body for football in Venezuela.
The Venezuelan Air Force, officially the Venezuelan National Bolivarian Military Aviation (Aviación Militar Nacional Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a professional armed body designed to defend Venezuela's sovereignty and airspace.
The Venezuelan Andes (Spanish: Andes Venezolanos) also simply known as the Andes (Spanish: Los Andes) in Venezuela, are a mountain system that form the northernmost extension of the Andes.
The Venezuelan Army, officially the National Army of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Ejército Nacional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is one of the six professional branches of the Armed Forces of the Venezuela.
Venezuelan art has a long and eventful history.
The 1994 banking crisis occurred in Venezuela when a number of the banks of Venezuela were taken over by the government.
The bolívar fuerte (sign: Bs.F. or Bs.; plural: bolívares fuertes; ISO 4217 code: VEF) has been the currency of Venezuela since 1 January 2008.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in Venezuela on 30 November 1952.
Constituent Assembly elections were held in Venezuela on 30 July 2017 to elect the members of the 2017 Constituent National Assembly.
A constitutional referendum was held in Venezuela on 2 December 2007 to amend 69 articles of the 1999 Constitution.
The Venezuelan crisis of 1895 occurred over Venezuela's longstanding dispute with the United Kingdom about the territory of Essequibo and Guayana Esequiba, which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory.
The Venezuelan crisis of 1902–03 was a naval blockade from December 1902 to February 1903 imposed against Venezuela by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy, over President Cipriano Castro's refusal to pay foreign debts and damages suffered by European citizens in the Venezuelan civil war.
Due to its world, its diversity of industrial resources and the cultural diversity of the Venezuelan people, Venezuelan cuisine often varies greatly from one region to another.
The Venezuelan Declaration of Independence (Cinco de Julio) is a statement adopted by a congress of Venezuelan provinces on July 5, 1811, through which Venezuelans made the decision to separate from the Spanish Crown in order to establish a new nation based on the premises of equality of individuals, abolition of censorship and dedication to freedom of expression.
General elections were held in Venezuela on 14 December 1947.
General elections were held in Venezuela on 1 December 1968.
General elections were held in Venezuela on Sunday 9 December 1973.
The Venezuelan general strike of 2002–2003, also known as the oil strike or oil lockout, was an attempt by the Venezuelan opposition to President Hugo Chávez to force a new presidential election.
Venezuelan literature can be traced to pre-Hispanic times with the myths and oral literature that formed the cosmogonic view of the world that indigenous people had.
The Bolivarian National Guard of Venezuela (Guardia Nacional de Venezuela), also called the Armed Forces of Cooperation (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperación), is one of the four components of the National Armed Forces of Venezuela.
Parliamentary elections were held in Venezuela on 6 December 2015 to elect the 164 deputies and three indigenous representatives of the National Assembly.
The Venezuelan presidential election of 1998, was held on 6 December 1998, to elect the new president of the country.
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela held presidential elections on 3 December 2006, to choose a president for the six-year term to begin on 10 January 2007.
Presidential elections were held in Venezuela on 14 April 2013 following the death of President Hugo Chávez on 5 March 2013.
Presidential elections were held in Venezuela on 20 May 2018, with incumbent Nicolás Maduro being re-elected for a second six-year term.
The Venezuelan Professional Baseball League or Liga Venezolana de Béisbol Profesional (LVBP) is the highest level baseball league in Venezuela.
In 2014, a series of protests, political demonstrations, and civil insurrection began in Venezuela due to the country's high levels of urban violence, inflation, and chronic shortages of basic goods attributed to economic policies such as strict price controls.
The Venezuelan recall referendum of 15 August 2004 was a referendum to determine whether Hugo Chávez, then President of Venezuela, should be recalled from office.
Venezuelan Spanish (castellano venezolano or español venezolano) refers to the Spanish language as spoken in Venezuela.
The Venezuelan troupial (Icterus icterus) is the national bird of Venezuela and one of about 25 or so species of New World orioles.
Venezuelan people are people identified with Venezuela.
European Venezuelans or white Venezuelans are Venezuelan citizens who self-identify in the national census as white, tracing their heritage to European ethnic groups.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Executive Vice President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Vicepresidente Ejecutivo de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, commonly known simply as the Vice President of Venezuela, is the second highest political position in the government of Venezuela. The Vice President is the direct collaborator of the President of the Republic according to the Constitution. The office of Vice President appeared in the Constitution of 1830 until the Constitution of 1858, and once again in the Constitution of 1999. Since 14 June 2018, Delcy Rodríguez of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela has been Vice President to Nicolás Maduro.
The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada) was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
Warao (also known as Guarauno, Guarao, Warrau) is the native language of the Warao people.
The Warao are an indigenous people inhabiting northeastern Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.
This article has last been comprehensively updated in September 2011.
The Wayuu language, or Goajiro (Wayuu: Wayuunaiki), is spoken by 305,000 indigenous Wayuu people in northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia on the Guajira Peninsula.
Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is a Native American ethnic group of the Guajira Peninsula in northernmost part of Colombia and northwest Venezuela.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
Welser was a German banking and merchant family, originally a patrician family from Augsburg, that rose to great prominence in international high finance in the 16th century as financiers of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William Lindsay Scruggs (September 14, 1836 – July 18, 1912) was an American author, lawyer, and diplomat.
The workweek and weekend are those complementary parts of the week devoted to labour and rest, respectively.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Justice Project (WJP) is an American independent, multidisciplinary organization with the stated mission of "working to advance the rule of law around the world".
The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) covers internationally designated protected areas, each known as biosphere reserves, that are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature (e.g. encourage sustainable development).
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yanomamö (Yąnomamɨ) is the most populous of several closely related languages spoken by the Yanomami people.
The Yanomami, also spelled Yąnomamö or Yanomama, are a group of approximately 35,000 indigenous people who live in some 200–250 villages in the Amazon rainforest on the border between Venezuela and Brazil.
The Yaruro language (also spelled Llaruro or Yaruru; also called Yuapín or Pumé) is an indigenous language spoken by Yaruro people, along the Orinoco, Cinaruco, Meta, and Apure rivers of Venezuela.
The Ye'kuana, also called Ye'kwana, Ye'Kuana, Yekuana, Yequana, Yecuana, Dekuana, Maquiritare, Makiritare, So'to or Maiongong, are a Cariban-speaking tropical rain-forest tribe who live in the Caura River and Orinoco River regions of Venezuela in Bolivar State and Amazonas State.
Ye'kuana, also known as Maquiritari, Dekwana, Ye'kwana, Ye'cuana, Yekuana, Cunuana, Kunuhana, De'cuana, De’kwana Carib, Pawana, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Maiongong, or Soto is the language of the Ye'kuana people of Venezuela and Brazil.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Yucef Merhi (born February 8, 1977) is a Venezuelan artist, poet and computer programmer, based in New York.
Yukpa (Yuco, Yucpa, Yuko, Yupa) is a Cariban language, spoken by 7,000–8,000 people in Zulia State in Venezuela and across the border in Colombia.
Yukpa is an Amerindian ethnic group that inhabits the northeastern part of the Cesar Department in northern Colombia by the Serranía del Perijá bordering Venezuela.
Zulia State (Estado Zulia) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.
.ve is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Venezuela.
The 13th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 13 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 1812 Caracas earthquake took place in Venezuela on March 26 (on Maundy Thursday) at 4:37 p.m. It measured 7.7 on the Richter magnitude scale.
The 1948 Venezuelan coup d'état took place on 24 November 1948, when Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Luis Felipe Llovera Páez overthrew the elected president Rómulo Gallegos.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s energy crisis.
The Venezuelan coup attempts of 1992 were attempts to seize control of the government of Venezuela by the Hugo Chávez-led Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200.
The Constituent National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional Constituyente) was a constitutional convention held in Venezuela in 1999 to draft a new Constitution of Venezuela, but the assembly also gave itself the role of a supreme power above all the existing institutions in the republic.
The Venezuelan coup d'état attempt of 2002 was a failed coup d'état on 11 April 2002 that saw President Hugo Chávez ousted from office for 47 hours before being restored to power.
The 2012 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament was a men's basketball tournament that consisted of 12 national teams, where the top three teams earned a place in the 2012 Olympics basketball tournament.
The 2012 Spanish Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that was held on 13 May 2012 at the Circuit de Catalunya in Barcelona, Spain.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015.
The Constituent National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; ANC) is a constituent assembly elected in 2017 to draft a new constitution for Venezuela.
The meridian 59° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 74° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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