318 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Academic Press, Advances in Space Research, Aerostat, Akatsuki (spacecraft), Al-Andalus, Alchemy, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Almagest, Alpha Regio, Aluminium chloride, Ames Research Center, Anecdote, Angular distance, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Aphrodite Terra, Apparent magnitude, Arachnoid (astrogeology), Arecibo Observatory, Argon, Ashen light, Aspects of Venus, Astrogeology Research Program, Astronomical spectroscopy, Astronomical symbols, Astronomical unit, Astronomische Nachrichten, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmosphere of Venus, Atmospheric escape, Atmospheric pressure, Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments, Avempace, Avicenna, Axial tilt, Babylon, Bar (unit), BBC News, Benjamin Cummings, Beta Regio, Bond albedo, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Caldera, California Institute of Technology, Cambridge University Press, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, ..., Carbonyl sulfide, Case Western Reserve University, Cassini–Huygens, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, Chapman & Hall, Chester Lyman, Circle, Cirrus cloud, Comet, Conjunction (astronomy), Convection, Cosmic ray, Cosmic Research, Crust (geology), Cytherean, David J. Stevenson, Deuterium, Diogenes Laërtius, Doppler effect, Dynamo theory, Earth, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Earth's orbit, Earth, Moon, and Planets, Eötvös Loránd University, Ecliptic, Edmond Halley, Electrical conductor, Electromagnetic electron wave, Ellipse, Elongation (astronomy), Elsevier, Epoch (astronomy), Equator, European Space Agency, Extremophile, Fahrenheit, Femininity, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Frank Elmore Ross, Fundamental Astronomy, G-force, Galena, Galileo (spacecraft), Galileo Galilei, Ganis Chasma, Genre, Geocentric model, Geochemistry, Geodynamics of Venus, Geology (journal), Geometric albedo, Geophysical Research Letters, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Gravity wave, Greek mythology, Greenhouse effect, Harper (publisher), Harvard University Press, Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Hawaii (island), Helium, Hesperus, Highland, HITRAN, Homer, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen fluoride, Icarus (journal), Impact crater, Impact event, Inanna, Indian Space Research Organisation, Inferior and superior planets, Infrared, Intermittency, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, International Astronomical Union, Interplanetary spaceflight, Invariable plane, Inverse-square law, Ionosphere, Iron(III) chloride, Iron(III) sulfate, Irradiance, Ishtar Terra, Isis (journal), Isothermal process, James Clerk Maxwell, James Cook, Jeremiah Horrocks, Johann Hieronymus Schröter, Journal for the History of Astronomy, Journal of Geophysical Research, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Journal of the British Astronomical Association, JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System, Julian calendar, Julian year (astronomy), Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Lava, Life, Light, Lightning, Lucifer, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Luxembourg, Maat Mons, Magellan (spacecraft), Magnetic field, Magnetosphere, Mantle (geology), Maragheh observatory, Mariner 10, Mariner 2, Mariner 5, Maxwell Montes, Mechanical computer, Mercury (planet), MESSENGER, Microorganism, Mikhail Lomonosov, Moment of inertia, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Naked eye, Napoleon, NASA, National Academy of Sciences, National Space Science Data Center, Natural satellite, Nature (journal), Neith (hypothetical moon), Neon, Night sky, Nitrogen, Notes and Records, Oceanic crust, Optical telescope, Orbit, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital resonance, Osculating orbit, Outline of Venus, Ovda Regio, Ovid, Ozone, Pancake dome, Parmenides, Pascal (unit), Passage de Venus, Penguin Books, Pentagram, Pergamon Press, Phases of Venus, Phosphorus (morning star), Phosphorus pentoxide, Photodissociation, Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Pioneer Venus project, Planet, Planetary and Space Science, Planetary core, Planetary habitability, Planetary nomenclature, Planetary phase, Planetary science, Planetary system, Plate tectonics, Pliny the Elder, Polar vortex, Prime meridian, Ptolemy, Pythagoras, Quasi-satellite, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Radar, Radar astronomy, Reports on Progress in Physics, Retrograde and prograde motion, Right-hand rule, Robert Frost, Robotic spacecraft, Romantic poetry, Roscosmos, Rotation period, Rover (space exploration), Runaway greenhouse effect, Sappho, Scattering, Science (journal), Scientific American, Sidereal time, Sky & Telescope, Solar System, Solar time, Solar wind, Space probe, Space Science Reviews, Space.com, Springer Publishing, Springer Science+Business Media, Sterilization (microbiology), Subduction, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sumer, Sun, Tahiti, Tellurium, Terraforming of Venus, Terrestrial planet, The Astrophysical Journal, The Nine Planets, The Planetary Society, Thunder, Tidal acceleration, Tide, Transit of Venus, Transit of Venus, 1639, Transit of Venus, 2004, Transit of Venus, 2012, Trojan (astronomy), Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet photography, Unidentified flying object, United States Geological Survey, University College London, University of Central Lancashire, University of Chicago Press, University of Sydney, V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Vega 1, Vega 2, Venera, Venera 10, Venera 12, Venera 13, Venera 14, Venera 15, Venera 16, Venera 4, Venera 7, Venera 9, Venus (mythology), Venus Express, Venus snow, Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, Venusian, Vesto Slipher, Virgil, Viscosity, Volcano, Volcanology of Venus, Volumetric heat capacity, W. H. Freeman and Company, Washington University in St. Louis, Washington, D.C., Water vapor, Wavelength, Wavenumber, Whistler (radio), William Blake, William Crabtree, William Wordsworth. Expand index (268 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Advances in Space Research (ASR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published 27 times per year by Elsevier.
An aerostat (From Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + στατός statos (standing) through French) is a lighter than air aircraft that gains its lift through the use of a buoyant gas.
, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, is a Japanese (JAXA) space probe tasked to study the atmosphere of Venus.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Alpha Regio is a region of the planet Venus extending for about 1500 kilometers centered at 22°S, 5°E.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
An anecdote is a brief, revealing account of an individual person or an incident.
In mathematics (in particular geometry and trigonometry) and all natural sciences (e.g. astronomy and geophysics), the angular distance (angular separation, apparent distance, or apparent separation) between two point objects, as viewed from a location different from either of these objects, is the angle of length between the two directions originating from the observer and pointing toward these two objects.
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences is an annual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews, which broadly covers Earth and planetary sciences, including geology, atmospheric sciences, climate, geophysics, environmental science, geological hazards, geodynamics, planet formation, and solar system origins.
J.Koulouris,(Esq.),(Planetary Cartographer) Astereion- Orion Project, Celestia.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
In astrogeology, an arachnoid is a large geological structure resembling a spider web.
The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Ashen light is a hypothesised subtle glow that has been claimed to be seen on the night side of the planet Venus.
In astrology, an aspect is an angle a planet makes to another planet or point of astrological interest.
The Astrogeology Research Program is a program of the United States Geological Survey concerned with the study of planetary geology and planetary cartography.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.
Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical Notes), one of the first international journals in the field of astronomy, was founded in 1821 by the German astronomer Heinrich Christian Schumacher.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus.
Atmospheric escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases to outer space.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) is a project to create a rover that uses Venus' harsh conditions to its advantage, controlled by a wind-powered mechanical computer.
Avempace (– 1138) is the Latinate form of Ibn Bâjja (ابن باجه), full name Abû Bakr Muḥammad Ibn Yaḥyà ibn aṣ-Ṣâ’igh at-Tûjîbî Ibn Bâjja al-Tujibi (أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصائغ), was an Arab Andalusian polymath: his writings include works regarding astronomy, physics, and music, as well as philosophy, medicine, botany, and poetry.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benjamin Cummings specializes in science and is a publishing imprint of Pearson Education, the world's largest education publishing and technology company, which is part of Pearson PLC, the global publisher and former owner of Penguin Books and the Financial Times.
Beta Regio is a region of the planet Venus known as a volcanic rise.
The Bond albedo, named after the American astronomer George Phillips Bond (1825–1865), who originally proposed it, is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space.
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (BAAS; Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.) is the journal of record for the American Astronomical Society established in 1969.
A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonyl sulfide is the chemical compound with the linear formula OCS.
Case Western Reserve University (also known as Case Western Reserve, Case Western, Case, and CWRU) is a private doctorate-granting university in Cleveland, Ohio.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy is a scientific journal covering the fields of astronomy and astrophysics.
Chapman & Hall was a British publishing house in London, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and William Hall.
Chester Smith Lyman (January 13, 1814 – January 29, 1890) was an American teacher, clergyman and astronomer.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
Cirrus (cloud classification symbol: Ci) is a genus of atmospheric cloud generally characterized by thin, wispy strands, giving the type its name from the Latin word cirrus, meaning a ringlet or curling lock of hair.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
In astronomy, a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, usually as observed from Earth.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic Research (Russian: Kosmicheskie Issledovaniya) is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1963.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cytherean is an adjective meaning pertaining to Cythera (Greek Κύθηρα, also transliterated Kythera or Kithira), a small island now part of Greece, southeast of the Peloponnesus.
David John Stevenson (born September 2, 1948) is a professor of planetary science at Caltech.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones.
Earth's orbit is the trajectory along which Earth travels around the Sun.
Earth, Moon, and Planets is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published approximately ten times per year by Springer Science+Business Media.
Eötvös Loránd University (Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, ELTE) is a Hungarian public research university based in Budapest.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
In plasma physics, an electromagnetic electron wave is a wave in a plasma which has a magnetic field component and in which primarily the electrons oscillate.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
In astronomy, a planet's elongation is the angular separation between the Sun and the planet, with Earth as the reference point.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).
Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Frank Elmore Ross (April 2, 1874 – September 21, 1960) was an American astronomer and physicist.
Fundamental Astronomy (1984–2017) is an astronomy textbook by Finnish author Hannu Karttunen of University of Turku; Pekka Kröger and Heikki Oja of University of Helsinki; Markku Poutanen of Finnish Geodetic Institute; and Karl Johan Donner of University of Helsinki.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Ganis Chasma is a group of rift zones on the surface of the planet Venus.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
NASA's Magellan spacecraft mission discovered that Venus has a geologically young surface with a relatively uniform age of 500±200 Ma (million years).
Geology is a peer-reviewed publication of the Geological Society of America (GSA).
In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e. at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section.
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.
In fluid dynamics, gravity waves are waves generated in a fluid medium or at the interface between two media when the force of gravity or buoyancy tries to restore equilibrium.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a research institute which carries out a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, earth and space sciences, and science education.
Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
In Greek mythology, Hesperus (Ἓσπερος Hesperos) is the Evening Star, the planet Venus in the evening.
Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau.
HITRAN - HITRAN (an acronym for High Resolution Transmission) is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in gaseous media including the atmosphere, laboratory cells, etc.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
In the Solar System, a planet is said to be inferior with respect to another planet if its orbit lies inside the other planet's orbit around the Sun.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
In dynamical systems, intermittency is the irregular alternation of phases of apparently periodic and chaotic dynamics (Pomeau–Manneville dynamics), or different forms of chaotic dynamics (crisis-induced intermittency).
The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
Interplanetary spaceflight or interplanetary travel is travel between planets, usually within a single planetary system.
The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.
Iron(III) sulfate (or ferric sulfate), is the chemical compound with the formula Fe2(SO4)3.
In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.
Ishtar Terra is one of two main highland regions on the planet Venus.
Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
Jeremiah Horrocks (1618 – 3 January 1641), sometimes given as Jeremiah Horrox (the Latinised version that he used on the Emmanuel College register and in his Latin manuscripts), – See footnote 1 was an English astronomer.
Johann Hieronymus Schröter (30 August 1745, Erfurt – 29 August 1816, Lilienthal) was a German astronomer.
Journal for the History of Astronomy (JHA) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the History of Astronomy from earliest times to the present, and in history in the service of astronomy.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
The Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (until 1962 titled Journal of Meteorology) is a scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society.
The Journal of the British Astronomical Association is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astronomy published by the British Astronomical Association since October 1890.
JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System provides easy access to key Solar System data and flexible production of highly accurate ephemerides for Solar System objects.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of SI seconds each.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Lucifer is a name that, according to dictionaries of the English language, refers either to the Devil or to the planet Venus when appearing as the morning star.
The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) is a scientific research institute dedicated to study of the solar system, its formation, evolution, and current state.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Maat Mons is a massive shield volcano.
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Maragheh observatory (رصدخانه مراغه), was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer.
Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.
Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter.
Mariner 5 (Mariner Venus 1967) was a spacecraft of the Mariner program that carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus' atmosphere by radio occultation, measure the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (hard ultraviolet) spectrum, and sample the solar particles and magnetic field fluctuations above the planet.
Maxwell Montes is a mountain massif on the planet Venus, of which a peak (Skadi Mons) is the highest point on the planet's surface.
A mechanical computer is built from mechanical components such as levers and gears, rather than electronic components.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Messenger (stylized as MESSENGER, whose backronym is "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and which is a reference to the messenger of the same name from Roman mythology) was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (ləmɐˈnosəf|a.
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or microscope.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Space Science Data Center serves as the permanent archive for NASA space science mission data.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neith is a hypothetical natural satellite of Venus reportedly sighted by Giovanni Cassini in 1672 and by several other astronomers in following years.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
The term night sky, usually associated with astronomy from Earth, refers to the nighttime appearance of celestial objects like stars, planets, and the Moon, which are visible in a clear sky between sunset and sunrise, when the Sun is below the horizon.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Notes and Records: the Royal Society Journal of the History of Science is an international, quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal which publishes original research in the history of science, technology, and medicine.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.
In astronomy, and in particular in astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it would have about its central body if perturbations were not present.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Venus: Venus – second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Ovda Regio is a Venusian crustal plateau located near the equator in the western highland region of Aphrodite Terra that stretches from 10°N to 15°S and 50°E to 110°E.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
A pancake dome, also known as a lava dome, is an unusual type of volcano found on the planet Venus.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Passage de Venus is a series of photographs of the transit of the planet Venus across the Sun in 1874.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes.
Pergamon Press was an Oxford-based publishing house, founded by Paul Rosbaud and Robert Maxwell, which published scientific and medical books and journals.
The phases of Venus are the different variations of lighting seen on the planet's surface, similar to lunar phases.
Phosphorus (Greek Φωσφόρος Phōsphoros) is the Morning Star, the planet Venus in its morning appearance.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, also known as Pioneer Venus 2 or Pioneer 13 was a spacecraft launched in 1978 to explore Venus as part of NASA's Pioneer program.
The Pioneer Venus Orbiter, also known as Pioneer Venus 1 or Pioneer 12, was a mission to Venus conducted by the United States as part of the Pioneer Venus project.
The Pioneer Venus project was part of the Pioneer program consisting of two spacecraft, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, launched to Venus in 1978.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Planetary and Space Science, published 15 times per year, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1959.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is a system of uniquely identifying features on the surface of a planet or natural satellite so that the features can be easily located, described, and discussed.
A planetary phase is a period of time during which a certain portion of a planet's area reflects sunlight from the perspective of a given vantage point.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
A polar vortex is an upper level low-pressure area lying near the Earth's poles.
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
A quasi-satellite is an object in a specific type of co-orbital configuration (1:1 orbital resonance) with a planet where the object stays close to that planet over many orbital periods.
Qotb al-Din Mahmoud b. Zia al-Din Mas'ud b. Mosleh Shirazi (1236—1311) (قطبالدین محمود بن ضیاالدین مسعود بن مصلح شیرازی) was a 13th-century Iranian polymath and poet who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radar astronomy is a technique of observing nearby astronomical objects by reflecting microwaves off target objects and analyzing the reflections.
Reports on Progress in Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing.
Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).
In mathematics and physics, the right-hand rule is a common mnemonic for understanding orientation conventions for the vector cross product in three dimensions.
Robert Lee Frost (March26, 1874January29, 1963) was an American poet.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
In astronomy, the rotation period of a celestial object is the time that it takes to complete one revolution around its axis of rotation relative to the background stars.
A rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
A runaway greenhouse effect is a process in which a net positive feedback between surface temperature and atmospheric opacity increases the strength of the greenhouse effect on a planet until its oceans boil away.
Sappho (Aeolic Greek Ψαπφώ, Psappho; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.
Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solar time is a calculation of the passage of time based on the position of the Sun in the sky.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Space Science Reviews is a peer reviewed, scientific journal of space science.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Tahiti (previously also known as Otaheite (obsolete) is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean, and is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, and the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants (2017 census), making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population. Tahiti is the economic, cultural and political centre of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity (sometimes referred to as an overseas country) of France. The capital of French Polynesia, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast of Tahiti. The only international airport in the region, Fa'a'ā International Airport, is on Tahiti near Papeete. Tahiti was originally settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800AD. They represent about 70% of the island's population, with the rest made up of Europeans, Chinese and those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, and the inhabitants became French citizens. French is the only official language, although the Tahitian language (Reo Tahiti) is widely spoken.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
The terraforming of Venus is the hypothetical process of engineering the global environment of the planet Venus in such a way as to make it suitable for human habitation.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The Nine Planets is a multimedia website by Bill Arnett containing information about the Solar System.
The Planetary Society is an American internationally active, non-governmental, nonprofit foundation.
Thunder is the sound caused by lightning.
Tidal acceleration is an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite (e.g. the Moon), and the primary planet that it orbits (e.g. Earth).
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk.
The first known observations and recording of a transit of Venus were made in 1639 by the English astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and his friend and correspondent William Crabtree.
The second most recent transit of Venus observed from Earth took place on June 8, 2004.
The 2012 transit of Venus, when the planet Venus appeared as a small, dark spot passing across the face of the Sun, began at 22:09 UTC on 5 June 2012, and finished at 04:49 UTC on 6 June.
In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares the orbit of a planet or larger moon, wherein the trojan remains in the same, stable position relative to the larger object.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet photography is a photographic process of recording images by using light from the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum only.
An unidentified flying object or "UFO" is an object observed in the sky that is not readily identified.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of Central Lancashire (abbreviated UCLan) is a public university based in the city of Preston, Lancashire, England.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Sydney (informally, USyd or USYD) is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia.
The V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics is a Russian research organisation based in Tomsk.
Vega 1 (along with its twin Vega 2) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.
Vega 2 (along with Vega 1) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.
The Venera series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus.
Venera 10 (Венера-10 meaning Venus 10), or 4V-1 No.
The Venera 12 (Венера-12 meaning Venus 12) was a Soviet unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus.
Venera 13 (Венера-13 meaning Venus 13) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 14 (Венера-14 meaning Venus 14) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 15 (Венера-15 meaning Venus 15) was a spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union.
Venera 16 (Венера-16 meaning Venus 16) was a spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union.
Venera 4 (Венера-4 meaning Venus 4), also designated 1V (V-67) s/n 310 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 7 (Венера-7, meaning Venus 7) was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus.
Venera 9 (Венера-9 meaning Venus 9), manufacturer's designation: 4V-1 No.
Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.
Venus Express (VEX) was the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency (ESA).
Venus snow is a brightening of the radar reflection from the surface of Venus at high elevations.
The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa (Enuma Anu Enlil Tablet 63) refers to the record of astronomical observations of Venus, as preserved in numerous cuneiform tablets dating from the first millennium BC.
Venusian, Venerean, or Venereal may refer to.
Vesto Melvin Slipher (November 11, 1875 – November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer who performed the first measurements of radial velocities for galaxies, providing the empirical basis for the expansion of the universe.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
The surface of Venus is dominated by volcanic features and has more volcanoes than any other planet in the Solar System.
Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition.
Washington University in St.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number or repetency) is the spatial frequency of a wave, measured in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.
A whistler is a very low frequency or VLF electromagnetic (radio) wave generated by lightning.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William Crabtree (1610–1644) was an astronomer, mathematician, and merchant from Broughton, then in the Hundred of Salford, Lancashire, England.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
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