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Index Vernacular

A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population. [1]

202 relations: A Dictionary of the English Language, Académie française, Accademia della Crusca, Advocate, African-American Vernacular English, Afrikaans, Alexander Gill the Elder, Alexander Hume, Amharic, An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, Antonio de Nebrija, Apulia, Auraicept na n-Éces, Belgium, Ben Jonson, Bhakti movement, Bible, Binomial nomenclature, Calabria, Cambridge University Press, Cantar de Mio Cid, Catholic Church, Chamber of rhetoric, Charles A. Ferguson, Chinese language, Christoph Martin Wieland, Christophe Plantin, Classical Chinese, Classical Latin, Codex, Colloquialism, Congress of Vienna, Consistori del Gay Saber, Coptic language, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Cornelis Kiliaan, Crown of Castile, Dante Alighieri, Dialect, Dictionary, Dictionnaire de l'Académie française, Die Taalkommissie, Diglossia, Dirck Coornhert, Divine Comedy, Dutch language, Dutch Language Union, Early New High German, Edward Phillips, English language, ..., Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Etruscan language, Etymologiae, First language, Flanders, Folklore, French language, Friedrich Schiller, Fruitbearing Society, Galileo Galilei, Gallo-Romance languages, Ge'ez, Geoffrey Chaucer, German language, German–Serbian dictionary (1791), Giovanni Boccaccio, Glossary, Gramática de la lengua castellana, Grammar, Great Vowel Shift, Griko dialect, Guilhem Molinier, Hendrik Laurenszoon Spiegel, High German languages, Hindi, Hindu, Holland, Irish language, Isaac Newton, Isidore of Seville, Italian language, Jacob Grimm, James Howell, Jean Nicot, Johann Christoph Adelung, John Benjamins Publishing Company, John Colet, John Florio, John III van de Werve, Lord of Hovorst, John Palsgrave, John Wallis, John Wycliffe, Joshua Fishman, Kannada, King James Version, Language, Late antiquity, Latin, Latin Mass, Latium, Leon Battista Alberti, Liguria, Lingua franca, Linguistics, List of Dutch dictionaries, Literary language, Liturgy, London, Lorenzo de' Medici, Lorenzo Franciosini, Louis XIV of France, Ludovico Ariosto, Luther Bible, Marcus Terentius Varro, Mass (liturgy), May Fourth Movement, Merriam-Webster, Messapian language, Metalinguistics, Middle English, Modern English, Nathan Bailey, National language, New Latin, New Testament, Nomenclature, Nonstandard dialect, Norman conquest of England, Occitan language, Official language, Old English, Old French, Opticks, Oscan language, Oxford English Dictionary, Petrarch, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Pietro Bembo, Prakrit, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Protestantism, Ramayana, Ramcharitmanas, Reddy dynasty, Register (sociolinguistics), Richard Mulcaster, Robert Cawdrey, Robert Estienne, Roman Rite, Romance languages, Routledge, Royal Spanish Academy, Sabines, Sacred language, Samuel Johnson, Sanskrit, Sebastián de Covarrubias, Second Vatican Council, Slang, Sociolect, Sociolinguistics, Southern Netherlands, Spanish language, Spoken language, Srpski rječnik, Standard English, Standard language, Synonym, Tamil language, Telugu language, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, The Canterbury Tales, The Song of Roland, Thesaurus, Toulouse, Traditionalist Catholicism, Treaty of London (1839), Tridentine Mass, Tulsidas, Tuscany, United Kingdom of the Netherlands, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Varieties of Arabic, Variety (linguistics), Vatican Library, Vernacular (disambiguation), Viz., Vuk Karadžić, Vulgar Latin, Walter de Gruyter, Weimar, Welsh language, Western Europe, Wiley-Blackwell, William Bullokar, William Caxton, William Chester Minor, William Labov, William Lily (grammarian), World War II, Written vernacular Chinese. Expand index (152 more) »

A Dictionary of the English Language

Published on 4 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.

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Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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Accademia della Crusca

The Accademia della Crusca ("Academy of the Bran"), generally abbreviated as La Crusca, is an Italian society for scholars and Italian linguists and philologists established in Florence.

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An advocate in this sense is a professional in the field of law.

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African-American Vernacular English

African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), or colloquially Ebonics (a controversial term), is the variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of English natively spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.

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Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Alexander Gill the Elder

Alexander Gill the Elder (7 February 1565 – 17 November 1635), also spelled Gil, was an English scholar, spelling reformer, and high-master of St Paul's School, where his pupils included John Milton.

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Alexander Hume

Rev Alexander Hume (1558 – 4 December 1609) was a Scottish poet who served as Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in the early 17th century.

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Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

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An Universal Etymological English Dictionary

An Universal Etymological English Dictionary was a dictionary compiled by Nathan Bailey (or Nathaniel Bailey) and first published in London in 1721.

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Antonio de Nebrija

Antonio de Nebrija (14415 July 1522), also known as Antonio de Lebrija, Elio Antonio de Lebrija, Antonius Nebrissensis, and Antonio of Lebrixa, was a Spanish Renaissance scholar.

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Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.

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Auraicept na n-Éces

Auraicept na n-Éces ("the scholars' primer ") is claimed as a 7th-century work of Irish grammarians, written by a scholar named Longarad.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Ben Jonson

Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.

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Bhakti movement

The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Binomial nomenclature

Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.

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Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cantar de Mio Cid

El Cantar de mio Cid, literally "The Song of my Cid" (or El Poema de mio Cid), also known in English as The Poem of the Cid, is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem (epopeya).

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Chamber of rhetoric

Chambers of rhetoric (rederijkerskamers) were dramatic societies in the Low Countries.

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Charles A. Ferguson

Charles Albert Ferguson (July 6, 1921 – September 2, 1998) was an American linguist who taught at Stanford University.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Christoph Martin Wieland

Christoph Martin Wieland (5 September 1733 – 20 January 1813) was a German poet and writer.

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Christophe Plantin

Christophe Plantin (Christoffel Plantijn; – 1 July 1589) was an influential Renaissance humanist and book printer and publisher.

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Classical Chinese

Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.

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Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Consistori del Gay Saber

The Consistori del Gay Saber ("Consistory of the Gay Science") was a poetic academy founded at Toulouse in 1323 to revive and perpetuate the lyric poetry of the troubadours.

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Coptic language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.

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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.

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Cornelis Kiliaan

Cornelis Kiliaan (1528, Duffel – 1607, Antwerp), was a 16th-century lexicographer, linguist, translator and poet of the Southern Netherlands.

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Crown of Castile

The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.

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Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

The Dictionnaire de l'Académie française is the official dictionary of the French language.

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Die Taalkommissie

Die Taalkommissie is an arm of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns (South-African Academy for Science and Arts) that serves as the technical committee of the Nasionale Taalliggaam vir Afrikaans (NTLA, National Language Body for Afrikaans), which is the language regulator of the Afrikaans language.

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In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.

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Dirck Coornhert

Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert (152229 October 1590), also known as Theodore Cornhert, was a Dutch writer, philosopher, translator, politician, theologian and artist.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dutch Language Union

The Dutch Language Union (Dutch:, NTU) is an international regulatory institution that governs issues regarding the Dutch language.

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Early New High German

Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.

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Edward Phillips

Edward Phillips (August 1630 – c. 1696) was an English author.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.

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Etruscan language

The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.

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Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Friedrich Schiller

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.

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Fruitbearing Society

The Fruitbearing Society (German Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft, lat. societas fructifera) was a German literary society founded in 1617 in Weimar by German scholars and nobility.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Gallo-Romance languages

The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).

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Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.

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Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German–Serbian dictionary (1791)

The 1791 German–Serbian dictionary, referred to as the Avramović Dictionary (Аврамовићев речник or Avramovićev rečnik; full title in Deutsch und Illyrisches Wörterbuch zum Gebrauch der Illyrischen Nation in den K. K. Staaten; full title in Slavonic-Serbian: Нѣмецкïй и сербскïй словарь на потребу сербскагѡ народа въ крал. державахъ, transliterated as Německij i serbskij slovar' na potrebu serbskago naroda v kral. deržavah, meaning "German and Serbian Dictionary for Use by the Serbian People in the Royal States"), is a historical bidirectional translation dictionary published in the Habsburg Empire's capital of Vienna in 1791, though 1790 is given as the year of publication in some of its copies.

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Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.

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A glossary, also known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.

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Gramática de la lengua castellana

Gramática de la lengua castellana ("Grammar of the Castilian Language", originally titled in Latin: Grammatica Antonii Nebrissensis) is a book written by Antonio de Nebrija and published in 1492.

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In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Great Vowel Shift

The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.

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Griko dialect

Griko, sometimes spelled Grico in Salento is the dialect of Italiot Greek spoken by Griko people in Salento and (sometimes spelled Grecanic)in Calabria.

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Guilhem Molinier

Guilhem Molinier or Moulinier (1330–50) was a medieval Occitan poet from Toulouse.

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Hendrik Laurenszoon Spiegel

Hendrik Laurenszoon Spiegel (11 March 1549 – 4 January 1612) was one of the most important writers and thinkers from Amsterdam in the second half of the sixteenth century.

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High German languages

The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isidore of Seville

Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Jacob Grimm

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.

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James Howell

James Howell (c. 1594 – 1666) was a 17th-century Anglo-Welsh historian and writer who is in many ways a representative figure of his age.

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Jean Nicot

Jean Nicot (1530–1600) was a French diplomat and scholar.

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Johann Christoph Adelung

Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 173210 September 1806) was a German grammarian and philologist.

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John Benjamins Publishing Company

John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent academic publisher in social sciences and humanities with its head office in Amsterdam.

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John Colet

John Colet (January 1467 – 16 September 1519) was an English churchman and educational pioneer.

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John Florio

John Florio (1553–1625), known in Italian as Giovanni Florio, was a linguist and lexicographer, a royal language tutor at the Court of James I, and a possible friend and influence on William Shakespeare.

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John III van de Werve, Lord of Hovorst

John II van de Werve (Antwerp, 1522-1576), Lord of Hovorst, Vierseldijk and Boechout was a member of the nobility and of the civic government of Antwerp.

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John Palsgrave

John Palsgrave (c. 1485 – 1554) was a priest of Henry VIII of England's court.

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John Wallis

John Wallis (3 December 1616 – 8 November 1703) was an English clergyman and mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.

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John Wycliffe

John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.

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Joshua Fishman

Joshua Aaron Fishman, (Yiddish: שיקל פֿישמאַן — Shikl Fishman; July 18, 1926 – March 1, 2015) was an American linguist who specialized in the sociology of language, language planning, bilingual education, and language and ethnicity.

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Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.

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King James Version

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin Mass

The term Latin Mass refers to the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Mass celebrated in Latin.

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Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.

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Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.

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Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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List of Dutch dictionaries

Notable dictionaries of the Dutch language include.

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Literary language

A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.

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Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lorenzo de' Medici

Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.

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Lorenzo Franciosini

Lorenzo Franciosini di Castelfiorentino (*Castelfiorentino, ca. 1600 - † after 1645) was an Italian Hispanist, translator, lexicographer and grammarian from the 16th century.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Ludovico Ariosto

Ludovico Ariosto (8 September 1474 – 6 July 1533) was an Italian poet.

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Luther Bible

The Luther Bible (Lutherbibel) is a German language Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther.

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Marcus Terentius Varro

Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.

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Mass (liturgy)

Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.

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May Fourth Movement

The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Messapian language

Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia.

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Metalinguistics is the branch of linguistics that studies language and its relationship to other cultural behaviors.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Nathan Bailey

Nathan Bailey (died 27 June 1742), was an English philologist and lexicographer.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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New Latin

New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.

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Nonstandard dialect

A nonstandard dialect is a dialect that does not have the institutional support or sanction that a standard dialect has.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.

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Oscan language

Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language of southern Italy.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Pietro Bembo

Pietro Bembo, (20 May 1470 – either 11 January or 18 January, 1547) was an Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist, member of the Knights Hospitaller and a cardinal.

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The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.

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Prestige (sociolinguistics)

Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.

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Ramcharitmanas (Devanāgarī: श्रीरामचरितमानस, IAST: ŚrīRāmacaritamānasa), is an epic poem in the language Awadhi, composed by the 16th-century Indian bhakti poet Goswami Tulsidas (c.1532–1623).

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Reddy dynasty

The Reddy dynasty (1325–1448 CE) was established in southern India by Prolaya Vema Reddy.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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Richard Mulcaster

Richard Mulcaster (ca. 1531, Carlisle, Cumberland – 15 April 1611, Essex) is known best for his headmasterships of Merchant Taylors' School and St Paul's School, and for his pedagogic writings.

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Robert Cawdrey

Robert Cawdrey (ca. 1538 – after 1604) produced one of the first dictionaries of the English language, the Table Alphabeticall, in 1604.

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Robert Estienne

Robert I Estienne (1503 – 7 September 1559), known as Robertus Stephanus in Latin and also referred to as Robert Stephens by 18th and 19th-century English writers, was a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris.

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Roman Rite

The Roman Rite (Ritus Romanus) is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, and is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Spanish Academy

The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.

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The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.

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Sacred language

A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.

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Samuel Johnson

Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sebastián de Covarrubias

Sebastián de Covarrubias (1539–1613) was a Spanish lexicographer, cryptographer, chaplain and writer.

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Second Vatican Council

The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.

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Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.

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In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.

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Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.

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Southern Netherlands

The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spoken language

A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.

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Srpski rječnik

Srpski rječnik (Српски рјечник,, The Serbian Dictionary; full name: Српски рјечник истолкован њемачким и латинским ријечма, "The Serbian Dictionary, paralleled with German and Latin words") is a dictionary written by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, first published in 1818.

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Standard English

Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.

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Tamil language

Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.

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Telugu language

Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.

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Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española

The Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española (Treasury of Castilian or Spanish Language) is a dictionary of the Spanish language, written by Sebastián de Covarrubias in 1611.

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The Canterbury Tales

The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.

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The Song of Roland

The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an epic poem (Chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.

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In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order.

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Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.

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Traditionalist Catholicism

Traditionalist Catholicism is a movement of Catholics in favour of restoring many or all of the customs, traditions, liturgical forms, public and private devotions and presentations of the teaching of the Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council (1962–65).

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Treaty of London (1839)

The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the First Treaty of London, the Convention of 1839, the Treaty of Separation, the Quintuple Treaty of 1839, or the Treaty of the XXIV articles, was a treaty signed on 19 April 1839 between the Concert of Europe, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Belgium.

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Tridentine Mass

The Tridentine Mass, the 1962 version of which has been officially declared the (authorized) extraordinary form of the Roman Rite of Mass (Extraordinary Form for short), is the Roman Rite Mass which appears in typical editions of the Roman Missal published from 1570 to 1962.

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Tulsidas (Hindi: तुलसीदास;, also known as Goswami Tulsidas (गोस्वामी तुलसीदास); 1511–1623) was a realized soul and saint, poet, often called reformer and philosopher from Ramanandi Sampradaya, in the lineage of Jagadguru Ramanandacharya renowned for his devotion to the Lord Shri Rama.

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Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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United Kingdom of the Netherlands

The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it existed between 1815 and 1839.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Varieties of Arabic

There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Vatican Library

The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.

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Vernacular (disambiguation)

Vernacular is the native language or dialect of a population, as opposed to a literary, national, or standard language.

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The abbreviation viz. (or viz without a full stop), short for the Latin italic, is used as a synonym for "namely", "that is to say", "to wit", or "as follows".

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Vuk Karadžić

Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић; 7 November 1787 – 7 February 1864) was a Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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Walter de Gruyter

Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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William Bullokar

William Bullokar was a 16th-century printer who devised a 40-letter phonetic alphabet for the English language.

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William Caxton

William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.

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William Chester Minor

William Chester Minor, also known as W. C. Minor (June 22, 1834 – March 26, 1920) was an American army surgeon and one of the largest contributors of quotations to the Oxford English Dictionary.

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William Labov

William "Bill" Labov (born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.

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William Lily (grammarian)

William Lily (or William Lilly or Lilye; c. 1468 – 25 February 1522) was an English classical grammarian and scholar.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Written vernacular Chinese

Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.

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Common lexicon, Vencular, Venucular, Vernacular Liturgy, Vernacular language, Vernacular languages, Vernacularisation, Vernacularization, Vernacularly, Vulgar language, Vulgar tongue.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernacular

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