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Vertebral column

Index Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton. [1]

125 relations: Actinopterygii, Alfred Romer, Amniote, Amphibian, Anatomical terminology, Anatomical terms of location, Anterior longitudinal ligament, Arabian horse, Asthma, Atelectasis, Atlas (anatomy), Axial skeleton, Axis (anatomy), Bird, Bone, Calcification, Cauda equina, Central canal, Central nervous system, Cervical vertebrae, Chevron (anatomy), Childbirth, Chimpanzee, Chondrichthyes, Chordate, Clock and wavefront model, Coccydynia, Coccyx, Congenital vertebral anomaly, Conus medullaris, Dinosaur, Elasmosaurus, Extinction, Facet joint, Female, Fetus, Fish, Functional neurological symptom disorder, Gastrulation, Gecko, Grey matter, Hadrosaurid, Haemal arch, Hagfish, Hernia, Homology (biology), Hox gene, Human, Human embryogenesis, Interspinous ligament, ..., Intervertebral disc, Intervertebral foramen, Klippel–Feil syndrome, Kyphoscoliosis, Kyphosis, Labyrinthodontia, Lamprey, Ligament, Lordosis, Low back pain, Lumbar puncture, Lumbar vertebrae, Male, Mammal, Manatee, Meninges, Neck, Neuromechanics of idiopathic scoliosis, Neutral spine, Notochord, Nuchal ligament, Occipital bone, Organ (anatomy), Osteoporosis, Paraxial mesoderm, Pars interarticularis, Pelvis, Peripheral nervous system, Plesiosauria, Pneumothorax, Posterior longitudinal ligament, Process (anatomy), Pygostyle, Reptile, Retrolisthesis, Rib, Sacrum, Saddle, Sarcopterygii, Saurischia, Sauropoda, Scoliosis, Segmentation (biology), Shark, Sloth, Snake, Somite, Somitogenesis, Spina bifida, Spinal canal, Spinal cord, Spinal cord injury, Spinal disc herniation, Spinal disease, Spinal nerve, Spinal stenosis, Splanchnic nerves, Spondylolisthesis, Supraspinous ligament, Surface anatomy, Swan, Sympathetic nervous system, Sympathetic trunk, Synsacrum, Teleost, Temnospondyli, Theropoda, Thoracic vertebrae, Three-toed sloth, Tuatara, Two-toed sloth, Vertebra, Vertebral foramen, Vertebrate, White matter. Expand index (75 more) »


Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.

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Alfred Romer

Alfred Sherwood Romer (December 28, 1894 – November 5, 1973) was an American paleontologist and biologist and a specialist in vertebrate evolution.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Anatomical terminology

Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anterior longitudinal ligament

The anterior longitudinal ligament is a ligament that runs down the anterior surface of the spine.

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Arabian horse

The Arabian or Arab horse (الحصان العربي, DMG ḥiṣān ʿarabī) is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula.

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Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Atelectasis is the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange.

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Atlas (anatomy)

In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the most superior (first) cervical vertebra of the spine.

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Axial skeleton

The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate.

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Axis (anatomy)

In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis (from Latin axis, "axle") or epistropheus.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.

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Cauda equina

The cauda equina is a bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve rootlets, consisting of the second through fifth lumbar nerve pairs, the first through fifth sacral nerve pairs, and the coccygeal nerve, all of which arise from the lumbar enlargement and the conus medullaris of the spinal cord.

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Central canal

The central canal, also known as ependymal canal, is the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs longitudinally through the length of the entire spinal cord.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cervical vertebrae

In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.

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Chevron (anatomy)

A chevron is one of a series of bones on the ventral (under) side of the tail in many reptiles, including dinosaurs (such as Diplodocus; see picture), and some mammals such as kangaroos and manatees.

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Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

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The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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Clock and wavefront model

The clock and wavefront model is a model used to describe the process of somitogenesis in vertebrates.

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Coccydynia is a medical term meaning pain in the coccyx or tailbone area, often brought on by a fall onto the coccyx or by persistent irritation usually from sitting.

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The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other mammals such as horses.

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Congenital vertebral anomaly

Congenital vertebral anomalies are a collection of malformations of the spine.

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Conus medullaris

The conus medullaris (Latin for "medullary cone") or conus terminalis is the tapered, lower end of the spinal cord.

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Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

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Elasmosaurus is a genus of plesiosaur that lived in North America during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous period, about 80.5million years ago.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Facet joint

The facet joints, (or zygapophysial joints, zygapophyseal, apophyseal, or Z-joints) are a set of synovial, plane joints between the articular processes of two adjacent vertebrae.

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Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Functional neurological symptom disorder

A functional neurological disorder (FND) is a condition in which patients experience neurological symptoms such as weakness, movement disorders, sensory symptoms and blackouts.

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Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.

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Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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Hadrosaurids (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae.

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Haemal arch

A haemal arch (also spelled hemal arch) is a bony arch on the ventral side of a tail vertebra of a vertebrate.

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Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).

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A hernia is the abnormal exit of tissue or an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Hox gene

Hox genes, a subset of homeotic genes, are a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the head-tail axis.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human embryogenesis

Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.

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Interspinous ligament

The interspinous ligaments (interspinal ligaments) are thin and membranous ligaments, that connect adjoining spinous processes of the vertebra in the spine.

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Intervertebral disc

An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.

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Intervertebral foramen

The intervertebral foramen (also called neural foramen, and often abbreviated as IV foramen or IVF), is a foramen between two spinal vertebrae.

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Klippel–Feil syndrome

Klippel–Feil syndrome is a rare disease, initially reported in 1884 by Maurice Klippel and André Feil from France, characterized by the congenital fusion of any two of the seven cervical vertebrae.

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Kyphoscoliosis describes an abnormal curvature of the spine in both a coronal and sagittal plane.

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Kyphosis (from Greek κυφός kyphos, a hump) is an abnormally excessive convex kyphotic curvature of the spine as it occurs in the cervical, thoracic and sacral regions.

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Labyrinthodontia (Greek, "maze-toothed") is an extinct amphibian subclass, which constituted some of the dominant animals of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras (about 390 to 150 million years ago).

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Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.

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A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.

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Lordosis is the normal inward lordotic curvature of the lumbar and cervical regions of the human spine.

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Low back pain

Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back.

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Lumbar puncture

Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.

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Lumbar vertebrae

The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis.

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A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).

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The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.

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The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.

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Neuromechanics of idiopathic scoliosis

The neuromechanics of idiopathic scoliosis is about the changes in the bones, muscles and joints in cases of spinal deformity consisting of a lateral curvature scoliosis and a rotation of the vertebrae within the curve, that is not explained by either congenital vertebral abnormalities, or neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophy.

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Neutral spine

A good posture refers to the "three natural curves are present in a healthy spine.". It is also called Neutral Spine.

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In anatomy, the notochord is a flexible rod made out of a material similar to cartilage.

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Nuchal ligament

The nuchal ligament is a ligament at the back of the neck that is continuous with the supraspinous ligament.

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Occipital bone

The occipital bone is a cranial dermal bone, and is the main bone of the occiput (back and lower part of the skull).

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.

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Paraxial mesoderm

Paraxial mesoderm, also known as presomitic or somitic mesoderm is the area of mesoderm in the neurulating embryo that flanks and forms simultaneously with the neural tube.

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Pars interarticularis

The pars interarticularis, or pars for short, is the part of a vertebra located between the inferior and superior articular processes of the facet joint.

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The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).

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Plesiosauria (Greek: πλησίος, plesios, meaning "near to" and Sauria) or plesiosaurs are an order or clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles (marine Sauropsida), belonging to the Sauropterygia.

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A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.

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Posterior longitudinal ligament

The posterior longitudinal ligament is situated within the vertebral canal, and extends along the posterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae, from the body of the axis, where it is continuous with the tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint, to the sacrum.

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Process (anatomy)

In anatomy, a process (processus) is a projection or outgrowth of tissue from a larger body.

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Pygostyle describes a skeletal condition in which the final few caudal vertebrae are fused into a single ossification, supporting the tail feathers and musculature.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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A retrolisthesis is a posterior displacement of one vertebral body with respect to the subjacent vertebra to a degree less than a luxation (dislocation).

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In vertebrate anatomy, ribs (costae) are the long curved bones which form the rib cage.

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The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.

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The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider or other load, fastened to an animal's back by a girth.

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The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.

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Saurischia (meaning "reptile-hipped" from the Greek (σαῦρος) meaning 'lizard' and (ἴσχιον) meaning 'hip joint') is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia).

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Sauropoda, or the sauropods (sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are a clade of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs.

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Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve.

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Segmentation (biology)

Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.

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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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Sloths are arboreal mammals noted for slowness of movement and for spending most of their lives hanging upside down in the trees of the tropical rainforests of South America and Central America.

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Somites (outdated: primitive segments) are divisions of the body of an animal or embryo.

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Somitogenesis is the process by which somites form.

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Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.

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Spinal canal

The spinal canal (or vertebral canal or spinal cavity) is the space in the vertebral column formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Spinal cord injury

A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.

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Spinal disc herniation

Spinal disc herniation, also known as a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings.

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Spinal disease

Spinal disease (also known as a dorsopathy) refers to a condition impairing the backbone.

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Spinal nerve

A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.

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Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

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Splanchnic nerves

The splanchnic nerves are paired visceral nerves (nerves that contribute to the innervation of the internal organs), carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system (visceral efferent fibers) as well as sensory fibers from the organs (visceral afferent fibers).

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Spondylolisthesis is the slippage or displacement of one vertebra compared to another.

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Supraspinous ligament

The supraspinous ligament, also known as the supraspinal ligament, is a ligament found along the vertebral column.

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Surface anatomy

Surface anatomy (also called superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body of an animal.

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Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Sympathetic trunk

The sympathetic trunks (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) are a paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx.

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The synsacrum is a skeletal structure of birds and other dinosaurs, in which the sacrum is extended by incorporation of additional fused or partially fused caudal or lumbar vertebrae.

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The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.

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Temnospondyli (from Greek τέμνειν (temnein, "to cut") and σπόνδυλος (spondylos, "vertebra")) is a diverse subclass of extinct small to giant tetrapods—often considered primitive amphibians—that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods.

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Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.

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Thoracic vertebrae

In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.

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Three-toed sloth

The three-toed sloths are tree-living mammals from South and Central America.

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Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.

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Two-toed sloth

Choloepus is a genus of mammals of Central and South America, within the family Megalonychidae consisting of two-toed sloths.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

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Vertebral foramen

In a typical vertebra, the vertebral foramen is the foramen (opening) formed by the anterior segment (the body), and the posterior part, the vertebral arch.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vertebral_column

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