108 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Adenosine triphosphate, ADP ribosylation factor, Alzheimer's disease, Annexin, Apoptosis, Aqueous solution, Archaea, Autoimmune disease, Axon, Bacteria, Biochemistry, Biomineralization, Bleb (cell biology), Bone, Buoyancy, Calcification, Cartilage, CD133, CD63, CD81, Cell biology, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Chemical synapse, Ciliate, Clathrin, Contractile vacuole, COPI, COPII, Cyanobacteria, Cytosol, Degenerative disease, Dentin, Diabetes mellitus, Differential centrifugation, Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide, Downregulation and upregulation, Electron microscope, Endocrine system, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, Epilepsy, Eukaryote, Exocytosis, Exosome (vesicle), Extracellular, Extracellular matrix, Fungus, ..., G protein, Golgi apparatus, Guanosine triphosphate, Hormone, Host–pathogen interaction, Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, James Rothman, Kiss-and-run fusion, Lamellar phase, Lipid bilayer, Liposome, Lysosome, Membrane contact site, Membrane vesicle trafficking, Mesenchymal stem cell, Metabolism, Micelle, Microsome, Microvesicles, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Organelle, Osmoregulation, Osmotic pressure, Osmotic shock, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Patch clamp, Peroxisome, Phagocytosis, Phosphatidylserine, Plankton, Plant cell, Plant nutrition, Protist, Protocell, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Rab (G-protein), Randy Schekman, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor-mediated endocytosis, Ribosome, Secretion, SNARE (protein), Sonication, Spitzenkörper, Stem cell secretome, Suspension (chemistry), Synaptic vesicle, Thomas C. Südhof, Tissue (biology), Tunneling nanotube, Ubiquitin, Unilamellar liposome, Vacuole, Valinomycin. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) are members of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Annexin is a common name for a group of cellular proteins.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.
In cell biology, a bleb is a bulge or protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell, human bioparticulate or abscess with an internal environment similar to that of a simple cell, characterized by a spherical, bulky morphology.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
CD133 antigen, also known as prominin-1, is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the PROM1 gene.
CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene.
CD81 molecule, also known as CD81 (Cluster of Differentiation 81), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD81 gene.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.
Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.
A contractile vacuole (CV) is a sub-cellular structure (organelle) involved in osmoregulation.
COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they were originally synthesized, and between Golgi compartments.
COPII is a coatomer, a type of vesicle coat protein that transports proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.
Dentin (American English) or dentine (British English) (substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Differential centrifugation is a common procedure in microbiology and cytology used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells.
Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (also dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide or DODAB) is a double-chained quaternary ammonium surfactant that forms unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) in water.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in many and perhaps all eukaryotic fluids, including blood, urine, and cultured medium of cell cultures.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.
An immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) is any of a group of conditions or diseases that lack a definitive etiology, but which are characterized by common inflammatory pathways leading to inflammation, and which may result from, or be triggered by, a dysregulation of the normal immune response.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
James Edward Rothman (November 3, 1950 –) is an American biochemist.
Kiss-and-run fusion is a type of synaptic vesicle release where the vesicle opens and closes transiently.
Lamellar phase refers generally to packing of polar-headed long chain nonpolar-tail molecules in an environment of bulk polar liquid, as sheets of bilayers separated by bulk liquid.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Membrane contact sites (MCS) are close appositions between two organelles.
Membrane vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic animal cells involves movement of important biochemical signal molecules from synthesis-and-packaging locations in the Golgi body to specific 'release' locations on the inside of the plasma membrane of the secretory cell, in the form of Golgi membrane-bound micro-sized vesicles, termed membrane vesicles (MVs).
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A micelle or micella (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid.
In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.
Microvesicles (circulating microvesicles, or microparticles) are a type of extracellular vesicle, between 50 and 1,000 nanometers (nm) in diameter, found in many types of body fluids as well as the interstitial space between cells.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
Osmotic shock or osmotic stress is physiologic dysfunction caused by a sudden change in the solute concentration around a cell, which causes a rapid change in the movement of water across its cell membrane.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology used to study ionic currents in individual isolated living cells, tissue sections, or patches of cell membrane.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
A protocell (or protobiont) is a self-organized, endogenously ordered, spherical collection of lipids proposed as a stepping-stone to the origin of life.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
The Rab family of proteins is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins.
Randy Wayne Schekman (born December 30, 1948) is an American cell biologist at the University of California, Berkeley and former editor-in-chief of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins – and in some cases viruses – by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed (endocytosis).
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Protein) REceptor)" are a large protein complex consisting of at least 24 members in yeasts and more than 60 members in mammalian cells.
A sonicator at the Weizmann Institute of Science during sonicationSonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample, for various purposes such as the extraction of multiple compounds from plants, microalgae and seaweeds.
The Spitzenkörper (German for pointed body) is a structure found in fungal hyphae that is the organizing center for hyphal growth and morphogenesis.
The stem cell secretome (also referred to as the stromal cell secretome) is a collective term for the paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells and utilized for their inter-cell communication.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Thomas Christian Südhof (born December 22, 1955) is a German-American biochemist known for his study of synaptic transmission.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
A tunnelling nanotube or membrane nanotube is a term that has been applied to protrusions that extend from the plasma membrane that enable different animal cells to touch over long distances, sometimes over 100 μm between T cells.
Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.
An unilamellar liposome is a spherical chamber/vesicle, bounded by a single bilayer of an amphiphilic lipid or a mixture of such lipids, containing aqueous solution inside the chamber.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Valinomycin is a naturally occurring dodecadepsipeptide used in the transport of potassium and as an antibiotic.
Extracellular vesicles, Lipid vesicle, Membrane trafficking, Transport vesicle, Transport vesicles, Vesicle (Biology and Chemistry), Vesicle (Biology), Vesicle (biology & chemistry), Vesicle (biology), Vesicle (chemistry), Vesicle mediated transport, Vesicle trafficking, Vesicle transport, Vesicula.