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Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
Adelaide of Austria (Adelheid Franziska Marie Rainera Elisabeth Clotilde; 3 June 1822 – 20 January 1855) was the Queen of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, future King of Italy, from 1849 until 1855 when she died as a result of childbirth.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Agliè (Piedmontese: Ajé) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about north of Turin.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Albanian Kingdom (Gheg Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, Standard Albanian: Mbretëria Shqiptare, Regno albanese), also known as Greater Albania, existed as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy.
Alessandria (Piedmontese: Lissandria) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amalie Auguste (Munich, 13 November 1801 – Dresden, 8 November 1877) was a Princess of Bavaria and Queen of Saxony.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Antonio Salandra (13 August 1853 – 9 December 1931) was a conservative Italian politician who served as the 33rd Prime Minister of Italy between 1914 and 1916.
Aosta (Aoste; Aoûta; Augusta Praetoria Salassorum; Augschtal; Osta) is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, north-northwest of Turin.
Rainer Joseph of Austria (30 September 1783 – 16 January 1853) was a Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia from 1818 to 1848.
Armando Diaz, 1st Duke of the Victory, (5 December 1861 – 28 February 1928) was an Italian general and a Marshal of Italy.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian conductor.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.
Asti is a city and comune of 76 164 inhabitants (1-1-2017) located in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, about east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given.
Bairo is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region of Piedmont, about north of Turin.
Barge is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southwest of Turin and about northwest of Cuneo.
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.
The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers) was a battle on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was fought between the Entente and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral).
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
Bene Vagienna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about south of Turin and about northeast of Cuneo.
Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bergolo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southeast of Turin and about northeast of Cuneo.
Bobbio (Bobbiese: Bòbi; Bêubbi; Bobium) is a small town and commune in the province of Piacenza in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy.
The bombing of Rome in World War II took place on several occasions in 1943 and 1944, primarily by Allied and to a smaller degree by Axis aircraft, before the city was invaded by the Allies on June 4, 1944.
Borgomanero (Piedmontese: Borbané, Lombard: Burbanee) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Novara in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about northwest of Novara.
Boris III (Борѝс III; 28 August 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver (Boris Clement Robert Mary Pius Louis Stanislaus Xavier), was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1918 until his death.
Bra (Br'a in Piemontese) is a town and comune in the province of Cuneo in the northwest Italian region of Piedmont.
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald,; literally, in English: beech forest) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Busca (Buscha) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southwest of Turin and about northwest of Cuneo.
By the Grace of God (Latin Dei Gratia, abbreviated D.G.) is an introductory part of the full styles of a monarch historically considered to be ruling by divine right, not a title in its own right.
The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size.
Carignano is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about south of Turin.
Carmagnola is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located south of Turin.
Caroline of Baden (Friederike Karoline Wilhelmine von Baden; 13 July 1776 – 13 November 1841) was by marriage an Electress of Bavaria and later the first Queen consort of Bavaria by marriage to Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria.
Caselle Torinese is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northwest of Turin, on the left bank of the Stura di Lanzo.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cavallermaggiore is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about south of Turin and about northeast of Cuneo.
Centallo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about south of Turin and about north of Cuneo.
Cesana Torinese (French Césanne) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about west of Turin, on the border with France.
Cesare Maria De Vecchi, 1st Conte di Val Cismon (14 November 1884 – 23 June 1959) was an Italian soldier, colonial administrator and Fascist politician.
Ceva, the ancient Ceba, is a small Italian town in the province of Cuneo, region of Piedmont, east of Cuneo.
Chablais was a province of the Duchy of Savoy.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
Charles Albert (2 October 1798 – 28 July 1849) was the King of Sardinia from 27 April 1831 to 23 March 1849.
Charles Emmanuel of Savoy (24 October 1770 – 16 August 1800) was a Prince of Savoy and later the Prince of Carignano between 1780 and 1800, and the paternal grandfather of Vittorio Emanuele II, the first king of a united Italy.
Charles Horace Mayo (July 19, 1865 – May 26, 1939) was an American medical practitioner and was one of the founders of the Mayo Clinic along with his brother, William James Mayo, Augustus Stinchfield, Christopher Graham, E. Star Judd, Henry Stanley Plummer, Melvin Millet, and Donald Balfour.
Common chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a somewhat woody, perennial herbaceous plant of the dandelion family Asteraceae, usually with bright blue flowers, rarely white or pink.
Chieri is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont (Italy), located about southeast of Turin, by rail and by road.
The Civil Order of Savoy was founded as an order of knighthood in 1831 by the King of Sardinia, Charles Albert, Duke of Savoy.
Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender.
The Colonial Order of the Star of Italy (Ordine coloniale della Stella d'Italia) was founded as a colonial order of knighthood on 18 June 1914 by King Victor Emmanuel III, to reward soldiers deployed to the colony of Libya.
The Commemorative Medal for the Italo-Austrian War 1915–1918 was the Italian campaign medal for World War I.
The Italian Risorgimento was celebrated by a series of medals set up by the three kings who ruled during the long process of unification - the Commemorative Medal for the Campaigns of the War of Independence and the various versions of the Commemorative Medal of the Unity of Italy, which were granted by the Kingdom of Italy to those who had taken part in the military operations which had led to Italian independence and later to all who participated in the First World War, since at that time it was traditionally held that Italy completed its unification with the annexation of the Trentino.
A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
Crescentino is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vercelli in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about southwest of Vercelli.
The Cross of Liberty was a medal established by then Prime Minister of Estonia, Konstantin Päts, on 24 February 1919 to honor people for their services during the Estonian War of Independence and conferred in three grades, each in three classes.
Cureggio is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Novara in the Italian region of Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about northwest of Novara.
Demonte is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southwest of Turin and about southwest of Cuneo, in the Valle Stura di Demonte.
Desana (Dzan-a in Piedmontese) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vercelli in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about southwest of Vercelli.
Dino Grandi (4 June 1895 – 21 May 1988), 1st Conte di Mordano, was an Italian Fascist politician, minister of justice, minister of foreign affairs and president of parliament.
The Dodecanese (Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited.
Dronero (Draonier) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southwest of Turin and about northwest of Cuneo at the entrance of the Valle Maira.
Duke of Genoa was a subsidiary title of the King of Sardinia.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Princess Elena of Montenegro, or more commonly known as Queen Elena of Italy (8 January 1871 – 28 November 1952) was the daughter of King Nicholas I of Montenegro and his wife, Milena Vukotić.
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.
Farouk I (فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.
Faucigny is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Ferdinand III (German: Ferdinand Josef Johann Baptist; Italian: Ferdinando Giuseppe Giovanni Baptista; English: Ferdinand Joseph John Baptist; 6 May 1769 – 18 June 1824) was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1790 to 1801 and, after a period of disenfranchisement, again from 1814 to 1824.
Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.
First Marshal of the Empire (Italian: Primo Maresciallo dell'Impero) was a military rank established by the Italian parliament on March 30, 1938.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
The Genevois is a former province of the Duchy of Savoy.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Ghemme is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Novara in the Italian region Piedmont, located on the river Sesia about northeast of Turin and about northwest of Novara.
Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician.
Giovanna of Italy (Йоанна Савойска, Giovanna Elisabetta Antonia Romana Maria) (13 November 1907 – 26 February 2000) was the Tsaritsa of Bulgaria.
The Giudici (from the Latin iudices or judikes, "judges," the title of the Byzantine officials left behind when Imperial power receded in the West.) of Arborea were the local rulers of the west of Sardinia during the Middle Ages.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
Govone is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southeast of Turin and about northeast of Cuneo.
The Gran Sasso raid or Operation Eiche ("Oak") was the rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German paratroopers led by Major Otto-Harald Mors and Waffen-SS commandos in September 1943, during World War II.
The Grand Council of Fascism (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Greco-Italian War (Italo-Greek War, Italian Campaign in Greece; in Greece: War of '40 and Epic of '40) took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Bourbon-Parma (Casa di Borbone di Parma) is an Italian royal and ducal family and cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, whose members once ruled as King of Etruria and as Duke of Parma and Piacenza, Guastalla, and Lucca.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
The Italian Army in Russia (Armata Italiana in Russia, or ARMIR) was an army-sized unit of the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito Italiano) which fought on the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force (Aviazione Cobelligerante Italiana, or ACI), or Air Force of the South (Aeronautica del Sud), was the air force of the Royalist "Badoglio government" in southern Italy during the last years of World War II.
The Italian Co-belligerent Army (Esercito Cobelligerante Italiano), Army of the South (Esercito del Sud), or Italian Liberation Corps (Corpo Italiano di Liberazione) were names applied to various division sets of the now former Royal Italian Army during the period when it fought on the side of the Allies during World War II from September 1943 onwards.
The Italian Co-Belligerent Navy (Marina Cobelligerante Italiana), or Navy of the South (Marina del Sud) or Royal Navy (Regia Marina), was the navy of the Italian royalist forces fighting on the side of the Allies in southern Italy after the Allied armistice with Italy in September 1943.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
An institutional referendum (referendum istituzionale, or referendum sulla forma istituzionale dello Stato, in Italian) was held in Italy on 2 June 1946,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 a key event of Italian contemporary history.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
The Italian Racial Laws (Leggi razziali) were a set of laws promulgated by Fascist Italy from 1938 to 1943 to enforce racial discrimination in Italy, directed mainly against the Italian Jews and the native inhabitants of the colonies.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivrea (Eporedia) is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy.
John (full name: Johann Nepomuk Maria Joseph Anton Xaver Vincenz Aloys Franz de Paula Stanislaus Bernhard Paul Felix Damasus) (12 December 1801 – 29 October 1873) was a King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin.
While the medieval Angevin Kingdom of Albania was a monarchy, it did not encompass the entirety of the modern state of Albania.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.
The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Crusader state that existed between 1192 and 1489.
The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice.
Lanslebourg-Mont-Cenis is a former commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
The Lateran Treaty (Patti Lateranensi; Pacta Lateranensia) was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question".
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.
This is a list of people appearing on the cover of ''Time'' magazine in the 1920s.
This article lists the Governors-General of Italian East Africa, a colony of the Italian Empire from 1936 to 1941.
The following is a list of rulers of Sardinia, in particular, of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica from 1323 and then of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1479 to 1861.
King Victor Emmanuel III was the monarch of the Kingdom of Italy, from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946 and of Albania from April 1939 until May 1943.
The Marquises and Dukes of Montferrat were the rulers of a territory in Piedmont south of the Po and east of Turin called Montferrat.
Livorno Ferraris is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vercelli in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about west of Vercelli.
The Lomellina (Western Lombard: Ümlína/Lümelína) is a geographical and historical area in the Pianura Padana (Po River's valley) of northern Italy, located in south-western Lombardy between the Sesia, Po and Ticino rivers.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
Luigi Facta (16 November 1861 – 5 November 1930) was an Italian politician, journalist and last Prime Minister of Italy before the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
The Italian word luogotenente (plural luogotenenti) is an etymological parallel to lieutenant, deriving from the Latin locum tenens "holding a place", i.e. someone who fills a position instead of another, as a substitute, deputy, et cetera.
Majesty (abbreviation HM, oral address Your Majesty) is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning greatness, and used as a style by many monarchs, usually kings or sultanss.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Mare Nostrum (mare nostrvm, "Our Sea") was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea.
Marene is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about south of Turin and about northeast of Cuneo.
Margherita of Savoy (Margherita Maria Teresa Giovanna; 20 November 1851 – 4 January 1926) was the Queen consort of the Kingdom of Italy by marriage to Umberto I.
Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (Spanish: María Luisa, German: Maria Ludovika) (24 November 1745 – 15 May 1792) was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Maria Theresa of Austria (21 March 1801 – 12 January 1855) was born an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany.
Marie José of Belgium (Marie-José Charlotte Sophie Amélie Henriette Gabrielle; 4 August 1906 – 27 January 2001) was the last Queen of Italy.
A marquess (marquis) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
The Maurician medal is an honorary degree granted to a soldier, after 50 years of service in the Italian army (the commanding years are added afterward).
Maurienne is one of the provinces of Savoy, corresponding to the arrondissement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in France.
Maximilian I Joseph (27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, Prince-Elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825.
Prince Maximilian of Saxony (Maximilian Maria Joseph Anton Johann Baptist Johann Evangelista Ignaz Augustin Xavier Aloys Johann Nepomuk Januar Hermenegild Agnellis Paschalis; Dresden, 13 April 1759 – Dresden, 3 January 1838) was a German prince and a member of the House of Wettin.
The Medal of the Royal Numismatic Society was first awarded in 1883.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menton (written Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Mentone) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, GE, OIC, OSH, LCSF, OMC, OTS, KOC (8 January 1870 – 16 March 1930) was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era.
The Military Order of Savoy was a military honorary order of the Kingdom of Sardinia first, and of the Kingdom of Italy later.
Moûtiers, historically also called Tarentaise, is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Modane is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in southeastern France.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
Moruzzo (Murus) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about northwest of Trieste and about northwest of Udine.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
The National Roman Museum (Italian: Museo Nazionale Romano) is a museum, with several branches in separate buildings throughout the city of Rome, Italy.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
A newsreel is a form of short documentary film, containing news stories and items of topical interest, that was prevalent between the 1910s and the late 1960s.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš (Никола I Петровић-Његош; – 1 March 1921) was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918.
Novara (Nuàra in the local Lombard dialect) is the capital city of the province of Novara in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy, to the west of Milan.
Oneglia (Inéja in Ligurian) was a town in northern Italy on the Ligurian coast that was joined to Porto Maurizio to form the Comune of Imperia in 1923.
The Order of Fidelity (Urdhëri i Besa), also known as the Order of Besa, was established by Ahmet Zogu (later King Zog I) when he was President of Albania.
The Order of Lāčplēsis (Lāčplēša Kara ordenis), the first and the highest Latvian military award, was established in 1919 on the initiative of the Commander of Latvian Army, during the Latvian War of Independence, Jānis Balodis.
The Order of Saint Peter of Cetinje (Montenegrin: Орден Светог Петра, Orden Svetog Petra) is the first dynastic of the Royal House of Petrović-Njegoš.
The Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius is an award conferred by the Republic of Bulgaria.
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the House of Savoy, founded in 1572 by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, through amalgamation approved by Pope Gregory XIII of the Order of Saint Maurice, founded in 1434, with the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, founded circa 1119, considered its sole legitimate successor.
The Order of Skanderbeg (Urdhëri i Skënderbeut) was originally instituted in 1925 as an order of merit of the Albanian Republic.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Order of the Black Eagle (Hoher Orden vom Schwarzen Adler) was the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia.
is Japan's highest order.
The Order of the Crown of Italy, italic, was founded as a national order in 1868 by King Vittorio Emanuele II, to commemorate the unification of Italy in 1861.
The Order of the Elephant (Elefantordenen) is a Danish order of chivalry and is Denmark's highest-ranked honour.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro, Orden vom Goldenen Vlies) is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella.
The Imperial Order of the Lion and the Sun was instituted by Fat’h Ali Shah of the Qajar Dynasty in 1808 to honour foreign officials (later extended to Persians) who had rendered distinguished services to Persia.
The Fascist Order of the Roman Eagle founded in 1942 with civil and military divisions, was abolished in Italy in 1944; although it continued to be awarded by Benito Mussolini in the short-lived Italian Social Republic until 1945.
The Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit (Ordem Militar da Torre e Espada do Valor, Lealdade e Mérito) is a Portuguese order of knighthood and the pinnacle of the Portuguese honours system.
The Order of the White Eagle (Order Orła Białego) is Poland's highest order awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits.
The Order of the White Lion (Řád Bílého lva) is the highest order of the Czech Republic.
The Order of the White Rose of Finland (Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunta; Finlands Vita Ros’ orden) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the Cross of Liberty, and the Order of the Lion of Finland.
Oristano (Aristanis) is an Italian city and comune, and capital of the Province of Oristano in the central-western part of the island of Sardinia.
Ozegna is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about north of Turin.
Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Philipp, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse (6 November 1896 – 25 October 1980) was head of the Electoral House of Hesse from 1940 to 1980.
Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Pianezza is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northwest of Turin.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
Pinerolo (Pignerol; Piemontese: Pinareul) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont, northwestern Italy, southwest of Turin on the river Chisone.
Poirino is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southeast of Turin.
Church of San Vittore at Pollenzo. Pollentia, known today as Pollenzo, was an ancient city on the left bank of the Tanaro.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
The post–World War I recession was an economic recession that hit much of the world in the aftermath of World War I. In many nations, especially in North America, this growth continued during World War I as nations mobilized their economies to fight the war in Europe.
The Prime Minister of Bulgaria (Министър-председател, Ministar-predsedatel) is the head of government of Bulgaria.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
Prince Aimone, 4th Duke of Aosta (Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino; 9 March 1900 – 29 January 1948) was a prince of Italy's reigning House of Savoy and an officer of the Royal Italian Navy.
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia-Aosta; 21 October 1898 – 3 March 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a first cousin, once removed of the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.
Prince Ferdinand of Savoy, 1st Duke of Genoa (Ferdinando Maria Alberto Amedeo Filiberto Vincenzo; 15 November 1822 – 10 February 1855) was the founder of the Genoa branch of the House of Savoy.
Carolina Maria Teresa Giuseppa of Parma (22 November 1770 – 1 March 1804) was a Princess of Parma by birth, and Princess of Saxony by marriage to Prince Maximilian of Saxony.
Elisabeth of Savoy (Maria Francesca Elisabetta Carlotta Giuseppina; 13 April 1800 – 25 December 1856) was the Vicereine of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia by marriage to Archduke Rainer of Austria.
Elisabeth of Saxony (Prinzessin Elisabeth von Sachsen, Herzogin zu Sachsen; 4 February 1830 – 14 August 1912) was a Princess of Saxony who married the second son of the King of Sardinia.
Luisa of Naples and Sicily (Luisa Maria Amalia Teresa; 27 July 1773 – 19 September 1802), was a Neapolitan and Sicilian princess and the wife of the third Habsburg Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Princess Mafalda of Savoy (2 November 1902 – 27 August 1944) was the second daughter of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and his wife Elena of Montenegro.
Maria Christina of Saxony (Maria Christina Albertina Carolina; 7 December 1770 – 24 November 1851) was a Princess of Saxony.
Princess Maria of Savoy (Maria Francesca Anna Romana; 26 December 1914 – 7 December 2001) was the youngest daughter of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Elena of Montenegro.
Princess Yolanda of Savoy (1 June 1901 – 16 October 1986) was the eldest daughter of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and his wife Queen Elena of Montenegro, and the sister of Umberto II, the last king of Italy.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
San Lorenzo is a district (quartiere) in Rome, Italy.
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.
Racconigi (Racunis) is a town and comune in Piedmont, Italy.
The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
Riva presso Chieri is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southeast of Turin.
Rivoli, is a comune (municipality) established around the 1st century CE, in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, about west of Turin.
Roccabruna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southwest of Turin and about northwest of Cuneo.
The Roman Question (Questione romana; Quaestio Romana) was a dispute regarding the temporal power of the popes as rulers of a civil territory in the context of the Italian Risorgimento.
Romont is a municipality and capital of the district of Glâne in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland.
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin (Ròcabruna Caup Martin, Roccabruna-Capo Martino) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France between Monaco and Menton.
The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish: Kungliga Serafimerorden; Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star.
The Royal Victorian Chain is a decoration instituted in 1902 by King Edward VII as a personal award of the monarch (i.e. not an award made on the advice of any Commonwealth realm government).
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Salussola is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Biella in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about southeast of Biella.
Saluzzo (Saluces) is a town and former principality in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont region, Italy.
The Santuario di Vicoforte (also known as Santuario Regina Montis Regalis) is a monumental church located in the commune of Vicoforte, province of Cuneo, Piedmont, northern Italy.
Sant'Antioco (Santu Antiogu) is the name of both an island and a municipality (comune) in southwestern Sardinia, in the Province of South Sardinia, in Sulcis zone.
Santhià (Santià or Santcià) is a comune (municipality) in the province of Vercelli in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about northwest of Vercelli.
The Sash of the Three Orders is the insignia of the Portuguese presidential magistracy, therefore it cannot be used outside the exercise of office of the President of the Portuguese Republic.
Savona (Ligurian: Sann-a is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea. Savona used to be one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, shipbuilding, railway workshops, engineering shops, and a brass foundry. One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys. 'Columbus's house', a cottage situated in the Savona hills, lay between vegetable crops and fruit trees. It is one of several residences in Liguria associated with Columbus.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Simeon II of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Симеон Борисов Сакскобургготски, (transliteration: Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski) or Цар Симеон II (Tsar Simeon II); Wettin; Simeone di Sassonia-Coburgo-Gotha; born 16 June 1937) is the last reigning Bulgarian monarch and later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005.
Sir Charles Alexander Petrie, 3rd Baronet (28 September 1895 – 13 December 1977) was a British historian.
Soissons is a commune in the northern French department of Aisne, in the region of Hauts-de-France.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Statuto Albertino (English: Albertine Statute), was the constitution that Charles Albert of Sardinia conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy on 4 March 1848.
The Supreme Order of Christ (Ordine Supremo del Cristo) is the highest order of chivalry awarded by the Pope.
The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (French: Ordre suprême de la Très Sainte Annonciade, Italian: Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata) is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood, originating in Savoy.
Susa (Segusio) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont, Italy.
Tende (in Italian, Occitan and Royasc: Tenda) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
Tortona is a comune of Piemonte, in the Province of Alessandria, Italy.
Tricerro (Trisser in Piedmontese) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vercelli in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about southwest of Vercelli.
Trino is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vercelli in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about southwest of Vercelli, at the foot of the Montferrat hills.
The Triple Alliance was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Umberto I (Savoia; 14 March 1844 – 29 July 1900), nicknamed the Good (Italian: il Buono), was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his assassination on 29 July 1900.
Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.
Valsesia (Valsesia; Walser German: Tseschrutol; Valle della Sesia) is a group of valleys in the north-east of Piedmont in the Province of Vercelli, Italy; the principal valley is that of the river Sesia.
Vasil Laçi also referred as Vasil Llaçi (1922–41, People's Hero of Albania), was an Albanian patriot and monarchist who attempted to kill Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy and Shefqet Bej Vërlaci, Prime Minister of Albania after the occupation of Albania by fascist Italy.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vercelli (Vërsèj in Piedmontese), is a city and comune of 46.552 inhabitants (1-1-2017) in the Province of Vercelli, Piedmont, northern Italy.
A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Vicoforte is a comune in the Province of Cuneo in Italy.
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
Vigone is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about southwest of Turin.
Villafranca Piemonte is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 35 km southwest of Turin.
The War Order of Virtuti Militari (Latin: "For Military Virtue", Polish: Order Wojenny Virtuti Militari) is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war.
The Italian War Merit Cross (Croce al Merito di Guerra) was instituted by King Victor Emanuel III on 19 January 1918.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Zog I, King of the Albanians (Nalt Madhnija e Tij Zogu I, Mbreti i Shqiptareve,; 8 October 18959 April 1961), born Ahmet Muhtar Zogolli, taking the surname Zogu in 1922, was the leader of Albania from 1922 to 1939.
King Victor Emmanuel III, King Vittorio III, Victor Emanuel III, Victor Emanuel III of Italy, Victor Emmanuel I, King of the Albanians, Victor Emmanuel III, Victor Emmanuel III of Albania, Victor-Emanuel III of Italy, Vittore Emanuelle III, Vittorio Emanuele III, Vittorio Emanuele III di Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy.