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Victorian era

Index Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. [1]

393 relations: A Tale of Two Cities, A. N. Wilson, Aestheticism, Agnosticism, Albert, Prince Consort, Alexander Bassano, Alexander Graham Bell, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Andrew Ducrow, Anesthetic, Anglo-Zulu War, Animal magnetism, Anne Brontë, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, Antiseptic, Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Arthur Conan Doyle, Asa Briggs, Astley's Amphitheatre, Bandstand, Bank Holidays Act 1871, Baptists, Battle of Isandlwana, Battle of Majuba Hill, Battle of the Styles, Bedchamber Crisis, Beefsteak Club, Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!, Belle Époque, Benjamin Disraeli, Birmingham, Birth control, Birth rate, Blackpool Electric Tramway Company, Blasphemy, Boer, Boer Republics, Bonnet (headgear), British Agricultural Revolution, British Army, British brass band, British Empire, British North America, British Raj, Burial Laws Amendment Act 1880, Burning of Parliament, C. P. Scott, Canadian Confederation, Casino, Catholic Church in the United Kingdom, ..., Charles Barry, Charles Bradlaugh, Charles Darwin, Charles Dickens, Charles Southwell, Charlotte Brontë, Chartism, Child labour, Chimney sweep, Chloroform, Cholera, Church of England, Circus, City of London, Classical architecture, Climate of the United Kingdom, Coal gas, Collecting, Comic opera, Company rule in India, Conchology, Congregational church, Conservative Party (UK), Constitution Act, 1867, Corn Laws, Corporation Act 1661, Cotton mill, Coventry Patmore, Cricket, Crimean War, Croquet, Cross-link, Crossing sweeper, Crown colony, Cycling, Cyprus, Days of May, Debtors' prison, Demographic transition, Demographics of Afghanistan, Demography of England, Demography of Scotland, Demography of Wales, Dentistry, Dentures, Domestic worker, E. Nesbit, East India Company, Eastern Question, Edward R. Pease, Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Edward VII, Edwardian era, Edwardian musical comedy, Edwin Chadwick, Electoral system, Electric light, Elementary Education Act 1870, Emigration, Emily Brontë, Emily Williamson, England and Wales, English Poor Laws, English society, Ether, Evolution, Fabian Society, Factory Acts, Felony, Fin de siècle, First Anglo-Afghan War, First Boer War, First Opium War, Florence Nightingale, Frank Holl, French Revolution, G. M. Trevelyan, G. R. Searle, Garden, Gas heater, Gas lighting, Gas mantle, Gasworks, George Eliot, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, George Hudson, George Stephenson, Georgian era, Ghost, Gilbert and Sullivan, Gilded Age, Gothic fiction, Gothic Revival architecture, Government of Ireland Bill 1886, Grand opera, Great Expectations, Great Famine (Ireland), Great power, Guard rail, Harm principle, Harold Perkin, Havelock Ellis, Henry Fox Talbot, Henry Irving, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Henry Mayhew, Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, Hippopotamus, Historiography of the British Empire, Historiography of the United Kingdom, History of coal mining, History of Egypt under the British, History of photography, History of the United Kingdom, History of water supply and sanitation, Hong Kong Island, Horror Victorianorum, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Humphry Davy, Hyde Park, London, Imperialism, Impressionism, Incandescence, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Industrial Revolution, Industrialisation, International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919), Irish Home Rule movement, Irish Poor Laws, Irish population analysis, Irish Reform Act 1832, Iron ore, Ivory, Jack the Ripper, James Mill, James Young Simpson, Jeremy Bentham, John Everett Millais, John Marriott (British politician), John Ruskin, John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, John Snow, John Stuart Mill, John Thadeus Delane, Joseph Bazalgette, Joseph Lister, Kate Summerscale, Kellow Chesney, Labour Party (UK), Law enforcement in the United Kingdom, Lewis Carroll, Liberalism, List of British monarchs, List of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland by death toll, List of largest empires, Literary genre, Llewellyn Woodward, Local board of health, London sewerage system, London Underground, Louis Daguerre, Low comedy, Mahdi, Malacology, Malthusian trap, Marriage Act 1836, Matthew Arnold, Medieval architecture, Mediumship, Michael Sadleir, Michael William Balfe, Middle class, Mines and Collieries Act 1842, Modern architecture, Morecambe, Mortality rate, Mysticism, Napoleon III, Natural history, Naturalization, Neo-Victorian, Nitrous oxide, Nonconformist, Nonconformist conscience, Novel, Olympic Games, On Liberty, On the Origin of Species, Ornithology, Orsini affair, Oscar Wilde, Ottoman Empire, Owen Chadwick, Pablo Fanque, Palace of Westminster, Pax Britannica, Penny Black, Phenol, Plenipotentiary, Plumbing, Poorhouse, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Presbyterianism, Pretoria Convention, Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, Principality of Montenegro, Principality of Serbia, Prose, Protectorate, Pub, Qing dynasty, Quakers, Queen Victoria, Rationalism, Reactions to On the Origin of Species, Reform Act, Reform Act 1832, Reform Act 1867, Reform movement, Regency era, Restoration of the Scottish Catholic hierarchy, Richard Altick, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Robert Louis Stevenson, Robert Peel, Romanticism, Royal Commission, Royal Highness, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Russian Empire, Sabbath, Saltaire, Sanitary sewer, Sanitation, Savage Club, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, Scottish Poor Laws, Scottish Reform Act 1832, Second Boer War, Second French Empire, Second Opium War, Separate spheres, Sepoy, Serial killer, Shoe polish, Slum, Social novel, Social realism, South African Republic, SS Great Britain, SS Great Western, Standard-gauge railway, State school, Stockton and Darlington Railway, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Street light, Sudan, Suez Canal, Suffrage, Sunday school, Telegraphy, Tennis, Test Act, Textile industry, Thames Embankment, The Angel in the House, The arts, The Beatles, The Championships, Wimbledon, The Crystal Palace, The Daily Telegraph, The French Revolution: A History, The Great Exhibition, The Great Game, The Guardian, The Illustrated London News, The Oracle of Reason, The Picture of Dorian Gray, The Times, Thirty-nine Articles, Thomas Arnold, Thomas Barnes (journalist), Thomas Brassey, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Cook, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Robert Malthus, Tin, Tooth decay, Tories (British political party), Total fertility rate, Trade route, Tram, Treaty of Balta Liman, Treaty of Berlin (1878), Treaty of Nanking, Treaty of Paris (1856), Treaty of Waitangi, Tuberculosis, Typhoid fever, Unitarianism, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Principalities, Universalis Ecclesiae, Universities Tests Act 1871, University of Birmingham, University of Leeds, University of Liverpool, University of London, Urban park, Victoria University of Manchester, Victorian America, Victorian burlesque, Victorian cemetery, Victorian decorative arts, Victorian fashion, Victorian gold rush, Victorian literature, Victorian morality, Victoriana, Virginia Woolf, Walrus, Walter Houghton, Walter Sickert, War correspondent, Water supply, Whigs (British political party), Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William Acton (doctor), William Batty, William Ewart Gladstone, William Howard Russell, William IV of the United Kingdom, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, William Makepeace Thackeray, William Shakespeare, William Stewart Ross, William T. G. Morton, Women in the Victorian era, Workhouse, World's fair, Worthing, 1842 retreat from Kabul. Expand index (343 more) »

A Tale of Two Cities

A Tale of Two Cities (1859) is a historical novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the French Revolution.

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A. N. Wilson

Andrew Norman Wilson (born 1950) is an English writer and newspaper columnist known for his critical biographies, novels and works of popular history.

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Aestheticism

Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts.

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Albert, Prince Consort

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.

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Alexander Bassano

Alexander Bassano (10 May 1829 – 21 October 1913) was an English photographer who was a leading royal and high society portrait photographer in Victorian London.

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Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.

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Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.

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Andrew Ducrow

Andrew Ducrow (1793–1842) was a British circus performer, often called the "Father of British circus equestrianism" and "the Colossus of equestrians".

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Anesthetic

An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.

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Anglo-Zulu War

The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.

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Animal magnetism

Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by the German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living/animate beings (humans, animals, vegetables, etc.). He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing.

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Anne Brontë

Anne Brontë (commonly; 17 January 1820 – 28 May 1849) was an English novelist and poet, the youngest member of the Brontë literary family.

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Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (28 April 1801 – 1 October 1885), styled Lord Ashley from 1811 to 1851 and then Lord Shaftesbury following the death of his father, was a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer.

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Antiseptic

Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

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Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery

Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from March 1894 to June 1895.

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Arthur Conan Doyle

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.

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Asa Briggs

Asa Briggs, Baron Briggs (7 May 1921 – 15 March 2016) was an English historian.

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Astley's Amphitheatre

Astley's Amphitheatre was a performance venue in London opened by Philip Astley in 1773.

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Bandstand

A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a park, garden, pier, or indoor space, designed to accommodate musical bands performing concerts.

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Bank Holidays Act 1871

The Bank Holidays Act 1871 established the first bank holidays in the United Kingdom.

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Baptists

Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).

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Battle of Isandlwana

The Battle of Isandlwana (alternative spelling: Isandhlwana) on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.

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Battle of Majuba Hill

The Battle of Majuba Hill (near Volksrust, South Africa) on 27 February 1881 was the final and decisive battle of the First Boer War.

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Battle of the Styles

The Battle of the Styles is a term used to refer to the conflict between supporters of the Gothic style and the Classical style in architecture.

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Bedchamber Crisis

The Bedchamber Crisis occurred on 7 May 1839 after Whig politician Lord Melbourne declared his intention to resign as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after a government bill was passed by a very narrow margin of only five votes in the House of Commons.

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Beefsteak Club

Beefsteak Club is the name or nickname of several 18th and 19th-century male dining clubs in Britain and Australia, that celebrated the beefsteak as a symbol of patriotic and often Whig concepts of liberty and prosperity.

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Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!

"Being for the Benefit of Mr.

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Belle Époque

The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.

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Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.

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Blackpool Electric Tramway Company

Blackpool Electric Tramway Company operated a tramway service in Blackpool between 1885 and 1893.

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Blasphemy

Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.

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Boer

Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".

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Boer Republics

The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent, self-governed republics in the last half of the nineteenth century, created by the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of the Cape Colony and their descendants, variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers in mainly the middle, northern and north eastern and eastern parts of what is now the country of South Africa.

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Bonnet (headgear)

A bonnet is any of a wide variety of headgear for both sexes—more often female—from the Middle Ages to the present.

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British Agricultural Revolution

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British brass band

A British brass band is a musical ensemble comprising a standardized range of brass and percussion instruments.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British North America

The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Burial Laws Amendment Act 1880

The Burial Laws Amendment Act 1880 (43 & 44 Vict c 41) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Burning of Parliament

The Palace of Westminster, the medieval royal palace used as the home of the British parliament, was largely destroyed by fire on 16 October 1834.

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C. P. Scott

Charles Prestwich Scott (26 October 1846 – 1 January 1932), usually cited as C. P. Scott, was a British journalist, publisher and politician.

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Canadian Confederation

Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.

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Casino

A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities.

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Catholic Church in the United Kingdom

The Catholic Church in the United Kingdom is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope.

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Charles Barry

Sir Charles Barry (23 May 1795 – 12 May 1860) was an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens.

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Charles Bradlaugh

Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 – 30 January 1891) was an English political activist and atheist.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.

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Charles Southwell

Charles Southwell (1814 – 7 August 1860) was a radical English journalist and freethinker.

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Charlotte Brontë

Charlotte Brontë (commonly; 21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature.

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Chartism

Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.

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Child labour

Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.

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Chimney sweep

A chimney sweep is a person who clears ash and soot from chimneys.

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Chloroform

Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Circus

A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, dancers, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists.

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City of London

The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.

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Classical architecture

Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.

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Climate of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom straddles the higher mid-latitudes between 49° and 61° N.

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Coal gas

Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.

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Collecting

The hobby of collecting includes seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining items that are of interest to an individual collector.

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Comic opera

Comic opera denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending.

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Company rule in India

Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Conchology

Conchology (from κόγχος konkhos, "cockle") is the study of mollusc shells.

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Congregational church

Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Constitution Act, 1867

The Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3 (U.K.), R.S.C. 1985, App.

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Corn Laws

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.

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Corporation Act 1661

The Corporation Act of 1661 was an Act of the Parliament of England (13 Cha. II. St. 2 c. 1).

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Cotton mill

A cotton mill is a factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution when the early mills were important in the development of the factory system.

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Coventry Patmore

Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore (23 July 1823 – 26 November 1896) was an English poet and critic best known for The Angel in the House, his narrative poem about an ideal happy marriage.

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Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).

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Crimean War

The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.

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Croquet

Croquet is a sport that involves hitting plastic or wooden balls with a mallet through hoops (often called "wickets" in the United States) embedded in a grass playing court.

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Cross-link

A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.

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Crossing sweeper

A crossing sweeper was a person who would sweep a path ahead of people crossing dirty urban streets in exchange for a gratuity.

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Crown colony

Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.

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Cycling

Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Days of May

The Days of May was a period of social unrest and political tension in the United Kingdom in May 1832, after Tories in the House of Lords blocked the Third Reform Bill, which aimed to extend parliamentary representation to the middle class and to the newly industrialised cities of the English Midlands and the North of England.

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Debtors' prison

A debtors' prison is a prison for people who are unable to pay debt.

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Demographic transition

Demographic transition (DT) is the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.

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Demographics of Afghanistan

The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.

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Demography of England

The demography of England has since 1801 been measured by the decennial national census, and is marked by centuries of population growth and urbanisation.

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Demography of Scotland

The demography of Scotland includes all aspects of population, past and present, in the area that is now Scotland.

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Demography of Wales

Demographics of Wales include the numbers in population, place of birth, age, ethnicity, religion, and number of marriages.

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Dentistry

Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.

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Dentures

Dentures (also known as false teeth) are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth; they are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.

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Domestic worker

A domestic worker, domestic helper, domestic servant, manservant or menial, is a person who works within the employer's household.

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E. Nesbit

Edith Nesbit (married name Edith Bland; 15 August 1858 – 4 May 1924) was an English author and poet; she published her books for children under the name of E. Nesbit.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Eastern Question

In diplomatic history, the "Eastern Question" refers to the strategic competition and political considerations of the European Great Powers in light of the political and economic instability in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th to early 20th centuries.

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Edward R. Pease

Edward Reynolds Pease (23 December 1857 – 5 January 1955) was an English writer and a founding member of the Fabian Society.

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Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, (29 March 1799 – 23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party.

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Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

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Edwardian era

The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War.

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Edwardian musical comedy

Edwardian musical comedy was a form of British musical theatre that extended beyond the reign of King Edward VII in both direction, beginning in the early 1890s, when the Gilbert and Sullivan operas' dominance had ended, until the rise of the American musicals by Jerome Kern, Rodgers and Hart, George Gershwin and Cole Porter following the First World War.

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Edwin Chadwick

Sir Edwin Chadwick KCB (24 January 1800 – 6 July 1890) was an English social reformer who is noted for his leadership in reforming the Poor Laws in England and instituting major reforms in urban sanitation and public health.

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Electoral system

An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.

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Elementary Education Act 1870

The Elementary Education Act 1870, commonly known as Forster's Education Act, set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales.

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Emigration

Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.

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Emily Brontë

Emily Jane Brontë (commonly; 30 July 1818 – 19 December 1848) was an English novelist and poet who is best known for her only novel, Wuthering Heights, now considered a classic of English literature.

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Emily Williamson

Emily Williamson, née Bateson (17 April 1855 – 12 January 1936) was an English philanthropist.

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England and Wales

England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.

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English Poor Laws

The English Poor Laws were a system of poor relief which existed in England and Wales that developed out of late-medieval and Tudor-era laws being codified in 1587–98.

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English society

English society is the group behaviour of the English, how they organise themselves and make collective decisions.

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Ether

Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Fabian Society

The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.

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Factory Acts

The Factory Acts were a series of UK labour law Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.

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Felony

The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.

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Fin de siècle

Fin de siècle is a French term meaning end of the century, a term which typically encompasses both the meaning of the similar English idiom turn of the century and also makes reference to the closing of one era and onset of another.

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First Anglo-Afghan War

The First Anglo-Afghan War (also known as Disaster in Afghanistan) was fought between British imperial India and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842.

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First Boer War

The First Boer War (Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally "First Freedom War"), also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion, was a war fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and the South African Republic (also known as Transvaal Republic; not to be confused with the modern-day Republic of South Africa).

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First Opium War

The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.

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Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.

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Frank Holl

Francis Montague Holl (London 4 July 1845 – 31 July 1888 London) was an English painter and royal portraitist.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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G. M. Trevelyan

George Macaulay Trevelyan, (16 February 1876 – 21 July 1962), was a British historian and academic.

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G. R. Searle

Geoffrey Russell Searle, born 1921, is a British historian, specialising in British nineteenth century history.

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Garden

A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature.

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Gas heater

A gas heater is a space heater used to heat a room or outdoor area by burning natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, propane or butane.

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Gas lighting

Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas.

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Gas mantle

An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame.

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Gasworks

A gasworks or gas house is an industrial plant for the production of flammable gas.

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George Eliot

Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.

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George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, (28 January 178414 December 1860), styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a British politician, diplomat and landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite, who served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support.

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George Hudson

George Hudson (probably 10 March 1800 – 14 December 1871) was an English railway financier and politician who, because he controlled a significant part of the railway network in the 1840s, became known as "The Railway King" – a title conferred on him by Sydney Smith in 1844.

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George Stephenson

George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer.

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Georgian era

The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.

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Ghost

In folklore, a ghost (sometimes known as an apparition, haunt, phantom, poltergeist, shade, specter or spectre, spirit, spook, and wraith) is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living.

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Gilbert and Sullivan

Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) and to the works they jointly created.

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Gilded Age

The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.

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Gothic fiction

Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance.

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Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

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Government of Ireland Bill 1886

The Government of Ireland Bill 1886, commonly known as the First Home Rule Bill, was the first major attempt made by a British government to enact a law creating home rule for part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Grand opera

Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events.

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Great Expectations

Great Expectations is the thirteenth novel by Charles Dickens and his penultimate completed novel: a bildungsroman that depicts the personal growth and personal development of an orphan nicknamed Pip.

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Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Guard rail

Guard rail, guardrails — or railings around properties and more generally outside of North America in some uses overlaps the industrial term "guide rail".

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Harm principle

The harm principle holds that the actions of individuals should only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals.

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Harold Perkin

Harold James Perkin (11 November 1926 – 16 October 2004) was an English social historian and founder of the Social History Society (1976).

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Havelock Ellis

Henry Havelock Ellis, known as Havelock Ellis (2 February 1859 – 8 July 1939), was an English physician, writer, progressive intellectual and social reformer who studied human sexuality.

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Henry Fox Talbot

William Henry Fox Talbot FRS (11 February 180017 September 1877) was a British scientist, inventor and photography pioneer who invented the salted paper and calotype processes, precursors to photographic processes of the later 19th and 20th centuries.

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Henry Irving

Sir Henry Irving (6 February 1838 – 13 October 1905), born John Henry Brodribb, sometimes known as J. H. Irving, was an English stage actor in the Victorian era, known as an actor-manager because he took complete responsibility (supervision of sets, lighting, direction, casting, as well as playing the leading roles) for season after season at the Lyceum Theatre, establishing himself and his company as representative of English classical theatre.

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Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston

Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.

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Henry Mayhew

Henry Mayhew (25 November 1812 – 25 July 1887) was an English social researcher, journalist, playwright and advocate of reform.

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Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.

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Hippopotamus

The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

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Historiography of the British Empire

The historiography of the British Empire refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to develop a history of Britain's empire.

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Historiography of the United Kingdom

The Historiography of the United Kingdom includes the historical and archival research and writing on the history of the United Kingdom, Great Britain, England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

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History of coal mining

The history of coal mining goes back thousands of years.

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History of Egypt under the British

The history of Egypt under the British lasts from 1882, when it was occupied by British forces during the Anglo-Egyptian War, until 1956, when the last British forces withdrew in accordance with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954 after the Suez Crisis.

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History of photography

The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of two critical principles, that of the camera obscura image projection and the fact that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light, as discovered by observation.

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History of the United Kingdom

The history of the United Kingdom as a unified state can be treated as beginning in 1707 with the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, into a united kingdom called Great Britain.

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History of water supply and sanitation

The history of water supply and sanitation is one of a logistical challenge to provide clean water and sanitation systems since the dawn of civilization.

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Hong Kong Island

Hong Kong Island is an island in the southern part of Hong Kong.

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Horror Victorianorum

Horror Victorianorum (terror of the Victorian), coined by the philosopher David Stove, is an extreme distaste or condemnation of Victorian culture, art and design.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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Hyde Park, London

Hyde Park is a Grade I-listed major park in Central London.

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Imperialism

Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.

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Impressionism

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

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Incandescence

Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.

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Indian Rebellion of 1857

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Industrialisation

Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

This article covers worldwide diplomacy and, more generally, the international relations of the major powers from 1814 to 1919, particularly the "Big Four".

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Irish Home Rule movement

The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Irish Poor Laws

The Irish Poor Laws were a series of Acts of Parliament intended to address social instability due to widespread and persistent poverty in Ireland.

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Irish population analysis

The population of the Island of Ireland in 2016 was approximately 4.75 million in the Republic of Ireland with another 1.85 million in Northern Ireland.

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Irish Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People (Ireland) Act, 1832, commonly called the Irish Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the election laws of Ireland.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Ivory

Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.

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Jack the Ripper

Jack the Ripper is the best-known name for an unidentified serial killer generally believed to have been active in the largely impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888.

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James Mill

James Mill (born James Milne, 6 April 1773 – 23 June 1836) was a Scottish historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher.

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James Young Simpson

Sir James Young Simpson, 1st Baronet (7 June 1811 – 6 May 1870) was a Scottish obstetrician and a significant figure in the history of medicine.

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Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

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John Everett Millais

Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

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John Marriott (British politician)

Sir John Arthur Ransome Marriott (17 August 1859 – 6 June 1945) was a British educationist, historian, and Conservative Member of Parliament.

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John Ruskin

John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.

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John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era.

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John Snow

John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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John Thadeus Delane

John Thadeus Delane (11 October 1817 – 22 November 1879), editor of The Times (London), was born in London.

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Joseph Bazalgette

Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, CB (28 March 181915 March 1891) was a 19th-century English civil engineer.

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Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

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Kate Summerscale

Kate Summerscale (born 1965) is an English writer and journalist.

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Kellow Chesney

Kellow Chesney (3 March 1914 – July 2004) was a journalist, publisher's reader, editor and writer.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Law enforcement in the United Kingdom

Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in each of the legal systems of the United Kingdom: England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.

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Lewis Carroll

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.

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Liberalism

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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List of British monarchs

There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.

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List of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland by death toll

The following list of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland is a list of major disasters (excluding acts of war but including acts of terrorism) which relate to the United Kingdom since 1801, or the states that preceded it (England and Wales and Scotland before 1707, Ireland and Great Britain from 1707 to 1800), or involved their citizens, in a definable incident or accident such as a shipwreck, where the loss of life was forty or more.

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List of largest empires

This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.

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Literary genre

A literary genre is a category of literary composition.

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Llewellyn Woodward

Sir (Ernest) Llewellyn Woodward (1890–1971) was a British historian.

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Local board of health

Local boards or local boards of health were local authorities in urban areas of England and Wales from 1848 to 1894.

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London sewerage system

The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London, England.

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London Underground

The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.

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Louis Daguerre

Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (18 November 1787 – 10 July 1851), better known as Louis Daguerre, was a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography.

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Low comedy

Low comedy, in association to comedy, is a dramatic or literary form of entertainment with no primary purpose but to create laughter by boasting, boisterous jokes, drunkenness, scolding, fighting, buffoonery and other riotous activity.

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Mahdi

The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.

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Malacology

Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.

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Malthusian trap

The Malthusian trap or population trap is a condition whereby excess population would stop growing due to shortage of food supply leading to starvation.

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Marriage Act 1836

The Act for Marriages in England 1836, 6 & 7 Wm IV, c. 85 (17 August 1836) was an Act that legalised civil marriage in England and Wales from 1 January 1837.

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Matthew Arnold

Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.

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Medieval architecture

Medieval architecture is architecture common in the Middle Ages.

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Mediumship

Mediumship is the practice of certain people—known as mediums—to purportedly mediate communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings.

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Michael Sadleir

Michael Sadleir (25 December 1888 – 13 December 1957) was a British publisher, novelist, book collector and bibliographer.

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Michael William Balfe

Michael William Balfe (15 May 1808 – 20 October 1870) was an Irish composer, best-remembered for his opera The Bohemian Girl.

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Middle class

The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.

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Mines and Collieries Act 1842

Mines and Collieries Act 1842 (c. 99), commonly known as the Mines Act 1842, was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Modern architecture

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.

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Morecambe

Morecambe is a town on Morecambe Bay in Lancashire, England, which had a population of 34,768 at the 2011 Census.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Mysticism

Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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Natural history

Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Naturalization

Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.

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Neo-Victorian

Neo-Victorianism is an aesthetic movement which amalgamates Victorian and Edwardian aesthetic sensibilities with modern principles and technologies.

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Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.

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Nonconformist

In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.

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Nonconformist conscience

The Nonconformist conscience was the moralistic influence of the Nonconformist churches in British politics in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Novel

A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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On Liberty

On Liberty is a philosophical work by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, originally intended as a short essay.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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Ornithology

Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.

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Orsini affair

The Orsini affair comprised the diplomatic, political and legal consequences of the "Orsini attempt" (attentat d'Orsini): the attempt made on 14 January 1858 by Felice Orsini, with other Italian nationalists and backed by English radicals, to assassinate Napoleon III in Paris.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Owen Chadwick

William Owen Chadwick (20 May 1916 – 17 July 2015) was a British Anglican priest, academic, writer and prominent historian of Christianity.

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Pablo Fanque

Pablo Fanque (born William Darby 30 March 1810 in Norwich,Gretchen Holrook Gerzina, Editor, "Black Victorians-Black Victoriana" (Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, NJ, 2003) England; died 4 May 1871 in Stockport, England) was an English equestrian performer and circus proprietor, the first recorded non-white British circus owner in Britain.

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Palace of Westminster

The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Pax Britannica

Pax Britannica (Latin for "British Peace", modelled after Pax Romana) was the period of relative peace between the Great Powers during which the British Empire became the global hegemonic power and adopted the role of a global police force.

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Penny Black

The Penny Black was the world's first adhesive postage stamp used in a public postal system.

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Phenol

Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Plenipotentiary

The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin plenus "full" and potens "powerful") has two meanings.

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Plumbing

Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.

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Poorhouse

A poorhouse or workhouse is a government-run (usually by a county or municipality) facility to support and provide housing for the dependent or needy.

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Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.

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Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.

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Pretoria Convention

The Pretoria Convention was the peace treaty that ended the First Boer War (16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881) between the Transvaal Boers and the United Kingdom. The treaty was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881, but was subject to ratification by the Volksraad within 3 months from the date of signature. The Volksraad first raised objections to a number of the clauses of the treaty, but did eventually ratify the version signed in Pretoria, after Britain refused any further concessions or changes to the treaty. British preparation work for the Pretoria Convention of 1881 was done at Newcastle. Under this agreement, the South African Republic regained self-government under nominal British suzerainty. This Convention was superseded in 1884 by the London Convention.

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Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany

Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, (Leopold George Duncan Albert; 7 April 185328 March 1884) was the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

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Principality of Montenegro

The Principality of Montenegro (Књажевина Црнa Горa/Knjaževina Crna Gora) was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910.

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Principality of Serbia

The Principality of Serbia (Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817.

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Prose

Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.

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Protectorate

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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Pub

A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer (such as ale) and cider.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Quakers

Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Rationalism

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Reactions to On the Origin of Species

The immediate reactions to On the Origin of Species, the book in which Charles Darwin described evolution by natural selection, included international debate, though the heat of controversy was less than that over earlier works such as Vestiges of Creation.

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Reform Act

In the United Kingdom, Reform Act is a generic term used for legislation concerning electoral matters.

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Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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Reform Act 1867

The Representation of the People Act 1867, 30 & 31 Vict.

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Reform movement

A reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to bring a social or political system closer to the community's ideal.

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Regency era

The Regency in Great Britain was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent.

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Restoration of the Scottish Catholic hierarchy

The restoration of the Scottish Catholic hierarchy refers to the re-establishment of the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in Scotland on 15 March 1878.

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Richard Altick

Richard Daniel Altick (September 19, 1915 – February 7, 2008) was an American literary scholar, known for his pioneering contributions to Victorian Studies, as well as for championing both the joys and the rigorous methods of literary research.

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Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury

Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 183022 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.

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Robert Louis Stevenson

Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.

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Robert Peel

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Royal Commission

A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.

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Royal Highness

Royal Highness (abbreviated HRH for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness) is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses.

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Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Sabbath

Sabbath is a day set aside for rest and worship.

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Saltaire

Saltaire is a Victorian model village located in Shipley, part of the City of Bradford Metropolitan District, in West Yorkshire, England.

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Sanitary sewer

A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.

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Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Savage Club

The Savage Club, founded in 1857, is a gentlemen's club in London.

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Scarborough, North Yorkshire

Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England.

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Scottish Poor Laws

The Scottish Poor Laws were the statutes concerning poor relief passed in Scotland between 1579 and 1929.

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Scottish Reform Act 1832

The Scottish Reform Act 1832 was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the election laws of Scotland.

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Second Boer War

The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.

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Second French Empire

The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

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Second Opium War

The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.

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Separate spheres

Terms such as separate spheres and domestic–public dichotomy refer to a social phenomenon, within modern societies that feature, to some degree, an empirical separation between a domestic or private sphere and a public or social sphere.

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Sepoy

A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.

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Serial killer

A serial killer is typically a person who murders three or more people,A serial killer is most commonly defined as a person who kills three or more people for psychological gratification; reliable sources over the years agree.

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Shoe polish

Shoe polish (or boot polish) is a waxy paste, cream, or liquid used to polish, shine, and waterproof leather shoes or boots to extend the footwear's life, and restore, maintain and improve their appearance.

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Slum

A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.

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Social novel

The social novel, also known as the social problem (or social protest) novel, is a "work of fiction in which a prevailing social problem, such as gender, race, or class prejudice, is dramatized through its effect on the characters of a novel".

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Social realism

Social realism is the term used for work produced by painters, printmakers, photographers, writers and filmmakers that aims to draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working class and to voice the authors' critique of the social structures behind these conditions.

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South African Republic

The South African Republic (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902.

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SS Great Britain

SS Great Britain is a museum ship and former passenger steamship, which was advanced for her time.

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SS Great Western

SS Great Western of 1838, was an oak-hulled paddle-wheel steamship, the first steamship purpose-built for crossing the Atlantic, and the initial unit of the Great Western Steamship Company.

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Standard-gauge railway

A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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Stockton and Darlington Railway

The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR) was a railway company that operated in north-east England from 1825 to 1863.

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Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a gothic novella by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson first published in 1886.

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Street light

A street light, light pole, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or path.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Suffrage

Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).

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Sunday school

A Sunday School is an educational institution, usually (but not always) Christian, which catered to children and other young people who would be working on weekdays.

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Telegraphy

Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Test Act

The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.

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Textile industry

The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing.

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Thames Embankment

The Thames Embankment is a work of 19th-century civil engineering that reclaimed marshy land next to the River Thames in central London.

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The Angel in the House

The Angel in the House is a narrative poem by Coventry Patmore, first published in 1854 and expanded until 1862.

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The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.

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The Beatles

The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.

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The Championships, Wimbledon

The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely regarded as the most prestigious.

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The Crystal Palace

The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The French Revolution: A History

The French Revolution: A History was written by the Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian Thomas Carlyle.

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The Great Exhibition

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851.

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The Great Game

"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Illustrated London News

The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the world's first illustrated weekly news magazine.

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The Oracle of Reason

The Oracle of Reason, or Philosophy Vindicated was the first avowedly atheistic periodical to be published in Britain.

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The Picture of Dorian Gray

The Picture of Dorian Gray is a philosophical novel by Oscar Wilde, first published complete in the July 1890 issue of Lippincott's Monthly Magazine.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Thirty-nine Articles

The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation.

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Thomas Arnold

Thomas Arnold (13 June 1795 – 12 June 1842) was an English educator and historian.

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Thomas Barnes (journalist)

Thomas Barnes (11 September 1785 – 7 May 1841) was an English journalist, essayist, and editor.

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Thomas Brassey

Thomas Brassey (7 November 1805 – 8 December 1870) was an English civil engineering contractor and manufacturer of building materials who was responsible for building much of the world's railways in the 19th century.

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Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.

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Thomas Cook

Thomas Cook (22 November 1808 – 18 July 1892) was an English businessman.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Tooth decay

Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.

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Tories (British political party)

The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Trade route

A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.

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Tram

A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.

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Treaty of Balta Liman

The 1838 Treaty of Balta Limani, or the Anglo-Ottoman Treaty, is a formal trade agreement signed between the Sublime Porte of the Ottoman Empire and The United Kingdom.

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Treaty of Berlin (1878)

The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.

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Treaty of Nanking

The Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August 1842.

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Treaty of Paris (1856)

The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.

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Treaty of Waitangi

The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (Rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.

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Unitarianism

Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United Principalities

The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was the official name of the personal union which later became Romania, adopted in 1859 when Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the Domnitor (Ruling Prince) of both territories, which were still vassals of the Ottoman Empire.

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Universalis Ecclesiae

Universalis Ecclesiae is the incipit of the papal bull of 29 September 1850 by which Pope Pius IX recreated the Roman Catholic diocesan hierarchy in England, which had been extinguished with the death of the last Marian bishop in the reign of Elizabeth I. New names were given to the dioceses, as the old ones were in use by the Church of England.

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Universities Tests Act 1871

The Universities Tests Act 1871 in the United Kingdom abolished the communion "Tests" and allowed Roman Catholics, non-conformists and non-Christians to take up fellowships at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, London and Durham.

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University of Birmingham

The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

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University of Leeds

The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.

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University of Liverpool

The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England.

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University of London

The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.

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Urban park

An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (UK), is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality.

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Victoria University of Manchester

The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College.

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Victorian America

Victorian America is the second album by Emily Jane White released on October 9, 2009, in France by Talitres Records and on April, 27, 2010, in the U.S. by Milan Records.

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Victorian burlesque

Victorian burlesque, sometimes known as travesty or extravaganza, is a genre of theatrical entertainment that was popular in Victorian England and in the New York theatre of the mid 19th century.

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Victorian cemetery

The origins of the Victorian cemetery were based on Victorian ideas of regulation and structure, much like other parts of Victorian society such as workhouses, asylums and prisons.

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Victorian decorative arts

Victorian decorative arts refers to the style of decorative arts during the Victorian era.

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Victorian fashion

Victorian fashion comprises the various fashions and trends in British culture that emerged and developed in the United Kingdom and the British Empire throughout the Victorian era, roughly from the 1830s through the first decade of the 1900s.

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Victorian gold rush

The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia approximately between 1851 and the late 1860s.

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Victorian literature

Victorian literature is literature, mainly written in English, during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901) (the Victorian era).

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Victorian morality

Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living during the time of Queen Victoria's reign (1837–1901), the Victorian era, and of the moral climate of Great Britain in the mid-19th century in general.

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Victoriana

Victoriana are items or material from the Victorian period (1837-1901), especially those particularly evocative of the design style and outlook of the time.

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Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.

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Walrus

The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Walter Houghton

Walter Edwards Houghton (September 21, 1904 in Stamford, Connecticut - April 11, 1983) was an American historian of Victorian literature, best known for editing the Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals.

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Walter Sickert

Walter Richard Sickert (31 May 186022 January 1942) was an English painter and printmaker who was a member of the Camden Town Group in London.

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War correspondent

A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone.

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Water supply

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.

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Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.

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William Acton (doctor)

William Acton (1813–1875) was a British medical doctor and book writer.

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William Batty

William Batty (1801–1868) was an equestrian performer, circus proprietor, and longtime operator of Astley's Amphitheatre in London.

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William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.

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William Howard Russell

Sir William Howard Russell, CVO (28 March 1820, Tallaght, County Dublin, Ireland – 11 February 1907, London, England) was an Irish reporter with The Times, and is considered to have been one of the first modern war correspondents.

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William IV of the United Kingdom

William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.

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William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne

William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 1779 – 24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841).

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William Makepeace Thackeray

William Makepeace Thackeray (18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was a British novelist and author.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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William Stewart Ross

William Stewart Ross (20 March 1844 – 30 November 1906) was a Scottish writer and publisher.

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William T. G. Morton

William Thomas Green Morton (August 9, 1819 – July 15, 1868) was an American dentist who first publicly demonstrated the use of inhaled ether as a surgical anesthetic in 1846.

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Women in the Victorian era

The status of women in the Victorian era was often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between the United Kingdom's national power and wealth and what many, then and now, consider its appalling social conditions.

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Workhouse

In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.

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World's fair

A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations.

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Worthing

Worthing is a large seaside town in England, with borough status in West Sussex.

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1842 retreat from Kabul

The 1842 retreat from Kabul (or Massacre of Elphinstone's army) took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War.

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Redirects here:

Britain under Queen Victoria, Britain under Victoria, Great Britain under Queen Victoria, Great Britain under Victoria, Reign of Queen Victoria, Reign of Victoria, The Victorian Era, UK under Queen Victoria, UK under Victoria, United Kingdom under Queen Victoria, United Kingdom under Victoria, Victoria era, Victoria's Britain, Victoria's England, Victorian (era), Victorian Age, Victorian Britain, Victorian England, Victorian Era, Victorian Period, Victorian age, Victorian culture, Victorian era (Great Britain), Victorian history, Victorian period, Victorian periode, Victorian times, Victorian-era, Victorians.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_era

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