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Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Advertising using games is a long-standing practice in the video game industry.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.
An amusement arcade (often referred to as "video arcade" or simply "arcade") is a venue where people play arcade games such as video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games, merchandisers (such as claw cranes), or coin-operated billiards or air hockey tables.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
An app store (or app marketplace) is a type of digital distribution platform for computer software, often in a mobile context.
A video game arcade cabinet, also known as a video arcade machine or video coin-op, is the housing within which a video arcade game's hardware resides.
An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag is an action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft.
Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive, a subsidiary of the French publisher Atari, SA.
The Atari 2600 (or Atari Video Computer System before November 1982) is a home video game console from Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and games contained on ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.
Atari, Inc. was an American video game developer and home computer company founded in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney.
Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bethesda Softworks LLC is an American video game publisher based in Rockville, Maryland.
Bleem! (styled as bleem!) was a commercial PlayStation emulator released by the Bleem Company in 1999 for IBM-compatible PCs and Dreamcast. It is notable for being one of the few commercial software emulators to be aggressively marketed during the emulated console's lifetime, and was the center of multiple controversial lawsuits.
Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. is an American video game developer and publisher based in Irvine, California, and is a subsidiary of the American company Activision Blizzard.
BlizzCon is an annual gaming convention held by Blizzard Entertainment to promote its major franchises Warcraft, StarCraft, Diablo, Hearthstone, Heroes of the Storm and Overwatch.
A blockchain, originally block chain, is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.
Brasil Game Show (known by the initials BGS and originally titled Rio Game Show (RGS)) is a yearly Brazilian video game convention organized by business executive Marcelo Tavares, that is currently held in São Paulo and is the largest gaming convention in Latin America.
The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), previously the British Board of Film Censors, is a non-governmental organization, founded by the film industry in 1912 and responsible for the national classification and censorship of films exhibited at cinemas and video works (such as television programmes, trailers, adverts, public Information/campaigning films, menus, bonus content etc.) released on physical media within the United Kingdom.
A browser game is a computer game that is played over the Internet using a web browser.
Bungie, Inc. is an American video game developer located in Bellevue, Washington, United States.
Call of Duty is a first-person shooter video game franchise.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
A cheat cartridge is a device that connects to any sort of cartridge-based video game system.
Cheating in video games involves a video game player using non-standard methods to create an advantage or disadvantage beyond normal gameplay, in order to make the game easier or harder.
ChinaJoy or China Digital Entertainment Expo & Conference is a digital entertainment expo held annually in Shanghai, China.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.
Cognitive functioning is a term referring to an individual’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.
A composite monitor is any analog video display that receives input in the form of an analog composite video signal to a defined specification.
The (CERO) is a Japanese entertainment rating organization based in Tokyo that rates video game content in console games with levels of rating that informs the customer of the nature of the product and for what age group it is suitable.
Computer Entertainment Supplier's Association (CESA) is a Japanese organization that was established in 1996 to "promote the computer entertainment industry with the aim of contributing to the strengthening of Japanese industry as well as to the further enrichment of people's lifestyles." It organizes the annual Tokyo Game Show and Japan Game Awards.
Computer Gaming World (CGW) was an American computer game magazine published between 1981 and 2006.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
Computer Space is a space combat arcade game developed in 1971 as one of the last games created in the early history of video games.
The Computerspielemuseum Berlin (Computer Games Museum Berlin) was founded in 1997.
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.
A console game is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment.
A content rating (also known as maturity rating) rates the suitability of TV broadcasts, movies, comic books, or video games to its audience.
Counter-Strike (also known as Half-Life: Counter-Strike) is a first-person shooter video game developed by Valve Corporation.
In computing, cross-platform software (also multi-platform software or platform-independent software) is computer software that is implemented on multiple computing platforms.
Cross-sectional data, or a cross section of a study population, in statistics and econometrics is a type of data collected by observing many subjects (such as individuals, firms, countries, or regions) at the same point of time, or without regard to differences in time.
CryptoKitties is a blockchain based virtual game developed by Axiom Zen that allows players to purchase, collect, breed and sell various types of virtual cats.
Crytek GmbH is a German video game and software developer, based in Frankfurt, Germany.
A currency detector or currency validator is a device that determines whether notes or coins are genuine or counterfeit.
A dance pad, also known as a dance mat or dance platform, is a flat electronic game controller used for input in dance games.
Darfur is Dying is a flash-based browser game about the crisis in Darfur, western Sudan.
Dating sims, or, are a video game subgenre of simulation games, usually Japanese, with romantic elements.
Dead Space is a horror media franchise created by Glen Schofield, developed by Visceral Games and published by Electronic Arts.
Degree of difficulty (DD, sometimes called tariff or grade) is a concept used in several sports and other competitions to indicate the technical difficulty of a skill, performance, or course, often as a factor in scoring.
Destiny is an online-only multiplayer first-person shooter video game developed by Bungie and published by Activision.
Destiny: Rise of Iron is a major expansion for Bungie's first-person shooter, Destiny.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
A digital asset, in essence, is anything that exists in a binary format and comes with the right to use.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of media content such as audio, video, software and video games.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).
Distraction is the process of diverting the attention of an individual or group from a desired area of focus and thereby blocking or diminishing the reception of desired information.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
Downloadable content (DLC) is additional content created for a released video game.
In computer software and media, an Easter egg is an intentional inside joke, hidden message or image, or secret feature of a work.
EB Games Expo, commonly known as EB Expo or EBX, is a video game trade fair / convention held annually in Australia.
Edge is a multi-format video game magazine published by Future plc in the United Kingdom, which publishes 13 issues of the magazine per year.
Educational games are games explicitly designed with educational purposes, or which have incidental or secondary educational value.
Edward "Ted" Castronova is a Professor of Telecommunications and Game Design at Indiana University Bloomington.
An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.
The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.
The Electronic Entertainment Expo, commonly referred to as E3, is a premier trade event for the video game industry.
An electronic game is a game that employs electronics to create an interactive system with which a player can play.
Electronic Games was the first dedicated video game magazine published in the United States and ran from October 15, 1981 to 1997 under different titles.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
The Entertainment Software Association (ESA) is the trade association of the video game industry in the United States.
The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is an American self-regulatory organization that assigns age and content ratings to consumer video games.
Epic Games, Inc. (formerly Potomac Computer Systems and later Epic MegaGames, Inc.) is an American video game and software development corporation based in Cary, North Carolina.
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson, in collaboration with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages, in which a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood.
An is a Japanese pornographic video game.
Espen J. Aarseth (*1965 in Bergen, Norway) is a figure in the fields of video game studies and electronic literature.
eSports (also known as electronic sports, esports, e-sports, competitive (video) gaming, professional (video) gaming, or pro gaming) are a form of competition using video games.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eve Online (stylised EVE Online) is a space-based, persistent world massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed and published by CCP Games.
Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Today's Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter is a non-fiction book written by Steven Johnson.
Fitness game, exergaming or exer-gaming (a portmanteau of "exercise" and "gaming"), or gamercising is a term used for video games that are also a form of exercise.
Existenz (stylized as eXistenZ) is a 1999 science fiction body horror film produced, written and directed by the Canadian filmmaker David Cronenberg.
Eye–hand coordination (also known as hand–eye coordination) is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement, and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes.
Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder.
Fallout 3 is a post-apocalyptic action role-playing open world video game developed by Bethesda Game Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks.
There are five pieces of downloadable content (DLC) for the Bethesda action role-playing video game Fallout 3.
In video gaming, a fan translation is an unofficial translation of a computer game or video game made by fans.
The Federal Review Board for Media Harmful to Minors (Bundesprüfstelle für jugendgefährdende Medien or BPjM) is an upper-level German federal agency subordinate to the Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth.
The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition and fair that reached millions of visitors throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951.
A fighting game is a video game genre based around interpersonal combat between a limited amount of characters, in which they fight until they defeat their opponents or the timer expires.
Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of cinema studies that questions the essentialism of cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes.
First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist.
Free-to-play (F2P or FtP) video games are games that give players access to a significant portion of their content without paying.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Future plc is a British media company founded in 1985.
Gamasutra is a website founded in 1997 that focuses on all aspects of video game development.
A game controller is a device used with games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game.
Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes.
The Game Developers Conference (GDC) is the largest annual gathering of professional video game developers, focusing on learning, inspiration, and networking.
Game studies, or ludology, is the study of games, the act of playing them, and the players and cultures surrounding them.
GameHouse is a casual game developer, publisher, digital video game distributor, and portal, based in Seattle, Washington, United States.
A gamepad, joypad, or simply controller is a type of game controller held in two hands, where the fingers (especially thumbs) are used to provide input.
A gamer is a person who plays interactive games, either video games, skill-based card games and plays for usually long periods of time.
Gamescom (stylized as gamescom) is a trade fair for video games held annually at the Koelnmesse in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
GameSpot is a video gaming website that provides news, reviews, previews, downloads, and other information on video games.
A gaming convention is a gathering centered on role-playing games, collectible card games, miniatures wargames, board games, video games, or other types of games.
Gaming disorder is a pattern of persistent or recurrent gaming, to the point of not being able to control one's urge to play video games.
Gangsta rap or Gangster rap is a style of hip hop characterized by themes and lyrics that generally emphasize the "gangsta" lifestyle.
Gaymer and gay gamer are umbrella terms used to refer to the group of people who identify themselves as gay and have an active interest in video games or tabletop games, also known as gamers.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
The golden age of arcade video games was the era when arcade video games entered pop culture and became a dominant cultural force.
Grand Theft Auto IV is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games.
Grand Theft Auto IV: The Lost and Damned is the first of two episodic expansion packs developed for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Windows versions of Grand Theft Auto IV, developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games.
Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony is the second of the two episodic expansion packs available for the PlayStation 3, Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 versions of Grand Theft Auto IV, developed by Rockstar North.
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography, photography and illustration.
A graphing calculator (also graphics / graphic display calculator) is a handheld computer that is capable of plotting graphs, solving simultaneous equations, and performing other tasks with variables.
The Guitar Hero series (sometimes referred to as the Hero series) is a series of music rhythm games first published in 2005 by RedOctane and Harmonix, and distributed by Activision, in which players use a guitar-shaped game controller to simulate playing lead, bass guitar, and rhythm guitar across numerous rock music songs.
Half-Life (stylized as HλLF-LIFE) is a science fiction first-person shooter video game developed by Valve and published by Sierra Studios for Microsoft Windows in 1998.
A handheld game console is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, and speakers.
Haptic or kinesthetic communication recreates the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user.
The harm principle holds that the actions of individuals should only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals.
A head-mounted display (or helmet-mounted display, for aviation applications), both abbreviated HMD, is a display device, worn on the head or as part of a helmet, that has a small display optic in front of one (monocular HMD) or each eye (binocular HMD).
In video gaming, the HUD (head-up display) or status bar is the method by which information is visually relayed to the player as part of a game's user interface.
Headphones (or head-phones in the early days of telephony and radio) are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
The holodeck is a fictional plot device from the television series Star Trek.
Hotseat or hot seat is a multiplayer mode provided by some turn-based video games, which allows two or more players to play on the same device by taking turns playing the game.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
id Software LLC (see Company name) is an American video game developer headquartered in Dallas, Texas.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
Imagine Cup is an annual competition sponsored and hosted by Microsoft Corp. which brings together student developers worldwide to help resolve some of the world's toughest challenges.
Imagine Publishing was a UK-based magazine publisher, which published a number of video games, computing, creative and lifestyle magazines.
In computing, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Interactive fiction, often abbreviated IF, is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment.
The International Center for the History of Electronic Games (ICHEG) collects, studies, and interprets video games, other electronic games, and related materials and the ways in which electronic games are changing how people play, learn, and connect with each other, including across boundaries of culture and geography.
International Game Developers Association (IGDA) is the professional association for over 12,000 video and computer game developers worldwide.
The International Journal of Communication is an open access peer-reviewed academic journal covering studies on communication.
Internet culture, or cyberculture, is the culture that has emerged, or is emerging, from the use of computer networks for communication, entertainment, and business.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
Janet Murray is a professor in the School of Literature, Media, and Communication at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.
Joystiq was a video gaming blog founded in June 2004 as part of the Weblogs, Inc. family of weblogs, now owned by AOL.
Just Cause 2 is a 2010 open world action-adventure video game developed by Avalanche Studios, published by Eidos Interactive and distributed by Square Enix for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.
In marketing terminology, a killer application (commonly shortened to killer app) is any computer program that is so necessary or desirable that it proves the core value of some larger technology, such as computer hardware, a gaming console, software, a programming language, a software platform, or an operating system.
Kinect (codenamed Project Natal during development) is a line of motion sensing input devices that was produced by Microsoft for Xbox 360 and Xbox One video game consoles and Microsoft Windows PCs.
Kotaku is a video game website and blog that was originally launched in 2004 as part of the Gawker Media network.
Lara Croft is a fictional character and the main protagonist of the video game franchise Tomb Raider.
A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games, typically shaped to resemble a pistol.
Each company who has released a console has also released a controller for that particular console.
A number of video games were selected by the Museum of Modern Art, located in New York City, as part of its permanent collection.
This is a list of all video game lists on Wikipedia, sorted by varying classifications.
LittleBigPlanet (LBP) is a puzzle platform video game series created by Media Molecule and published by Sony Computer Entertainment on multiple PlayStation platforms.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Magnavox Odyssey is the first commercial home video game console.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Major League Gaming Corp. (MLG) is a professional eSports organization.
Manhunt 2 is a psychological horror stealth video game published by Rockstar Games.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
A massively multiplayer online game (MMOG, or more commonly, MMO) is an online game with large numbers of players, typically from hundreds to thousands, on the same server.
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a combination of role-playing video games and massively multiplayer online games in which a very large number of players interact with one another within a virtual world.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental rotation is the ability to rotate mental representations of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects as it is related to the visual representation of such rotation within the human mind.
Metro: Last Light is a post-apocalyptic-themed, first-person shooter video game with stealth and survival horror elements.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Flight Simulator (often abbreviated as MSFS or FS) is a series of flight simulator programs, marketed as video games, for the Microsoft Windows, and earlier the MS-DOS, operating systems.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Microtransaction (sometimes abbreviated as MTX) is a business model where users can purchase virtual goods via micropayments.
Minecraft is a sandbox video game created by Swedish game designer Markus Persson, better known as Notch, who later went on to found Mojang, which has since been the developer and publisher of Minecraft.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
A mobile game is a video game played on a feature phone, smartphone/tablet, smartwatch, PDA, portable media player or graphing calculator.
A mod (short for "modification") is an alteration that changes some aspects or one aspect of a video game, such as how it looks or behaves.
Monopoly is a board game where players roll two six-sided dice to move around the game board, buying and trading properties, and develop them with houses and hotels.
A motion controller is a type of game controller that uses accelerometers or other sensors to track motion and provide input.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
A MUD (originally Multi-User Dungeon, with later variants Multi-User Dimension and Multi-User Domain) is a multiplayer real-time virtual world, usually text-based.
Multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA), also known as action real-time strategy (ARTS), is a subgenre of strategy video games that originated as a subgenre of real-time strategy, in which a player controls a single character in a team who compete versus another team of players.
A multiplayer video game is a video game in which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time, either locally or over the internet.
A multitap is a video game console peripheral that increases the number of controller ports available to the player, allowing additional controllers to be used in play, similar to a USB hub or a power strip.
The Museum of Art and Digital Entertainment (stylized as The MADE) is a museum dedicated to digital art and gaming with fully playable gaming exhibits.
The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.
The Museum of Soviet Arcade Machines (Музей советских игровых автоматов) is a private historical interactive museum that keeps a collection of arcade machines that were produced in the USSR since the mid-1970s.
Mushroom Wars is a real-time strategy video game developed by Creat Studios, originally available for the PlayStation 3 on the PlayStation Network (PSN).
Narratology is the study of narrative and narrative structure and the ways that these affect our perception.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Videogame Museum is a museum about the history of video games and the video game industry, located in Frisco, Texas.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
Newgrounds.com Inc. is an American online entertainment and social media website and company, operated under Newgrounds Inc.
Newsgames, also known as news games, are a genre of games that attempt to apply journalistic principles to their creation.
Nim is a mathematical game of strategy in which two players take turns removing objects from distinct heaps.
The Nimrod, built in the United Kingdom by Ferranti for the 1951 Festival of Britain, was an early computer custom-built to play a computer game, one of the first games developed in the early history of video games.
Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto.
The Nintendo 3DS is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo.
The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo.
The Nintendo Switch is the seventh major video game console developed by Nintendo.
Nolan Kay Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical engineer and businessman.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nvision, stylized as NVISION, is a stand-alone event organized by NVIDIA to promote visual computing among enthusiasts and journalists.
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.
Ohio University is a large, primarily residential public research university in Athens, Ohio, United States.
An online game is a video game that is either partially or primarily played through the Internet or any other computer network available.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to video games: Video game – an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device.
OXO or Noughts and Crosses is a video game developed by A S Douglas in 1952 which simulates a game of noughts and crosses.
PackBot is a series of military robots by iRobot, an international robotics company founded in 1990.
Pan European Game Information (PEGI "Peggy") is a European video game content rating system established to help European consumers make informed decisions when buying video games or apps through the use of age recommendations and content descriptors.
Paris Games Week, or simply PGW, is a trade fair for video games held annually at the Paris expo Porte de Versailles in Paris, France.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
PC games, also known as computer games or personal computer games, are video games played on a personal computer rather than a dedicated video game console or arcade machine.
PC World, stylized PCWorld, is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG.
The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) is the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1959.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs only on the side gaze.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines.
The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment.
The PlayStation Eye (trademarked PLAYSTATION Eye) is a digital camera device, similar to a webcam, for the PlayStation 3.
PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment.
Pokémon Go is an augmented reality (AR) game developed by Niantic for iOS and Android devices, initially released in select countries in July 2016.
Pong is one of the earliest arcade video games.
PopCap Games, Inc. is an American video game developer and publisher, based in Seattle, Washington, United States, and is a subsidiary of Electronic Arts.
The Psychological Bulletin is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes evaluative and integrative research reviews and interpretations of issues in psychology, including both qualitative (narrative) and/or quantitative (meta-analytic) aspects.
Puzzle video games make up a unique genre of video games that emphasize puzzle solving.
QuakeCon is a yearly convention held by ZeniMax Media to celebrate and promote the major franchises of id Software and other studios owned by ZeniMax.
A racing wheel is a method of control for use in racing video games, racing simulators, and driving simulators.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Ralph Henry Baer (born Rudolf Heinrich Baer; March 8, 1922 – December 6, 2014) was a German-born American inventor, game developer, and engineer.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
A raster scan, or raster scanning, is the rectangular pattern of image capture and reconstruction in television.
Real-time strategy (RTS) is a subgenre of strategy video games where the game does not progress incrementally in turns.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Retro Gamer is a British magazine, published worldwide, covering retro video games.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
Rock Band is a series of music video games developed by Harmonix and MTV Games, and distributed by Electronic Arts for the Nintendo DS, iOS, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PSP, Wii, Xbox One and Xbox 360 game systems.
Rockstar Games, Inc. is an American video game publisher based in New York City.
ROM hacking is the process of modifying a ROM image of a video game to alter the game's graphics, dialogue, levels, gameplay, and/or other elements.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Russian Game Developer's Conference (Конференция Разработчиков Игр), or KRI (KRI), is an annual event for industry professionals devoted to game development, publishing and distribution in Russia and surrounding territories.
Alexander Shafto "Sandy" Douglas CBE (21 May 1921 – 29 April 2010) was a British professor of computer science, credited with creating the first graphical computer game OXO (also known as Noughts and Crosses) a tic-tac-toe computer game in 1952 on the EDSAC computer at University of Cambridge.
Science fiction film (or sci-fi film) is a genre that uses speculative, fictional science-based depictions of phenomena that are not fully accepted by mainstream science, such as extraterrestrial lifeforms, alien worlds, extrasensory perception and time travel, along with futuristic elements such as spacecraft, robots, cyborgs, interstellar travel or other technologies.
The second generation of computer and video games began in 1976 with the release of the Fairchild Channel F. It coincided with and was partly fuelled by the golden age of arcade video games, a peak era of popularity and innovation for the medium.
Second Life is an online virtual world, developed and owned by the San Francisco-based firm Linden Lab and launched on June 23, 2003.
Self-determination theory (SDT) is a macro theory of human motivation and personality that concerns people's inherent growth tendencies and innate psychological needs.
The setting is both the time and geographic location within a narrative or within a work of fiction.
Sexual ethics or sex ethics (also called sexual morality) is the study of human sexuality and the expression of human sexual behavior.
Shooter games are a subgenre of action game, which often test the player's speed and reaction time.
SingStar is a competitive music video game series for PlayStation consoles, developed by London Studio and published by Sony Computer Entertainment.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
The Smithsonian American Art Museum (commonly known as SAAM, and formerly the National Museum of American Art) is a museum in Washington, D.C., part of the Smithsonian Institution.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
A social-network game is a type of online game that is played through social networks.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
Sound design is the art and practice of creating sound tracks for a variety of needs.
A sound effect (or audio effect) is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media.
Soylent Green is a 1973 American post-apocalyptic science fiction thriller film directed by Richard Fleischer and starring Charlton Heston and Leigh Taylor-Young.
is an arcade game created by Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spacewar! is a space combat video game developed in 1962 by Steve Russell, in collaboration with Martin Graetz and Wayne Wiitanen, and programmed by Russell with assistance from others including Bob Saunders and Steve Piner.
Specific developmental disorders (SDD) are disorders in which development is delayed in one specific area or areas,Ahuja Vyas: Textbook of Postgraduate Psychiatry (2 Vols.), 2nd ed.
Star Trek is an American media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Steven Berlin Johnson (born June 6, 1968) is an American popular science author and media theorist.
Strategy video game is a video game that focuses on skillful thinking and planning to achieve victory.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.
A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
Tactical media is a term coined in 1996,Nayar, Pramod K. (2010) p.100David Garcia and Geert Lovink (1997), to denote a form of media activism that privileges temporary, hit-and-run interventions in the media sphere over the creation of permanent and alternative media outlets.
is a Japanese video game developer and publisher of arcade hardware and mobile phones, and an operator of video arcades.
Samuel Frederick "Ted" Dabney Jr. (May 2, 1937 – May 26, 2018) was an American electrical engineer, and the co-founder, alongside Nolan Bushnell, of Atari, Inc. He is recognized as developing the basics of video circuitry principles that were used for Computer Space and later Pong, one of the first and most successful arcade games.
A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.
Tennis for Two is a sports video game developed in 1958, which simulates a game of tennis, and was one of the first games developed in the early history of video games.
Tetris (Тетрис) is a tile-matching puzzle video game, originally designed and programmed by Russian game designer Alexey Pajitnov.
The Art of Video Games was an exhibition by the Smithsonian American Art Museum which was on display from March 16, 2012 through September 30, 2012.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Last Starfighter is a 1984 American space opera film directed by Nick Castle.
The Strong is an interactive, collections-based educational institution in Rochester, New York, United States, devoted to the study and exploration of play.
The Verge is an American technology news and media network operated by Vox Media.
In the history of computer and video games, the third generation (sometimes referred to as the 8-bit era) began on July 15, 1983, with the Japanese release of both the Family Computer (referred to in Japan in the abbreviated form "Famicom", and later known as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES, in the rest of the world) and SG-1000.
Thomas Toliver Goldsmith Jr. (January 9, 1910 – March 5, 2009) was an American television pioneer, the co-inventor of the first arcade game to use a cathode ray tube, and a professor of physics at Furman University.
Three Rivers Press is the trade paperback imprint of the Crown Publishing Group, a division of Random House.
Tic-tac-toe (also known as noughts and crosses or Xs and Os) is a paper-and-pencil game for two players, X and O, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid.
A tile-matching video game is a type of puzzle video game where the player manipulates tiles in order to make them disappear according to a matching criterion.
Time management games are a subgenre of strategy video game and of casual games focused around fast real time allocation of resources in a consequent order to fulfill the level objectives.
, commonly known as TGS, is a video game expo / convention held annually in September in the Makuhari Messe, in Chiba, Japan.
Tomb Raider, also known as Lara Croft: Tomb Raider between 2001 and 2007, is a media franchise that originated with an action-adventure video game series created by British gaming company Core Design.
Touch typing (also called touch type or touch keyboarding) is typing without using the sense of sight to find the keys.
A touchscreen is an input and output device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system.
Tower defense (TD) is a subgenre of strategy video game where the goal is to defend a player's territories or possessions by obstructing the enemy attackers, usually achieved by placing defensive structures on or along their path of attack.
Game trainers are programs made to modify memory of a computer game thereby modifying its behavior using addresses and values, in order to allow cheating.
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.
Tron is a 1982 American science fiction action-adventure film written and directed by Steven Lisberger from a story by Lisberger and Bonnie MacBird.
Ubisoft Entertainment SA (formerly Ubi Soft Entertainment SA) is a French video game publisher headquartered in Montreuil.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle (Entertainment Software Self-Regulation, abbreviated USK) is the organisation responsible for video game ratings in Germany.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
Valve Corporation is an American video game developer and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington.
VBS1 (Virtual Battlefield Systems 1) is a military simulator which relies heavily on modern game technology and is therefore generally referred to as a serious game.
VentureBeat is an American technology website.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.
Video game addiction (VGA) has been suggested by some in the medical community as a distinct behavioral addiction characterized by excessive or compulsive use of computer games or video games that interferes with a person's everyday life.
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
Video game controversies are societal and scientific arguments about whether the content of video games changes the behavior and attitudes of a player, and whether this is reflected in video game culture overall.
The video game crash of 1983 (known as the Atari shock in Japan) was a large-scale recession in the video game industry that occurred from 1983 to 1985, primarily in North America, because of market saturation.
Video game culture is a worldwide new media subculture formed by video games.
A video game developer is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games.
In video games, an exploit is the use of a bug or glitches, game system, rates, hit boxes, speed or level design etc.
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences.
The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing, and monetization of video games.
The Video Game Museum of Rome (VIGAMUS) is an interactive museum that displays the history of video games.
A video game producer is the person in charge of overseeing development of a video game.
A game programmer is a software engineer, programmer, or computer scientist who primarily develops codebases for video games or related software, such as game development tools.
The concept of video games as a form of art is a controversial topic within the entertainment industry.
Video games have been found to increase student engagement, but other educational benefits are uncertain.
Video gaming in Japan is a major industry.
In South Korea, video games are considered to be a major social activity, with most of the games being cooperative or competitive.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
, also abbreviated as VC, is a line of downloadable video games (mostly unaltered) for Nintendo's Wii and Wii U home gaming consoles and the Nintendo 3DS portable gaming console.
Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.
A is an interactive game genre, which originated in Japan, featuring mostly static graphics, most often using anime-style art or occasionally live-action stills (and sometimes video footage).
The Washington Blade is a lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) newspaper in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
A web portal is a specially designed website that brings information from diverse sources, like emails, online forums and search engines, together in a uniform way.
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006.
is an exergaming video game designed by Nintendo's Hiroshi Matsunaga for the Wii home video game console.
The Wii U is a home video game console developed by Nintendo, and the successor to the Wii.
WiiWare is a service that allows Wii users to download games and applications specifically designed and developed for the Wii video game console made by Nintendo.
William Higinbotham (October 22, 1910 – November 10, 1994) was an American physicist.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X (sometimes called the "X0 events") is an annually held trade show hosted by Microsoft, showcasing its Xbox - and more recently, Games for Windows - portfolio of hardware, software, and services.
Xbox is a video gaming brand created and owned by Microsoft.
The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft.
Xbox Live is an online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service created and operated by Microsoft.
Xbox One is a line of eighth generation home video game consoles developed by Microsoft.
Zylom was a distributor of casual games for PC and Mac computers, as well as for devices like mobile phones and tablets.
1UP.com was an American entertainment website that focused on video games.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.
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