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ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Acari (or Acarina) are a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks.
The AFF Championship (ASEAN Football Championship), is a biennial international association football competition organised by the ASEAN Football Federation (AFF), contested by the national teams of Southeast Asia.
Mekong Aviation Joint Stock Company"." Air Mekong.
Alexandre de Rhodes, S.J. (15 March 1591 – 5 November 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam.
An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
fv An Dương Vương is the title of Thục Phán, who ruled over the kingdom of Âu Lạc (now Vietnam) from 257 to 207 BC.
An Giang is a province of Vietnam.
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
The Annamite Range or the Annamese Mountains (Chaîne Annamitique; ພູ ຫລວງ Xai Phou Luang; Dãy Trường Sơn) is a mountain range of eastern Indochina, which extends approximately through Laos, Vietnam, and a small area in northeast Cambodia.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
The arrest and assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm, the president of South Vietnam, marked the culmination of a successful CIA-backed coup d'état led by General Dương Văn Minh in November 1963.
The ASEAN University Network (AUN) is an Asian university association.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
The Asian conical hat, commonly known as an Asian rice hat, coolie hat (in the UK), or farmer's hat, is a simple style of conical hat originating in East, South, and Southeast Asia, particularly Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, parts of Russian Manchuria and Vietnam.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Âu Cơ was, according to the creation myth of the Vietnamese people, an immortal mountain fairy who married Lạc Long Quân, and bore an egg sac that hatched a hundred children known collectively as Bách Việt, ancestors to the Vietnamese people.
Âu Lạc (甌雒/甌駱) was the name of the Vietnamese state from 257 BCE to 179 BCE.
The Âu Việt or Ouyue were an ancient conglomeration of Baiyue tribes living in what is today the mountainous regions of northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and northern Guangxi, China, since at least the third century BCE.
The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (Complete Annals of Đại Việt) is the official historical text of the Lê Dynasty, that was originally compiled by the royal historian Ngô Sĩ Liên under the order of the Emperor Lê Thánh Tông and was finished in 1479.
Đắk Lắk is a province of Vietnam. The name is also spelled Đắc Lắc, which is more in keeping with Vietnamese spelling, and occasionally Darlac, but the official spelling is Đắk Lắk. It is located in Vietnam's Central Highlands, and is home to a high number of indigenous people who are not ethnically Vietnamese (Việt).
Đắk Nông, also Ðắc Nông, is a province of Vietnam.
Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh (born 25 December 1959) is a Vietnamese politician, who is currently serving as Vice President of Vietnam since 8 April 2016.
Đồng Nai is a province in the Southeast region of Vietnam, located east and northeast of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
Đồng Tháp is a province in the Mekong Delta and Đồng Tháp Mười region of southern Vietnam.
Đổi Mới (Renovation) is the name given to the economic reforms initiated in Vietnam in 1986 with the goal of creating a "socialist-oriented market economy".
The đàn bầu ("gourd lute") also đàn độc huyền (or độc huyền cầm) is a Vietnamese stringed instrument, in the form of a monochord (one-string) zither.
The đàn gáo ("coconut shell lute") is a bowed string instrument, a part of the traditional Vietnamese orchestra.
The đàn nguyệt ("moon lute") also called nguyệt cầm, đàn kìm, is a two-stringed Vietnamese traditional musical instrument.
Điện Biên is a province in the Northwest region of Vietnam.
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil or Saint-Joseph's-wort, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).
At the Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 938 the rebel Vietnamese forces, led by Ngô Quyền, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam.
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.
The Battle of Phước Long was a decisive battle of the Vietnam War which began on December 12, 1974, and concluded on January 6, 1975.
According to the United States Geological Survey, Vietnam is estimated to hold the world's third-largest bauxite ore reserves, after Guinea and Australia.
Bạc Liêu Province is a province of Vietnam.
Bắc Giang is a city in Vietnam.
Bắc Giang is a province of Vietnam.
Bắc Kạn, also spelt Bắc Cạn, is a province of Vietnam.
Bắc Ninh is a city in the northern part of Vietnam and is the capital of Bắc Ninh Province.
Bắc Ninh is a province of Vietnam, located in the Red River Delta of the northern part of the country.
Bến Tre is a province of Vietnam.
Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu (Hanoi accent:, Saigon accent) is a province of Vietnam.
Bánh cuốn (rolled sheets) is a dish from Northern Vietnam.
Bình Định is a province of Vietnam.
Bình Dương is a province of Vietnam.
Bình Ngô đại cáo (literally: Great proclamation upon the pacification of the Wu) was an announcement written by Nguyễn Trãi in 1428 after the order of Lê Lợi to proclaim the total pacification of the Ming Dynasty and affirm the independence of Đại Việt to its people.
Bình Phước is a province of Vietnam.
Bình Thuận is a province of Vietnam.
Bún riêu is a traditional Vietnamese meat rice vermicelli soup.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Bird's eye chili, bird eye chili, bird's chili, piri piri or Thai chili is a chili pepper, a cultivar from the species Capsicum annuum, commonly found in Ethiopia and Southeast Asia.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Vietnam (Đạo Phật or Phật Giáo in Vietnamese), as practised by the ethnic Vietnamese, is mainly of the Mahayana tradition.
The Buddhist crisis was a period of political and religious tension in South Vietnam between May and November 1963, characterized by a series of repressive acts by the South Vietnamese government and a campaign of civil resistance, led mainly by Buddhist monks.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Ca trù ("tally card songs") also known as hát ả đào or hát nói, is an ancient genre of chamber music featuring female vocalists, with origins in northern Vietnam.
DEPTEL 243, also known as Telegram 243, the August 24 cable or most commonly Cable 243, was a high-profile message sent on August 24, 1963, by the United States Department of State to Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., the US ambassador to South Vietnam.
Cam Ranh is a city in southern Khánh Hòa Province, in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Cam Ranh International Airport (Sân bay Quốc tế Cam Ranh) is located on Cam Ranh Bay in Cam Ranh, a town in Khánh Hòa Province in Vietnam.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, otherwise known in Vietnam as the "Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border" ("Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam) was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Can Tho International Airport (Sân bay Quốc tế Cần Thơ), formerly Trà Nóc Airport is an airport located in Can Tho in Mekong Delta region of Vietnam.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Cao Bằng is a province of the Northeast region of Vietnam.
Caodaism (Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Vietnam.
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.
Cat Bi International Airport (Cảng hàng không quốc tế Cát Bi a.k.a. Sân bay Quốc tế Cát Bi) is an international airport located in Hai Phong, Vietnam.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Vietnam is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of Bishops in Vietnam who are in communion with the Pope in Rome.
Cần Giờ Biosphere Reserve (Khu dự trữ sinh quyển rừng ngập mặn Cần Giờ) is a wetland located 40 km southeast of Ho Chi Minh City.
Cần Thơ (Standard Vietnamese:, Southern accent) is the fifth largest city in Vietnam, and the largest city in the Mekong Delta.
The Cần Vương (Hán tự:, lit. Aid the King) movement was a large-scale Vietnamese insurgency between 1885 and 1889 against French colonial rule.
Cửa Lò is a town district of Nghệ An Province, in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Cà Mau is a province of Vietnam, named after its capital city.
Cát Bà National Park is a World Heritage Site designated as a biosphere reserve in northern Vietnam.
Cát Tiên National Park (Vườn quốc gia Cát Tiên) is a national park located in the south of Vietnam, approximately 150 km north of Ho Chi Minh City.
Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes also called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam.
The Chairperson of the National Assembly of Vietnam (Chủ tịch Quốc hội Việt Nam), formerly the Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly of Vietnam (Chủ tịch Ủy ban Thường vụ Quốc hội Việt Nam) from 1946 to 1981, is the legislative speaker of the Vietnamese parliament, the National Assembly.
Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of the kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam.
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
Hát chầu văn, or in secular form hát văn,Dale Alan Olsen, Popular music of Vietnam: the politics of remembering, 2008.
Chữ Nôm (literally "Southern characters"), in earlier times also called quốc âm or chữ nam, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language.
Chèo is a form of generally satirical musical theatre, often encompassing dance, traditionally performed by Vietnamese peasants in northern Vietnam.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The bilateral relations between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (中越关系, Quan hệ Trung Quốc–Việt Nam) have been turbulent, despite their common Sinospheric and socialist background.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese domination of Vietnam (Bắc thuộc, 北屬, "Belonging to the North (China)") began in 111 BC, and is usually considered to have ended in 938 AD.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity was first introduced to Vietnam in the 16th century and established a position in Vietnamese society since the 19th century.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
In Vietnam, there are three kinds of third-level (commune-level) administrative subdivisions: the rural commune (xã), the commune-level town (thị trấn)，and the ward (phường, literal meaning: urban subdistrict).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
The Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Hiến pháp nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is the current constitution of Vietnam, adopted on November 28, 2013 by the Thirteenth National Assembly, and took effect on January 1, 2014.
Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations.
Overall, Vietnam is characterised by corruption, a weak legal infrastructure, financial unpredictability and conflicting and negative bureaucratic decision-making.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Cymbopogon, better known as lemongrass, is a genus of Asian, African, Australian, and tropical island plants in the grass family.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Da Nang (Đà Nẵng) is the fourth largest city in Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Hanoi and Haiphong in terms of urbanization and economy.
Da Nang International Airport (Sân bay Quốc tế Đà Nẵng) is located in Da Nang, the largest city in central Vietnam.
Death row is a special section of a prison that houses inmates who are awaiting execution after being sentenced to death for the conviction of capital crimes.
A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.
The Degar, also known as Montagnard, are the indigenous peoples of the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government.
The Dong Son culture (named for Đông Sơn, a village in Vietnam) was a Bronze Age culture in ancient Vietnam centred at the Red River Valley of northern Vietnam from 1000 BC until the first century AD.
A Dong Son drum (also called Heger Type I drum) is a bronze drum fabricated by the Dong Son culture in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam.
The Early, Former or Anterior Lý dynasty (nhà Tiền Lý) was a dynasty which ruled Vietnam from 544 to 602.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
The socialist-oriented market economy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is the 47th-largest economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and 35th-largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).
Edwards's pheasant (Lophura edwardsi) is a bird of the pheasant family Phasianidae and is endemic to the rainforests of Vietnam.
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education.
The Empire of Vietnam (Đế quốc Việt Nam; Hán tự: 越南帝國; ベトナム帝国) was a short-lived puppet state of Imperial Japan governing the whole of Vietnam between March 11 and August 23, 1945.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
Equity or economic equality is the concept or idea of fairness in economics, particularly in regard to taxation or welfare economics.
Eryngium foetidum is a tropical perennial herb in the family Apiaceae.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975.
Fansipan (Vietnamese: Phan Xi Păng) is a mountain in Vietnam.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.
Fish sauce is a condiment made from fish coated in salt and fermented from weeks to up to two years.
China's Five-Year Plans are a series of social and economic development initiatives.
The Five-Year Plans of Vietnam are a series of economic development initiatives.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was invaded and ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
French Cochinchina, sometimes spelled Cochin-China (Cochinchine Française, Nam Kỳ, Hán tự: 南圻), was a colony of French Indochina, encompassing the Cochinchina region of southern Vietnam.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (Corps Expéditionnaire Français en Extrême-Orient, CEFEO) was a colonial expeditionary force of the French Union Army that was initially formed in French Indochina during 1945 during the Pacific War.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In the mathematical theory of automorphic forms, the fundamental lemma relates orbital integrals on a reductive group over a local field to stable orbital integrals on its endoscopic groups.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam (Tổng Bí thư Ban Chấp hành Trung ương Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), known as First Secretary (Bí thư Thứ nhất) from 1951 to 1976, is the highest office within the Communist Party of Vietnam.
The Generalized System of Preferences, or GSP, is a preferential tariff system which provides for a formal system of exemption from the more general rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), (formerly, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or GATT).
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gia Lai is a province in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
Gia Long (8 February 1762 – 3 February 1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh), was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn Dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties. A nephew of the last Nguyễn lord who ruled over southern Vietnam, Nguyễn Ánh was forced into hiding in 1777 as a fifteen-year-old when his family was slain in the Tây Sơn revolt. After several changes of fortune in which his loyalists regained and again lost Saigon, he befriended the French Catholic priest Pigneau de Behaine. Pigneau championed his cause to the French government—and managed to recruit volunteers when this fell through—to help Nguyễn Ánh regain the throne. From 1789, Nguyễn Ánh was once again in the ascendancy and began his northward march to defeat the Tây Sơn, reaching the border with China by 1802, which had previously been under the control of the Trịnh lords. Following their defeat, he succeeded in reuniting Vietnam after centuries of internecine feudal warfare, with a greater land mass than ever before, stretching from China down to the Gulf of Siam. Gia Long's rule was noted for its Confucian orthodoxy. He overcame the Tây Sơn rebellion and reinstated the classical Confucian education and civil service system. He moved the capital from Hanoi south to Huế as the country's populace had also shifted south over the preceding centuries, and built up fortresses and a palace in his new capital. Using French expertise, he modernized Vietnam's defensive capabilities. In deference to the assistance of his French friends, he tolerated the activities of Roman Catholic missionaries, something that became increasingly restricted under his successors. Under his rule, Vietnam strengthened its military dominance in Indochina, expelling Siamese forces from Cambodia and turning it into a vassal state.
The giant muntjac, sometimes referred to as the large-antlered muntjac (Muntiacus vuquangensis), is a species of muntjac deer.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
Global optimization is a branch of applied mathematics and numerical analysis that deals with the global optimization of a function or a set of functions according to some criteria.
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Grand Secretariat was nominally a coordinating agency but de facto the highest institution in the imperial government of the Chinese Ming dynasty.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Greater Mekong Subregion, or just Greater Mekong, is an international region of the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Growth of religion is the spread of religions and the increase of religious adherents around the world.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.
True color satellite image of the Gulf of Tonkin The Gulf of Tonkin (Vịnh Bắc Bộ,; also simplified Chinese: 东京湾; traditional Chinese: 東京灣; pinyin: Dōngjīng Wān) is a body of water located off the coast of northern Vietnam and southern China.
The Gulf of Tonkin incident (Sự kiện Vịnh Bắc Bộ), also known as the USS Maddox incident, was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
Haiphong (Hải Phòng) is a major industrial city, the second largest city in the northern part of Vietnam, and third largest city overall in Vietnam.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
A hamlet is a small human settlement.
The Han conquest of Nanyue was a military conflict between the Han empire and the Nanyue kingdom in modern Guangdong, Guangxi, and Northern Vietnam.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Hạ Long is the capital city and 1st-class provincial city of Quảng Ninh Province, Vietnam.
Ha Long Bay (Vịnh Hạ Long) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and popular travel destination in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.
Hải Dương is a province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam.
Hậu Giang is a province of Vietnam, in the Mekong Delta region in the southern part of that country.
The Hồ dynasty (Nhà Hồ, 胡朝, Hồ triều) was a short-lived six-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400–01 and his second son, Hồ Hán Thương, who reigned from 1401 to 1406.
The Hồng Bàng period (Vietnamese: thời kỳ Hồng Bàng), also called the Hồng Bàng dynasty,Pelley, p. 151 was a period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dương Vương in 258 BC.
Hội An, formerly known as Fai-Fo or Faifoo, is a city with a population of approximately 120,000 in Vietnam's Quảng Nam Province and noted since 1999 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Hà Bắc was a province of Vietnam from 1962 to 1996, then from 1996 divided into Bắc Giang Province and Bắc Ninh Province.
Hà Giang is a province in the Northeast region of Vietnam.
Hà Nam is a province of northern Vietnam, in the Red River Delta.
Hà Tĩnh is a province on the North Central Coast of Vietnam.
Hàm Nghi (هام نغي; born Nguyễn Phúc Minh, a.k.a. Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Lịch, 3 August 1872 - 4 January 1943), was the eighth Emperor of the Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty.
Hòa Bình is a mountainous province of Vietnam, located in the nation's Northwest region.
Đạo Hòa Hảo (Chữ Nôm), also Hoahaoism, is a lay-Buddhist organization, founded in 1939 by Huỳnh Phú Sổ (Popularly called Phật thầy, "Buddha Master" in Vietnamese), a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam.
King Hùng (Hùng Vương (雄王) or vua Hùng (𤤰雄); both Vương and vua mean "king") is the title given in many modern discussions to the ancient Vietnamese rulers of the Hồng Bàng period.
The Hùng Kings' Temple Festival (Vietnamese: Giỗ Tổ Hùng Vương or lễ hội đền Hùng) is a Vietnamese festival held annually from the 8th to the 11th days of the third lunar month in honour of the Hùng Vương or Hùng Kings.
Hưng Yên is a province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
History of the Loss of Vietnam (Việt Nam vong quốc sử) was a Chinese-language book written by Phan Bội Châu, the leading Vietnamese anti-colonial revolutionary of the early 20th century, in 1905 while he was in Japan.
Vietnam's recorded history stretches back to the mid-to-late 3rd century BCE, when Âu Lạc and Nanyue (Nam Việt in Vietnamese) were established (Nanyue conquered Âu Lạc in 179 BCE).
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
The Hồ Chí Minh trail (also known in Vietnam as the "Trường Sơn trail") was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia.
The Hoa (Hua 華 in Mandarin Chinese, literally "Chinese") are a minority group living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered ethnic Chinese ("Overseas Chinese").
Hoàng Tụy is a prominent Vietnamese applied mathematician.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company, tracing its origin to a hong in Hong Kong.
Huế (is a city in central Vietnam that was the seat of Nguyễn Dynasty emperors from 1802 to 1945, and capital of the protectorate of Annam. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Vietnam and Vietnamese culture include.
Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The Indomalayan realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet censorship in Vietnam prevents access to websites critical of the Vietnamese government, expatriate political parties, and international human rights organizations, among others.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Islam in Vietnam is primarily the religion of the Cham people, a minority ethnic group related to Malays; however, roughly one-third of the Muslims in Vietnam are of other ethnic groups.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina, known as Meigo Sakusen (Operation Bright Moon), was a Japanese operation that took place on 9 March 1945 towards the end of World War II.
The was a short undeclared military confrontation between the Empire of Japan and Vichy France in northern Indochina.
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus), also known as the Sunda rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros, is a very rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses.
Jetstar Pacific Airlines Joint Stock Aviation Company (operating as Jetstar Pacific) is a low-cost airline headquartered in Tan Binh District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.
Joseph Walter Jackson (July 26, 1928 – June 27, 2018) was an American talent manager and patriarch of the Jackson family of entertainers that includes his children Michael Jackson and Janet Jackson.
Khánh Hòa is a province of Vietnam located in the South Central Coast.
The Khúc family or Khúc clan (Họ Khúc, Chữ nôm 𣱆曲) was a succession of native leaders who ruled over Vietnam during the late Tang until the Five Dynasties period.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
The Khmer Krom (ខ្មែរក្រោម, Khơ Me Crộm) are ethnically Khmer people living in the south western part of Vietnam, where they are recognized as one of Vietnam's fifty-three ethnic minorities.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
Kiên Giang is a province of Vietnam, located in the Mekong Delta region of southern Vietnam.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Royaume du Cambodge), informally known as the first Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជាទី ១) and the Sangkum Reastr Niyum era (សម័យសង្គមរាស្ត្រនិយម "People's Socialist Community"; Communauté socialiste populaire), referred to Norodom Sihanouk's first administration of Cambodia from 1953 to 1970, an especially significant time in the country's history.
The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953.
Kon Tum Province lies in the Central Highlands region of Vietnam and shares borders with Laos and Cambodia.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Lady Triệu (Vietnamese: Bà Triệu, Sino-Vietnamese: 趙嫗 Triệu Ẩu; 225–248) was a female warrior in 3rd century Vietnam who managed, for a time, to successfully resist the Chinese state of Eastern Wu during its occupation of Vietnam.
Lai Châu is a province in the Northwest region of Vietnam.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
Land reform in Vietnam began in the political turmoil following World War II in which a civil war pitted the communist Viet Minh against the French colonists and their supporters.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.
Lạc Long Quân (literally "Dragon Lord of Lạc"; also called Hùng Hiền Vương) as known as Hùng Vương II,is considered the second Hùng king of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty of ancient Vietnam (known then as Văn Lang and before that as Xích Quỷ).
The Lạc Việt (pinyin: Luòyuè) were an ancient conglomeration of Yue tribes that inhabited what is today Guangxi in Southern China and the lowland plains of Northern Vietnam, particularly the marshy, agriculturally rich area of the Red River Delta.
Lạng Sơn (chữ nho: 諒山) is a city in far northern Vietnam, which is the capital of Lạng Sơn Province.
Lạng Sơn is a province in far northern Vietnam, bordering Guangxi province in China.
Lào Cai is a city in the Northwest region of Vietnam.
Lào Cai, is a province of the mountainous Northwest region of Vietnam bordering the province of Yunnan in China.
Lâm Đồng is a province located in the Central Highlands (Tây Nguyên) region of Vietnam.
Lê Duẩn (7 April 1907 – 10 July 1986) was a Vietnamese communist politician.
The Later Lê dynasty (Nhà Hậu Lê; Hán Việt: 後黎朝), sometimes referred to as the Lê dynasty (the earlier Lê dynasty ruled only for a brief period (980–1009)), was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six-year interruption of the Mạc dynasty usurpers (1527–1533).
Lê Lợi (– 1433), posthumously known by his temple name Lê Thái Tổ, was emperor of Vietnam and founder of the Later Lê dynasty.
Lê Quý Đôn (黎貴惇, 1726–1784) was an 18th-century Vietnamese poet, encyclopedist, and government official.
Lê Thánh Tông (黎聖宗, 20 July 1442 – 30 January 1497) was the 5th emperor of Đại Việt during the Later Lê dynasty.
The Lê Văn Khôi revolt (1833–1835) was an important revolt in 19th century Vietnam, in which southern Vietnamese, Vietnamese Catholics, French Catholic missionaries and Chinese settlers under the leadership of Lê Văn Khôi opposed the Imperial rule of Minh Mạng.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
This is a list of Asian countries and dependent territories by population sorted by normalized demographic projections.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
This is an alphabetical list of countries by past and projected gross domestic product (nominal) as ranked by the IMF.
Vietnam is a multiethnic country with over fifty distinct groups (54 are recognized by the Vietnamese government), each with its own language, lifestyle, and cultural heritage (Ethnic groups in Vietnam).
This article lists the monarchs of Vietnam.
● Ba Bể ● Hoàng Liên ● Tam Đảo ● Ba Vì ● Xuân Sơn ● Xuân Thủy ● Cúc Phương ● Bến En ● Cát Bà ● Bái Tử Long ● Pù Mát ● Vũ Quang ● Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng ● Bạch Mã ● Chư Mom Ray ● Kon Ka Kinh ● Chư Yang Sin ● Yok Đôn ● Bidoup Núi Bà ● Phước Bình ● Núi Chúa ● Bù Gia Mập ● Lò Gò-Xa Mát ● Cát Tiên ● Tràm Chim ● U Minh Thượng ● U Minh Hạ ● Mũi Cà Mau ● Côn Đảo ● Phú Quốc This is a list of national parks in Vietnam: * National parks Vietnam.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
Lists of space programs include.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Local Courts of Vietnam or People's Courts deal with legal issues at the district precinct levels.
Long An is a province in the Mekong Delta region of southern Vietnam.
Long Thanh International Airport (Sân bay Quốc tế Long Thành) is an airport planned for construction in Long Thành, Đồng Nai Province, southern Vietnam.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
The Ma River (Sông Mã, Lao: Nam Ma) is a river in Asia, originating in northwestern Vietnam.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Marble Mountains (Ngũ Hành Sơn; "five elements mountains") is a cluster of five marble and limestone hills located in Ngũ Hành Sơn District, south of Da Nang city in Vietnam.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
The Huế Massacre (Thảm sát tại Huế Tết Mậu Thân, or Thảm sát Tết Mậu Thân ở Huế, lit. translation: "Tết Offensive Massacre in Huế") is the name given to the summary executions and mass killings perpetrated by the Việt Cộng (VC) and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) during their capture, occupation and later withdrawal from the city of Huế during the Tết Offensive, considered one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The Mạc dynasty (Nhà Mạc; Hán Việt: 莫朝, Mạc triều), as known as Mạc clan or House of Mạc ruled the whole of Đại Việt between 1527 and 1533 and the northern part of the country from 1533 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Hanoi for the last time.
Mỹ Sơn is a cluster of abandoned and partially ruined Hindu temples constructed between the 4th and the 14th century AD by the kings of Champa (Chiêm Thành in Vietnamese).
The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.
Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer.
Microalgae or microphytes are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems, living in both the water column and sediment.
The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.
A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.
A midwife is a professional in midwifery, specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women's sexual and reproductive health (including annual gynecological exams, family planning, menopausal care and others), and newborn care.
Military Courts of Vietnam deal with criminal matters within the military of Vietnam.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ming–Hồ War was a military campaign by the Ming Empire of China to invade Đại Ngu (present-day north Vietnam) ruled by the Hồ dynasty.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol-Vietnamese War refer to the three times that the Mongol Empire and its chief khanate the Yuan dynasty invaded Đại Việt during the time of the Trần dynasty, along with Champa: in 1258, 1285, and 1287–88. The first invasion began in 1258 under the united Mongol Empire, as it looked for alternative paths to invade Song China. The Mongol high ranking commander Uriyangkhadai was successful in capturing the Dai Viet capital (Thang Long); however, his army was weakened by the tropical climate and were later defeated. The second and third invasions occurred during the reign of Kublai Khan of the Yuan Dynasty. By this point, the Mongolian Empire had fractured into 4 separate entities with Yuan Dynasty being the strongest and biggest empire. These invasions resulted in a disastrous land defeat for the Mongols in 1285 and the annihilation of the Mongol navy in 1288. However, both the Trần dynasty and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty and serve as tributary states in order to avoid further conflicts.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Muong (thiểng Mường) is a group of dialects spoken by the Mường people of Vietnam.
The Mường is an ethnic group native to Vietnam; it is the country's third largest of 53 minority groups, with an estimated population of 1.26 million (based on the 2009 census and five years of population growth).
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China.
Traditional Vietnamese music is highly diverse and syncretistic, combining native and foreign influences.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.
Nam Định is a province in the Red River Delta region of northern Vietnam.
Nam quốc sơn hà (Mountains and Rivers of the Southern Country) was a famous 10th century Vietnamese poem.
Nanyue or, or Nam Viet (Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan.
The National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Quốc hội nước Cộng hoà xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is Vietnam's legislative body.
National Day (Ngày Quốc Khánh) is a national holiday in Vietnam observed on September 2, commemorating President Hồ Chí Minh reading the Declarations of independence of Vietnam at Ba Đình Square in Hanoi on September 2, 1945.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The Ba tầm (nón "hat" quai "strap" thao "tassels") is a traditional Vietnamese flat palm hat.
The Nung (pronounced as noong nuːŋ) are a Central Tai ethnic group living primarily in northeastern Vietnam and southwestern Guangxi.
In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Ngô Đình Nhu (7 October 1910 – 2 November 1963) was a Vietnamese archivist and politician.
Ngô Bảo Châu (born June 28, 1972) is a Vietnamese-French mathematician at the University of Chicago, best known for proving the fundamental lemma for automorphic forms proposed by Robert Langlands and Diana Shelstad.
The Ngô Dynasty (939–965) was a dynasty in Vietnam.
Ngô Quyền (March 12, 897 – 944) was a Vietnamese king of Ngô dynasty who ruled from 939 to 944.
Nghệ An is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Ngô Đình Diệm (3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a South Vietnamese politician.
Nguyễn Đình Chiểu (1 July 1822 – 3 July 1888) was a Vietnamese poet who was known for his nationalist and anti-colonial writings against the French colonization of Cochinchina, the European name for the southern part of Vietnam.
Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm (阮秉謙; 1491 – 1585) was a Vietnamese administrator, educator, poet, sage and later a saint of the Cao Dai religion.
Nguyễn Cao Kỳ (8 September 1930 – 23 July 2011) served as the chief of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force in the 1960s, before leading the nation as the prime minister of South Vietnam in a military junta from 1965 to 1967.
Nguyễn Du (3 January 1765 – 16 September 1820), pen names Tố Như and Thanh Hiên, is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in chữ nôm, the ancient writing script of Vietnam.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm:, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam.
The Nguyễn lords (1558–1777), also known as Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were a series of rulers of now southern and central Vietnam, then called Đàng Trong or Inner Land as opposite to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Land, ruled by the Trịnh Lords.
Nguyễn Phú Trọng (born 14 April 1944) is a Vietnamese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, the most powerful position in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân (born 12 April 1954 in Bến Tre Province) is a Vietnamese politician who is presently Chairwoman of the National Assembly of Vietnam.
Nguyễn Trãi (阮廌), pen name Ức Trai (抑齋); (1380–1442) was an illustrious Vietnamese Confucian scholar, a noted poet, a skilled politician and a master strategist.
Nguyễn Văn Linh (1 July 1915 – 27 April 1998) was a Vietnamese revolutionary and politician.
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (5 April 1923 – 29 September 2001) was the president of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1975.
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc (born 20 July 1954) is a Vietnamese politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and is ranked 3rd in the country's 12th Politburo.
Nha Trang is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
Nhạc dân tộc cải biên is a modern form of Vietnamese folk music which arose in the 1950s after the founding of the Hanoi Conservatory of Music in 1956.
Nhã nhạc ("elegant music") is a form of Vietnamese court music.
Ninh Bình is a province of Vietnam, in the Red River Delta region of the northern part of the country.
Ninh Thuận is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam (sometimes seen as part of the Southeast region).
The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth during a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by US President Richard Nixon and later formalized in his speech on Vietnamization on November 3, 1969.
Nội Bài International Airport (Sân Bay Quốc Tế Nội Bài) in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is the largest airport in Vietnam in terms of total capacity.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Bắc Trung Bộ (literally North Central Region, and often translated as North Central Coast) is one of the regions of Vietnam.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
North–South express railway (Đường sắt cao tốc Bắc-Nam) is a proposed high speed railway in Vietnam.
The North–South railway (Đường sắt Bắc–Nam, Chemin de fer Nord-Sud) is the principal railway line serving the country of Vietnam.
The Northeast (Đông Bắc) is the region to the north of the Red River Delta in Vietnam.
Tây Bắc (literally "Northwest") is one of the regions of Vietnam, located in the mountainous northwestern part of the country.
Nùng is a Tai–Kadai language spoken mostly in Cao Bằng and Lạng Sơn provinces in Vietnam.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Oligochaeta is a subclass of animals in the phylum Annelida, which is made up of many types of aquatic and terrestrial worms, including all of the various earthworms.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The OpenNet Initiative (ONI) was a joint project whose goal was to monitor and report on internet filtering and surveillance practices by nations.
Operation Passage to Freedom was a term used by the United States Navy to describe its assistance in transporting in 1954–55 310,000 Vietnamese civilians, soldiers and non-Vietnamese members of the French Army from communist North Vietnam (the Democratic Republic of Vietnam) to South Vietnam (the State of Vietnam, later to become the Republic of Vietnam).
Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained aerial bombardment campaign conducted by the U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Vietnam: Vietnam – sovereign country located on the eastern extent of the Indochinese Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.
Pajamas (US) or pyjamas, often shortened to PJs or jammies, can refer to several related types of clothing originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Paris Peace Accords, officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War.
The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
A permanent is one produced from plants which last for many seasons, rather than being replanted after each harvest.
Persicaria odorata, known as Vietnamese coriander, is an herb whose leaves are used in Southeast Asian cooking.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phan Đình Phùng (1847January 21, 1896) was a Vietnamese revolutionary who led rebel armies against French colonial forces in Vietnam.
Phan Bội Châu (26 December 1867 – 29 October 1940) was a pioneer of Vietnamese 20th century nationalism.
Phan Châu Trinh (1872 - 1926), courtesy name Tử Cán (梓幹), pen name Tây Hồ (西湖) or Hi Mã (希馬), was an early 20th-century Vietnamese nationalist.
Phú Thọ is a province in northern Vietnam.
Phú Yên is a coastal province in the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng (Vườn quốc gia Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng) is a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site in the Bố Trạch and Minh Hóa districts of central Quảng Bình Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, about 500 km south of Hanoi.
Phu Bai International Airport (Sân bay Quốc tế Phú Bài) is located just south of the central city of Huế, former capital of Vietnam.
Phu Quoc International Airport (Vietnamese: Sân bay quốc tế Phú Quốc or Cảng hàng không quốc tế Phú Quốc) is an international airport which was completed in 2012 on Phú Quốc Island, in southern Vietnam.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.
The President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Chủ tịch nước Cộng hoà Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is, according to the constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the elected head of state of Vietnam, holds the second highest office in Vietnam after General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam.
PricewaterhouseCoopers (doing business as PwC) is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Prime Minister of Vietnam (Thủ tướng Việt Nam), officially styled Prime Minister of the Government of the Socialist Republic (Thủ tướng Chính phủ nước Cộng hòa Xã hội chủ nghĩa), is the head of government of Vietnam who presides over the meetings of the Central Government (formerly the Council of Ministers).
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
On the Second Tier, Vietnam is divided into 713 units.
Provincial Municipal Courts of Vietnam are lower level courts in Vietnam's judicial system.
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, or PRG, was formed on June 8, 1969, as an underground government opposed to the government of the Republic of Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Quan họ singing is a Vietnamese folk music style characterized both by its antiphonal nature, with alternating groups of female and male singers issuing musical challenges and responses, and by the fact that most of the songs in the repertoire deal with topics of love and sentimentality as experienced by young adults.
Quảng Bình, formerly Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of the Lê Dynasty (this province was renamed Quảng Bình in 1604), is a province along Vietnam's north-central coast.
Quảng Nam is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Quảng Ngãi is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam, on the coast of East Sea.
Quảng Ninh is a province along the northeastern coast of Vietnam.
Quảng Trị is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, north of the former imperial capital of Huế.
Quy Nhơn is a coastal city in Bình Định Province in central Vietnam.
The Red River (Sông Hồng), also known as the and (lit. "Mother River") in Vietnamese and the in Chinese, is a river that flows from Yunnan in Southwest China through northern Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin.
The Red River Delta (Đồng Bằng Sông Hồng, or Châu Thổ Sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Binh River in northern Vietnam.
Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official title given to the prison camps operated by the Communist government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War.
Buddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels or Triple Gem (also known as the "Three Refuges").
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Reunification Day (Ngày Thống nhất), Victory Day (Ngày Chiến thắng) or Liberation Day (Ngày Giải phóng or Ngày Giải phóng miền Nam) or the official name of Day of liberating the South for national reunification (Giải phóng miền Nam, thống nhất đất nước) is a public holiday in Vietnam that marks the event when Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) on April 30, 1975.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began after World War II and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War from 1955 to 1975.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi, also known as Vietnamese cinnamon or Vietnamese cassia and quế trà my, quế thanh, or " quế trà bồng" in Vietnam) is an evergreen tree indigenous to mainland Southeast Asia.
The saola, siola, Vu Quang ox, spindlehorn, Asian unicorn, or, infrequently, the Vu Quang bovid (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), is one of the world's rarest large mammals, a forest-dwelling bovine found only in the Annamite Range of Vietnam and Laos.
Sóc Trăng is a province in the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam, with its capital in Sóc Trăng.
Sơn La is a province in the Northwest region of Vietnam.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.
The, colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan.
Shrimp paste or shrimp sauce is a fermented condiment commonly used in Southeast Asian, Northeastern South Asian and Southern Chinese cuisines.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sino-Vietnamese War (Chiến tranh biên giới Việt-Trung), also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief border war fought between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in early 1979.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The socialist-oriented market economy (Vietnamese: Kinh tế thị trường theo định hướng xã hội chủ nghĩa) is the official title given to the current economic system in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
South Central Coast (Duyên hải Nam Trung Bộ) is one of the regions of Vietnam.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Đông Nam Bộ (literally "South-eastern region") is a region in Vietnam.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Han (917–971), originally Great Yue, was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Southward expansion of the Han dynasty were a series of Chinese military campaigns and expeditions in what is now modern Southern China and Northern Vietnam.
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.
The Spratly Islands (南沙群岛 (Nánshā Qúndǎo), Kepulauan Spratly, Kapuluan ng Kalayaan, Quần đảo Trường Sa) are a disputed group of islands, islets and cays and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, in the South China Sea.
Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme People's Court of Vietnam (Tòa án nhân dân tối cao) is the highest court of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.
Tai peoples refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.
Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport (Sân bay quốc tế Tân Sơn Nhất, Cảng hàng không quốc tế Tân Sơn Nhất) is the busiest airport in Vietnam with 32.5 million passengers in 2016, serving Ho Chi Minh City as well as the rest of southeastern Vietnam.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
The Tày people speak a language of the Central Tai language group, and live in northern Vietnam.
Tết, or Vietnamese New Year, is the most important celebration in Vietnamese culture.
Tày or Tho (a name shared with Cuoi and with various Zhuang languages of China) is the major Tai language of Vietnam, in the northeast near the Chinese border.
Tây Ninh is a province in the Southeast region of Vietnam on the border with Cambodia.
The name Tây Sơn (Hán Việt: 西山朝) is used in Vietnamese history in various ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Lê dynasty in 1770 and the beginning of the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Land line phone numbers in Vietnam follow the format Area Code + Phone Number.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The Tet Offensive (Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968), or officially called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Tết Mậu Thân 1968) by North Vietnam and the NLF (National Liberation Front), was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies.
Thai people or the Thais (ชาวไทย), also known as Siamese (ไทยสยาม), are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, primarily living mainly Central Thailand (Siamese proper).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thanh Hóa is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Thủ Thiêm New Urban Area (Khu đô thị mới Thủ Thiêm) is a urban redevelopment project in District 2, Ho Chi Minh City.
Thừa Thiên-Huế is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, approximately in the centre of the country.
Thái Bình is a coastal eastern province in the Red River Delta region of northern Vietnam.
Thái Nguyên is a city and municipality in Vietnam.
Thái Nguyên is a province in the Northeast region of Vietnam.
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing population in labor camps and artificially created famines.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The National Interest (TNI) is an American bimonthly international affairs magazine published by the Center for the National Interest.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Tale of Kiều is an epic poem in Vietnamese written by Nguyễn Du (1766–1820), and is widely regarded as the most significant work of Vietnamese literature.
"Tiến Quân Ca" ("Marching Song"), also known as the "Army March" and the "Song of Advancing Soldiers", is the national anthem of Vietnam, both written and composed by Văn Cao in 1944.
Tiền Giang is a province in the Mekong Delta region of southern Vietnam.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tonkin, or Bac Kỳ (北圻), was a French protectorate encompassing modern Northern Vietnam.
The Tonkin snub-nosed monkey or Dollman's snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus) is a slender-bodied arboreal Old World monkey, endemic to northern Vietnam.
TOPIO ("TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot") is a bipedal humanoid robot designed to play table tennis against a human being.
Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The traditional Vietnamese wedding is one of the most important ceremonies in Vietnamese culture, which is influenced by Confucian and Buddhist ideologies.
Trần Đại Quang (born 12 October 1956) is a Vietnamese politician who is the current State President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, in office since 2 April 2016.
The Trần dynasty (Nhà Trần, 陳朝, Trần triều,.) ruled in Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400.
Trần Hưng Đạo (1228–1300), also known as Grand Prince of Hưng Đạo, was an imperial prince, statesman and military commander of Đại Việt during the Trần Dynasty.
Trần Nhân Tông (7 December 1258–16 December 1308), given name Trần Khâm, was the third emperor of the Trần dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1278 to 1293.
Trịnh lords (Chúa Trịnh; Chữ Nôm: 主鄭; 1545–1787), also known as Trịnh clan or House of Trịnh, were a noble feudal clan who were the de-facto rulers of northern Vietnam (namely Đàng Ngoài) while Nguyễn clan ruled the southern Vietnam (namely Đàng Trong) during the Later Lê dynasty.
The Trịnh–Nguyễn Civil War (Trịnh-Nguyễn phân tranh; 1627–73) was a long war waged between the two ruling families in Vietnam.
Trà Vinh is a province in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam.
The Trưng sisters (AD 12 – c. AD 43) were Vietnamese military leaders who ruled for three years after rebelling in CE 40 against the first Chinese domination of Vietnam.
The Triệu dynasty (Nhà Triệu; 家趙) ruled the kingdom of Nányuè / Nam Việt ("South Yuè") (南越), which consisted of parts of southern China as well as northern Vietnam.
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
Tuyên Quang is a province of Vietnam, located in the northeastern part of the country to the northwest of Hanoi, at the centre of Lô River valley, a tributary of the Red River.
U Minh Thượng National Park or National Park of Upper U Minh (Vietnamese language: Vườn quốc gia U Minh Thượng) is a national park in the province of Kiên Giang, Vietnam.
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical office of UNESCO and is the UN depository for cross-nationally comparable statistics on education, science and technology, culture, and communication.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
Văn Lang was an early nation state of the Vietnamese people, thereby the predecessor to modern Vietnam.
Vĩnh Long is a province located in the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam.
Vĩnh Phúc is a province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam.
Vũng Tàu (Hanoi accent:, Saigon accent) is the largest city and former capital of Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province in Vietnam.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (越南國民黨; Vietnamese Nationalist Party), abbreviated VNQDĐ or Việt Quốc, was a nationalist and moderate socialist political party that sought independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam during the early 20th century.
The Vice President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Phó Chủ tịch nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), known as Deputy Chairman of the Council of State (Phó Chủ tịch Hội đồng Nhà nước) from 1981 to 1992, is the vice head of state of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
VietJet Aviation Joint Stock Company (Công ty Cổ phần Hàng không VietJet), trading as VietJet Air or Vietjet, is an international low-cost airline from Vietnam.
Vietnam Air Services Company (VASCO) (Công ty bay dịch vụ hàng không) is an airline in Vietnam headquartered in Tân Bình, Ho Chi Minh City.
Vietnam Airlines (Hãng Hàng không Quốc gia Việt Nam) is the flag carrier of Vietnam.
The State of Vietnam competed as Vietnam in the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland.
Vietnam Border Defence Force (Bộ đội Biên phòng Việt Nam) is branch of the Vietnam People's Army, as the core, responsible management and protection of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, security, order and national boundaries on the mainland, islands, sea and at the gate as shall by law and is a force members in provincial areas of defence, border districts of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Vietnam Coast Guard (VCG; Vietnamese: Cảnh sát biển Việt Nam, literally "Sea police of Vietnam") is the coast guard of Vietnam.
The Vietnam national football team (Đội tuyển bóng đá quốc gia Việt Nam) is the national football team representing Vietnam in international football competitions and is managed by the Vietnam Football Federation (VFF).
The Vietnam People's Air Force (Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam) is the air force of Vietnam.
The Vietnam People's Armed Forces (VPAF) are the armed forces of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Vietnam People's Navy (Hải quân nhân dân Việt Nam), commonly known as the Vietnamese Navy or the Vietnamese People's Navy, is the naval branch of the Vietnam People's Army and is responsible for the protection of the country's national waters, islands, and interests of the maritime economy, as well as for the co-ordination of maritime police, customs service and the border defence force.
The People's Public Security of Vietnam (Công an Nhân dân Việt Nam) is the main police and security force of Vietnam, under control of the Ministry of Public Security.
Vietnam Television, or VTV (Vietnamese: Đài Truyền hình Việt Nam), is the national television broadcaster of Vietnam.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
The đồng (sign: ₫; code: VND) has been the currency of Vietnam since May 3, 1978.
The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was a demilitarized zone established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War.
Vietnamese dragons (rồng 龍) are symbolic creatures in the folklore and mythology of Vietnam.
The Vietnamese Famine of 1945 (Nạn đói Ất Dậu - Famine of the Yiyou Year) was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam in French Indochina during World War II from October 1944 to late 1945, which at the time was under Japanese occupation.
The Vietnamese Fatherland Front (Mặt Trận Tổ Quốc Việt Nam) is an umbrella group of mass movements in Vietnam aligned with the Communist Party of Vietnam forming part of the Vietnamese government.
Vietnamese folk religion or Vietnamese indigenous religion (tín ngưỡng dân gian Việt Nam, tôn giáo bản địa Việt Nam) is the ethnic religion of the Vietnamese people.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Vietnamese literature (Văn học Việt Nam) is the literature, both oral and written, created largely by Vietnamese-speaking people.
On March 8, 1949, after the Élysée Accords, the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
The three deaf-community sign languages indigenous to Vietnam are found in Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, and Haiphong.
Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnamese forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops." Brought on by the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive, the policy referred to U.S. combat troops specifically in the ground combat role, but did not reject combat by the U.S. Air Force, as well as the support to South Vietnam, consistent with the policies of U.S. foreign military assistance organizations.
Vinh is the biggest city and economic and cultural center of central Vietnam.
Vinh Airport (sân bay quốc tế Vinh) is located in Vinh city of Nghệ An Province northern Vietnam.
The Voice of Vietnam (also Radio the Voice of Vietnam, Vietnamese: Đài Tiếng nói Việt Nam) is the Vietnam national radio broadcaster.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Vovinam (short for Võ Việt Nam; Việt Võ Đạo, Martial Arts of Vietnam) is a Vietnamese martial art.
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.
A water taxi or a water bus, also known as a sightseeing boat, is a watercraft used to provide public or private transport, usually, but not always, in an urban environment.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
Western Nghe An is a UNESCO biosphere reserve, located in Nghệ An Province in the tropical and temperate zone of Vietnam, and on the border with Laos.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) covers internationally designated protected areas, each known as biosphere reserves, that are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature (e.g. encourage sustainable development).
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Xẩm or Hát xẩm (Xẩm singing) is a type of Vietnamese folk music which was popular in the Northern region of Vietnam but is nowadays considered an endangered form of traditional music in Vietnam.
Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..
The Yao people (its majority branch is also known as Mien;; người Dao) is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam.
A yếm is a traditional Vietnamese bodice used primarily as an undergarment that was once worn by Vietnamese women across all classes.
The Yên Bái mutiny (安沛總起義, Tổng khởi-nghĩa Yên-báy) was an uprising of Vietnamese soldiers in the French colonial army on 10 February 1930 in collaboration with civilian supporters who were members of the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (VNQDĐ, the Vietnamese Nationalist Party).
Yên Bái is an agricultural-based province located in Tây Bắc, the northern part of northern-central Vietnam.
Zhao Tuo, known in Vietnamese contexts as Triệu Đà, was a Qin dynasty Chinese general who participated in the conquest of the Baiyue peoples of Guangdong, Guangxi and Northern Vietnam.
.vn is the country code top‐level domain (ccTLD) for Vietnam.
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
The meridian 102° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 110° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 17th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 17 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.
In November 1963, President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam was deposed by a group of Army of the Republic of Vietnam officers who disagreed with his handling of both the Buddhist crisis and the Viet Cong threat to the regime.
The 1975 Spring Offensive (Chiến dịch Mùa Xuân 1975) or officially known as The General Offensive and Uprising of the Spring 1975 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Mùa Xuân 1975) was the final North Vietnamese campaign in the Vietnam War that led to the capitulation of South Vietnam.
The 2008 AFF Championship is the seventh edition of the tournament.
The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August.
The 24th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 24 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
3G countries or Global Growth Generating countries are 11 countries which have been identified as sources of growth potential and of profitable investment opportunities.
The 6th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam (Đại hội Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam VI) (CPV) was held in Ba Đình Hall, Hanoi, between 15 and 18 December 1986.
The 8th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 8 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
CHXHCN Vietnam, CHXHCNVN, Confucian Southeast Asia, Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam, Cong hoa Xa hoi Chu nghia Viet Nam, Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam, Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam, Doc lap - tu do - hanh phuc, Doc lap, tu do, hanh phuc, Etymology of Vietnam, ISO 3166-1:VN, Languages of Viet Nam, Languages of Vietnam, People's Republic of Vietnam, Red Vietnam (modern), S.R. Vietnam, SR Vietnam, SRVN, SRoV, Sinicized Southeast Asia, Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, VIETNAM, Veitnam, Viet Nam, Viet Nam Socialist Repub, Viet nam, Viet-Nam, VietNam, Vietman, Vietnamese Republic, Vietnamese Socialist Republic, Vietnarm, Viêt Nam, Viêtnam, Việt Nam, Việtnam, Yue Nan, Yuenan, Độc lập - tự do - hạnh phúc, Độc lập, tự do, hạnh phúc, 越南社會主義共和國.