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A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (1988) is a book by Neil Sheehan, a former New York Times reporter, about retired U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel John Paul Vann and the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War.
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.
The Aero 45 was a twin-piston engined civil utility aircraft produced in Czechoslovakia after World War II.
The Aero L-29 Delfín (Dolphin, NATO reporting name: Maya) is a military jet trainer developed and manufactured by Czechoslovakian aviation manufacturer Aero Vodochody.
Agent Blue, (CH3)2AsOOH, obtained by the oxidation of cacodyl, and having the properties of an exceedingly stable acid; is one of the "rainbow herbicides" that is known for its use by the United States during the Vietnam War.
Agent Green is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S. military in its herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War.
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides.
Agent Pink is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S. military in its herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War.
Agent Purple is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S. military in their herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War.
Agent White is the code name for a herbicide used by the U.S. military in its herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War.
Air assault is the movement of ground-based military forces by vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft—such as the helicopter—to seize and hold key terrain which has not been fully secured, and to directly engage enemy forces behind enemy lines.
Air interdiction (AI), also known as deep air support (DAS), is the use of preventive aircraft attacks against enemy targets, that are not an immediate threat, in order to delay, disrupt, or hinder later enemy engagement of friendly forces.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
Alfred William McCoy (born June 8, 1945) is the J.R.W. Smail Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin–Madison who specializes in Southeast Asia.
An Amerasian originally meant a person born in Asia to a US military father and an Asian mother.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
American imperialism is a policy aimed at extending the political, economic, and cultural control of the United States government over areas beyond its boundaries.
The American Journal of International Law is an English-language scholarly journal focusing on international law and international relations.
The American Society of International Law (ASIL), founded in 1906, was chartered by the United States Congress in 1950 to foster the study of international law, and to promote the establishment and maintenance of international relations on the basis of law and justice.
An amphibious vehicle (or simply amphibian), is a vehicle that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on (or under) water.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.
The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the 1951, collective security non-binding agreement between Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States, to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific Ocean region, although today the treaty is taken to relate to conflicts worldwide.
Apocalypse Now is a 1979 American epic war film directed, produced, and co-written by Francis Ford Coppola.
Arlo Davy Guthrie (born July 10, 1947) is an American folk singer-songwriter.
Armed Forces Journal (AFJ) was a publication for American military officers and leaders in government and industry.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), also known as the South Vietnamese army (SVA), were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in 1975.
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces (Lực Lượng Đặc Biệt Quân Lực Việt Nam Cộng Hòa or LLDB) were the elite military units of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam).
Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.
The attack on Camp Holloway occurred during the early hours of February 7, 1965, in the early stages of the Vietnam War.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Augustus Freeman Hawkins (August 31, 1907 – November 10, 2007) was a prominent American Democratic Party politician and a figure in the history of Civil Rights and organized labor.
The Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV) was a specialist unit of military advisors of the Australian Army that operated during the Vietnam War.
The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in wars involving the Commonwealth of Australia.
Awards and decorations of the Vietnam War were military decorations which were bestowed by the major warring parties during the years of the Vietnam War.
Česká zbrojovka a.s. Uherský Brod (ČZUB) (English: Czech Arms Factory) is a Czech firearms manufacturer.
Đắk Lắk is a province of Vietnam. The name is also spelled Đắc Lắc, which is more in keeping with Vietnamese spelling, and occasionally Darlac, but the official spelling is Đắk Lắk. It is located in Vietnam's Central Highlands, and is home to a high number of indigenous people who are not ethnically Vietnamese (Việt).
The Đắk Sơn Massacre was a massacre committed by the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War, in the village of Đắk Sơn, Đắk Lắk Province, South Vietnam.
Đắk Tô is a village in the Central Highlands of Vietnam and in the so-called "tri-border" area where the borders of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia come together.
Đặng Thùy Trâm (born November 26, 1942, in Huế, Vietnam; died on June 22, 1970, in Đức Phổ, Quảng Ngãi Province, Vietnam) was a Vietnamese doctor.
Lieutenant General Đỗ Cao Trí (20 November 1929 – 23 February 1971) was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) known for his fighting prowess and flamboyant style.
Điện Bàn is a district-level town of Quảng Nam Province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Lê Quang Vinh (1923 – 13 July 1956), popularly known as Ba Cụt was a military commander of the Hòa Hảo religious sect, which operated from the Mekong Delta and controlled various parts of southern Vietnam during the 1940s and early 1950s.
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barbara Dane (born May 12, 1927) is an American folk, blues, and jazz singer.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Ấp Bắc was a major battle fought on 2 January 1963 during the Vietnam War.
The Battle of Ban Me Thuot was a decisive battle of the Vietnam War which led to the complete destruction of South Vietnam's II Corps Tactical Zone.
The Battle of Binh Gia (Trận Bình Giã), which was part of a larger communist campaign, was conducted by the Viet Cong and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) from December 28, 1964, to January 1, 1965, during the Vietnam War in Bình Giã.
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.
The Battle of Đồng Xoài (Trận Đồng Xoài) was a major battle fought during the National Liberation Front Summer Offensive of 1965 as part of the Vietnam War.
The Battle of FSB Mary Ann occurred when Viet Cong (VC) sappers attacked the U.S. firebase located in Quảng Tín Province, South Vietnam early on the morning of 28 March 1971.
The Battle of Huế – also called the Siege of Huế – was one of the bloodiest and longest battles of the Vietnam War.
The Battle of Ia Drang was the first major battle between the United States Army and the North Vietnamese Army-NVA (People's Army of Vietnam-PAVN), part of the Pleiku Campaign conducted early in the Vietnam War. It comprised two main engagements. The first involved the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment and supporting units, and took place November 14–16, 1965 at LZ X-Ray, located at the eastern foot of the Chu Pong massif in the central highlands of Vietnam. The second engagement involved the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment plus supporting units, and took place on November 17 at LZ Albany, farther north in the Ia Drang Valley. It is notable for being the first large scale helicopter air assault and also the first use of B-52 strategic bombers in a tactical support role. The size of the clearing at LZ X-Ray meant that troops had to be shuttled in, the first lift landing at 10:48. The last troops of the battalion were landed at 15:20, by which time the troops on the ground were already heavily engaged, with one platoon cut off. Faced with heavy casualties and unexpected opposition, 1st Battalion was reinforced by B Company 2nd Battalion 7th Cavalry. Fighting continued the following day when the LZ was further reinforced by A Company 2/7 and also by 2nd Battalion 5th Cavalry, and the lost platoon was rescued. The last Vietnamese assaults on the position were repulsed on the morning of 16th. As the Vietnamese forces melted away, the remainder of 2/7 and A Company of 1st Battalion 5th Cavalry arrived. By mid-afternoon 1/7 and B Company 2/7 had been airlifted to LZ Falcon, and on the 17th November 2/5 marched out towards LZ Columbus while the remaining 2/7 and 1/5 companies marched towards LZ Albany. The latter force became strung out and, in the early afternoon, were badly mauled in an ambush before they could be reinforced and extricated. The battle at LZ X-Ray was documented in the CBS special report Battle of Ia Drang Valley by Morley Safer and the critically acclaimed book We Were Soldiers Once... And Young by Harold G. Moore and Joseph L. Galloway. In 1994, Moore, Galloway and men who fought on both the American and North Vietnamese sides, traveled back to the remote jungle clearings where the battle took place. At the time the U.S. did not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam. The risky trip which took a year to arrange was part of an award-winning ABC News documentary, They Were Young and Brave produced by Terence Wrong. In 2002, Randall Wallace depicted the battle at LZ X-Ray in the movie We Were Soldiers starring Mel Gibson and Barry Pepper as Moore and Galloway, respectively. Galloway later described Ia Drang as "the battle that convinced Ho Chi Minh he could win".
The Battle of Khe Sanh (21 January – 9 July 1968) was conducted in the Khe Sanh area of northwestern Quảng Trị Province, Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), during the Vietnam War.
The Battle of Phước Long was a decisive battle of the Vietnam War which began on December 12, 1974, and concluded on January 6, 1975.
The Battle for Quang Tri occurred in and around Quảng Trị City (Quảng Trị Province), the northernmost provincial capital of Republic of South Vietnam during the Tet Offensive when the Vietcong (VC) and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) attacked Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and American forces across major cities and towns in South Vietnam in an attempt to force the Saigon government to collapse.
The First Battle of Saigon, fought during the Tet Offensive of the Vietnam War, was the coordinated attack by communist forces, including both the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong, (VC) against Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam.
The Battle of Xuan Loc (Trận Xuân Lộc) was the last major battle of the Vietnam War in which the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) committed almost all their remaining mobile forces, especially the ARVN 18th Infantry Division, under General Lê Minh Đảo to the defence of Xuân Lộc, hoping to stall the advance of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN).
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
Bảo Đại (lit. "keeper of greatness", 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997), born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy, was the 13th and final emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty, the last ruling family of Vietnam.
Bến Tre is the capital city of Bến Tre Province, in the Mekong Delta area of southern Vietnam.
The Bình An / Tây Vinh massacre (타이빈 양민 학살 사건) was a series of massacres purportedly conducted by the ROK Capital Division of the South Korean Army between February 12, 1966 and March 17, 1966 of 1,200 unarmed citizens in the Go Dai village and other areas in the rural commune of Bình An/ Tây Vinh area, Tây Sơn District of Bình Định Province in South Vietnam.
The Bình Hòa Massacre was a massacre purportedly conducted by South Korean forces between December 3 and December 6, 1966, of 430 unarmed citizens in Bình Hòa village, Quảng Ngãi Province in South Vietnam.
Binh Xuyen Force (Bộ đội Bình Xuyên), often linked to its infamous leader, General Lê Văn Viễn (a.k.a. "Bảy Viễn") was an independent military force within the Vietnamese National Army whose leaders once had lived outside the law and had sided with the Việt Minh.
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.
Beacon Press is an American non-profit book publisher.
The Bell UH-1 Iroquois (nicknamed "Huey") is a utility military helicopter powered by a single turboshaft engine, with two-blade main and tail rotors.
Benedict F. "Ben" Kiernan (born 1953 in Melbourne) is the Whitney Griswold Professor of History, Professor of International and Area Studies and Director of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
The Bình Tai Massacre was a massacre purportedly perpetrated by South Korean Forces on 9 October 1966 of 168 citizens in Binh Tai village of Bình Định Province in South Vietnam.
Bloomingdale's Inc. is an American department store chain; it was founded by Joseph B. and Lyman G. Bloomingdale in 1861.
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian military government was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985.
The BTR-60 is the first vehicle in a series of Soviet eight-wheeled armoured personnel carriers (APCs).
Buôn Ma Thuột (formerly Lac Giao) or sometimes Buôn Mê Thuột or Ban Mê Thuột, is the capital city of Đắk Lắk Province, in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Buddhist flag is a flag designed in the late 19th century to symbolize and universally represent Buddhism.
DEPTEL 243, also known as Telegram 243, the August 24 cable or most commonly Cable 243, was a high-profile message sent on August 24, 1963, by the United States Department of State to Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., the US ambassador to South Vietnam.
In political contexts a cadre consists of a small group of people.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Cambodian Campaign (also known as the Cambodian Incursion and the Cambodian Invasion) was a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during 1970 by the United States and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) as an extension of the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War.
The Cambodian Civil War (សង្គ្រាមស៊ីវិលកម្ពុជា) was a military conflict that pitted the forces of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (known as the Khmer Rouge) and their allies the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Viet Cong against the government forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia and, after October 1970, the Khmer Republic, which were supported by the United States (U.S.) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
The Cambodian coup of 1970 (រដ្ឋប្រហារឆ្នាំ ១៩៧០) refers to the removal of the Cambodian Head of State, Prince Norodom Sihanouk, after a vote in the National Assembly on 18 March 1970.
The Cambodian genocide (របបប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍) was carried out by the Khmer Rouge regime under the leadership of Pol Pot, killing approximately 1.5 to 3 million Cambodian people from 1975 to 1979.
The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, otherwise known in Vietnam as the "Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border" ("Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam) was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cao Văn Viên (December 21, 1921 – January 22, 2008) was one of only two, South Vietnamese 4 star Army Generals in the history of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
Caodaism (Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926.
The Capital Mechanized Infantry Division (hangul: 수도기계화보병사단; hanja:首都機械化步兵師團), also known as Tiger Division (hangul:맹호사단; hanja:猛虎師團), is currently one of the six mechanized infantry divisions in the Republic of Korea Army.
Carpet bombing, also known as saturation bombing, is a large aerial bombing done in a progressive manner to inflict damage in every part of a selected area of land.
The Case–Church Amendment was legislation approved by the U.S. Congress in June 1973 that prohibited further U.S. military activity in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia unless the president secured Congressional approval in advance.
Casualties of War is a 1989 American war drama film directed by Brian De Palma, with a screenplay by David Rabe, based on the actual events of the incident on Hill 192 in 1966 during the Vietnam War.
Catherine Leroy was a French-born photojournalist and war photographer, whose stark images of battle illustrated the story of the Vietnam War in the pages of ''Life'' magazine and other publications.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Worker Movement is a collection of autonomous communities of Catholics and their associates founded by Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin in the United States in 1933.
The tunnels of Củ Chi are an immense network of connecting underground tunnels located in the Củ Chi District of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam, and are part of a much larger network of tunnels that underlie much of the country.
Côn Đảo Prison (Nhà tù Côn Đảo), also Côn Sơn Prison, is a prison on Côn Sơn Island (also known as Côn Lôn) the largest island of the Côn Đảo archipelago in southern Vietnam (today it is in Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province. The prison was built in 1861 by the French colonists to jail those considered especially dangerous to the colonial government. Many of the high-ranking leaders of Vietnam were detained here. It is ranked a special historical relic of national importance by the government of Vietnam. The most famous site in this prison are the "tiger cages" (vi:"chuồng cọp"). The French tiger cages cover an area of 5.475 m2, within which each cell occupies 1.408 m2, solariums occupy 1.873 m2, and other spaces occupy 2.194 m2. The prison includes 120 cells. The prison was closed after the country united and opened for visitors soon after.
Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes also called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central Office for South Vietnam (abbreviated COSVN; Văn phòng Trung ương Cục miền Nam), officially known as the Central Executive Committee of the People's Revolutionary Party from 1962 until its dissolution in 1976, was the American term for the North Vietnamese political and military headquarters inside South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
Chợ Lớn, usually Anglicized as "Cholon" in English sources, is a quarter of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
The Chief of Staff of the Air Force (acronym: CSAF, or AF/CC) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Air Force, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Air Force, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Air Force; and is in a separate capacity a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and thereby a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President.
The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army.
Chloracne is an acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules associated with over-exposure to certain halogenated aromatic compounds, such as chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Clark Air Base is a Philippine Air Force base on Luzon Island in the Philippines, located west of Angeles, about northwest of Metro Manila.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Cold War History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history of the Cold War.
Colonial war (in some contexts referred to as small war) is a blanket term relating to the various conflicts that arose as the result of overseas territories being settled by foreign powers creating a colony.
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.
In politics, a common front is an alliance between different groups, forces, or interests in pursuit of a common goal or in opposition to a common enemy.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Conflict escalation is the process by which conflicts grow in severity over time.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolution, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, and the Cold War (including both the Korean War and the Vietnam War).
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.
The Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) is an international treaty that prohibits the use, transfer, and stockpiling of cluster bombs, a type of explosive weapon which scatters submunitions ("bomblets") over an area.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.
Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
CounterPunch is a magazine published six times per year in the United States that covers politics in a manner its editors describe as "muckraking with a radical attitude".
Country Joe and the Fish was an American psychedelic rock band formed in Berkeley, California, in 1965.
Credibility gap is a term that came into wide use with journalism, political and public discourse in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s.
Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. (September 15, 1914 – September 4, 1974) was a United States Army general who commanded military operations in the Vietnam War from 1968–1972, which saw U.S. troop strength in South Vietnam reduced from a peak of 543,000 to 49,000.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
Curtis LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.
The 122mm D-74 towed gun is a Soviet built gun.
Da Nang International Airport (Sân bay Quốc tế Đà Nẵng) is located in Da Nang, the largest city in central Vietnam.
Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.
Dương Văn Minh (16 February 1916 – 6 August 2001), popularly known as Big Minh, was a South Vietnamese politician and a senior general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and a politician during the presidency of Ngô Đình Diệm.
Dean Gooderham Acheson (pronounced; April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer.
David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is an alert state used by the United States Armed Forces.
A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.
The Degar, also known as Montagnard, are the indigenous peoples of the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
Democide is a term proposed by R. J. Rummel, who defined it as "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command".
The state of Kampuchea (កម្ពុជា; Kâmpŭchéa; Kampuchéa), officially Democratic Kampuchea (DK; កម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ; Kâmpŭchéa Prâcheathippadey; Kampuchéa démocratique), existed between 1975 and 1979 in present-day Cambodia.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Georgette Louise Meyer (March 14, 1919 – November 4, 1965) known as Dickey Chapelle was an American photojournalist known for her work as a war correspondent from World War II through the Vietnam War.
Dioxin may refer to.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
The Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam) is a Cambodian non-governmental organization whose mission is to research and record the era of Democratic Kampuchea (April 17, 1975 – January 7, 1979) for the purposes of memory and justice.
The domino theory was a theory prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s that posited that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
In 2009 Đặng Nhật Minh's film Don't Burn (Đừng Đốt), starring Tina Duong, Minh Huong and Ben Rindner, about the martyr Đặng Thùy Trâm, premiered at the International 19th Annual took place in Fukuoka, Japan, winning the audience prize.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk is a single seat subsonic carrier-capable attack aircraft developed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps in the early 1950s.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Draft evasion is any successful attempt to elude a government-imposed obligation to serve in the military forces of one's nation.
On December 1, 1969, the Selective Service System of the United States conducted two lotteries to determine the order of call to military service in the Vietnam War for men born from 1944 to 1950.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Earthscan is an English-language publisher of books and journals on climate change, sustainable development and environmental technology for academic, professional and general readers.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Easter Offensive, officially known as The 1972 Spring - Summer Offensive (Chiến dịch Xuân Hè 1972) by North Vietnam and NLF, or Red fiery summer (Mùa hè đỏ lửa) as romanticized in South Vietnamese literature, was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, the regular army of North Vietnam) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam) and the United States military between 30 March and 22 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Edward Geary Lansdale (February 6, 1908 – February 23, 1987) was a United States Air Force officer who served in the Office of Strategic Services and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Eleanor Ardel Vietti (November 5, 1927 – disappeared May 30, 1962) was an American physician and missionary.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
The United States Embassy in Saigon was first established in June 1952, and moved into a new building in 1967 and eventually closed in 1975. The embassy was the scene of a number of significant events of the Vietnam War, most notably the Viet Cong attack during the Tet Offensive which helped turn American public opinion against the war, and the helicopter evacuation during the Fall of Saigon after which the embassy closed permanently. In 1995, the U.S. and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam formally established relations and the embassy grounds and building were handed back to the United States. The former embassy was subsequently demolished in 1998 and is currently a park inside of the U.S. Consulate General's compound in what is now called Ho Chi Minh City.
The Escape of the Provisional Revolutionary Government was a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during mid-1970 by the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) during the Vietnam War.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
James Henry Miller (25 January 1915 – 22 October 1989), better known by his stage name Ewan MacColl, was an English folk singer, songwriter, communist, labour activist, actor, poet, playwright and record producer born in Lancashire to Scottish parents.
For the album see Intelligence Failure Failure in the intelligence cycle or intelligence failure, is the outcome of the inadequacies within the intelligence cycle.
Faith of My Fathers is a 1999 bestselling non-fiction book by United States Senator John McCain with Mark Salter.
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The First Battle of Quảng Trị resulted in the first major victory for the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) during the Easter Offensive of 1972.
The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
Force protection (FP): Preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against Department of Defense and U.S. Coast Guard personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information.
A forced confession is a confession obtained by a suspect or a prisoner under means of torture (including enhanced interrogation techniques) or other forms of duress.
Fort Bragg, North Carolina is a military installation of the United States Army and is the largest military installation in the world (by population) with more than 50,000 active duty personnel.
Fragging is the deliberate killing or attempted killing by a soldier of a fellow soldier, usually a superior officer or non-commissioned officer (NCO).
Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter and film composer.
Frederick Carlton Weyand (September 15, 1916February 10, 2010) was a United States Army general.
Free World Military Forces (FWMF) was a military force composed of a collective group of six nations who sent troops to fight in the Vietnam War under the FWMF banner, assisting the United States and South Vietnam.
A free-fire zone in U.S. military parlance is a fire control measure, used for coordination between adjacent combat units.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
Full Metal Jacket is a 1987 British-American war film directed and produced by Stanley Kubrick and starring Matthew Modine, R. Lee Ermey, Vincent D'Onofrio and Adam Baldwin.
Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America.
Gabriel Morris Kolko (August 17, 1932 – May 19, 2014) was an American-born Canadian historian and author.
Gareth Porter (born June 18, 1942) is an American historian, investigative journalist, author and policy analyst specializing in U.S. national security policy.
George Stanley McGovern (July 19, 1922 – October 21, 2012) was an American historian, author, U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972 presidential election.
George McTurnan KahinSometimes referred to as George Kahin or George McT.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Girl from Hanoi (Em bé Hà Nội) is a 1975 Vietnamese drama film directed by Hải Ninh.
Graham Anderson Martin (September 22, 1912 – March 13, 1990) succeeded Ellsworth Bunker as United States Ambassador to South Vietnam in 1973.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
Group 559 was a transportation and logistical unit of the People's Army of Vietnam.
The GRUNK, a French acronym for Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea (Gouvernement royal d'union nationale du Kampuchéa, រាជរដ្ឋាភិបាលរួបរួមជាតិកម្ពុជា), was a government-in-exile of Cambodia, based in Beijing, that was in existence between 1970 and 1976.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.
True color satellite image of the Gulf of Tonkin The Gulf of Tonkin (Vịnh Bắc Bộ,; also simplified Chinese: 东京湾; traditional Chinese: 東京灣; pinyin: Dōngjīng Wān) is a body of water located off the coast of northern Vietnam and southern China.
The Gulf of Tonkin incident (Sự kiện Vịnh Bắc Bộ), also known as the USS Maddox incident, was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution or the Southeast Asia Resolution,, was a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
Hamburger Hill is a 1987 American war film about the actual assault of the U.S. Army's 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment, part of the 3rd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division "Screaming Eagles", on a well-fortified position, including trenchworks and bunkers, of the North Vietnamese Army on Ap Bia Mountain near the Laotian border.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Harold Keith "Johnny" Johnson (February 22, 1912 – September 24, 1983) was a United States Army general and Chief of Staff (1964–1968).
Hỏa Lò Prison was a prison used by the French colonists in Vietnam for political prisoners, and later by North Vietnam for U.S. Prisoners of War during the Vietnam War.
The Hà My Massacre was a massacre purportedly conducted by the South Korean Marines on 25 February 1968 of unarmed citizens in Hà My village, Dien Duong commune, Điện Bàn District Quảng Nam Province in South Vietnam.
Đạo Hòa Hảo (Chữ Nôm), also Hoahaoism, is a lay-Buddhist organization, founded in 1939 by Huỳnh Phú Sổ (Popularly called Phật thầy, "Buddha Master" in Vietnamese), a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam.
Hearts and Minds (Vietnam) or winning hearts and minds refers to the strategy and programs used by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to win the popular support of the Vietnamese people and to help defeat the Viet Cong insurgency.
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (July 5, 1902 – February 27, 1985), sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II, was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a United States ambassador.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
History Detectives is a documentary television series on PBS.
The history of Cambodia, a country in mainland Southeast Asia, can be traced back to at least the 5th millennium BC.
Evidence for modern human presence in the northern and central highlands of Indochina, that constitute the territories of the modern Laotian nation-state dates back to the Lower Paleolithic.
Prior to the 1600s China and Russia were on opposite ends of Siberia, which was populated by independent nomads.
Vietnam's recorded history stretches back to the mid-to-late 3rd century BCE, when Âu Lạc and Nanyue (Nam Việt in Vietnamese) were established (Nanyue conquered Âu Lạc in 179 BCE).
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
The Hồ Chí Minh trail (also known in Vietnam as the "Trường Sơn trail") was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia.
The Hoa (Hua 華 in Mandarin Chinese, literally "Chinese") are a minority group living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered ethnic Chinese ("Overseas Chinese").
Hoàng Văn Thái (1 May 1915 – 2 July 1986), born Hoàng Văn Xiêm, was a Vietnamese Army General and a communist political figure.
Huế (is a city in central Vietnam that was the seat of Nguyễn Dynasty emperors from 1802 to 1945, and capital of the protectorate of Annam. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
The Huế Phật Đản shootings were the deaths of nine unarmed Buddhist civilians on 8 May 1963 in the city of Huế, South Vietnam at the hands of the army and security forces of the Roman Catholic government of Ngô Đình Diệm.
Huỳnh Tấn Phát (15 February 1913, near Mỹ Tho, French Indochina – 30 September 1989, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) was a South Vietnamese communist politician and revolutionary. He was a member of the First National Assembly (Democratic Republic of Vietnam), chairman of the Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam, and, after unification, Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam. Huỳnh Tấn Phát joined the Communist Party of Vietnam in March 1945, and began revolutionary activities in Saigon, whereupon he was appointed Deputy Director of Information and Press Committee for the South. When the French re-occupied Saigon after World War II, they had him arrested and sentenced to two years in prison. Upon his release he resumed his revolutionary activities and in 1949 was appointed commissioner UBKCHC south, and the District Commissioner UBKCHC for Saigon - Cholon. Huỳnh Tấn Phát became chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (PRG) on its formation in 1969. Upon the surrender of the South Vietnamese government on 30 April 1975, the PRG became the nominal government of South Vietnam. He held this post until 2 July 1976, when the country was reunified with the North, making him the only communist South Vietnamese prime minister. From 1976 to 1982 he was a vice premier in Vietnam, and in 1982 he became a Vice President of the Council of State. For his devotion to the revolution he was awarded the Order of Ho Chi Minh.
Major General Huỳnh Văn Cao (26 September 1927 – 26 February 2013) was a major general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam.
The Hue–Da Nang Campaign was a series of military actions conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) during the Vietnam War, also known in Vietnam as the American War.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco (20 September 1897 – 18 July 1967) was a Brazilian military leader and politician.
I Field Force, Vietnam was a corps-level command of the United States Army during the Vietnam War.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
Independence Palace (Dinh Độc Lập), also known as Reunification Palace (Dinh Thống Nhất), built on the site of the former Norodom Palace, is a landmark in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The Indochina refugee crisis was the large outflow of people from the former French colonies of Indochina, comprising the countries of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, after communist governments were established in 1975.
The Indochina Wars (Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia from 1946 until 1989, between communist Indochinese forces against mainly French, South Vietnamese, American, Cambodian, Laotian and Chinese forces.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
The Institute of Historical Research (IHR) is a British educational organisation providing resources and training for historical researchers.
Insubordination is the act of willfully disobeying an order of one's superior.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
The insurgency in Laos refers to the ongoing, albeit sporadic, military conflict of the Third Indochina War between the Lao People's Army, and Vietnam People's Army opposed primarily by members of the former "Secret Army" or the Hmong people as well as various other ethnic lowland Lao insurgencies in Laos, who have faced governmental reprisals due to Royal Lao and Hmong support for the American-led, anti-communist campaigns in Laos during the Laotian Civil War—which is an extension to the war itself.
Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.
The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos is an international agreement signed in Geneva on July 23, 1962 between 14 states including Laos.
The International Control Commission (ICC) was an international force established in 1954.
The International Journal of Epidemiology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in epidemiology.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.
The IV Corps was a corps of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), the army of the nation state of South Vietnam that existed from 1955 to 1975.
Jack Bertrand Weinstein (born August 10, 1921) is a United States federal judge in the Eastern District of New York.
James Rodney Schlesinger (February 15, 1929 – March 27, 2014) was an American economist and public servant who was best known for serving as Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
James Chambers, OM (1 April 1948), known professionally as Jimmy Cliff, is a Jamaican ska and reggae musician, multi-instrumentalist, singer, and actor.
Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and activist whose contemporary folk music often includes songs of protest or social justice.
John Bartlow Martin (Hamilton, Ohio, 4 August 1915 – Highland Park, Illinois, 3 January 1987) was an American diplomat, author of 15 books, ambassador, and speechwriter and confidant to many Democratic politicians including Adlai Stevenson, John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Hubert Humphrey.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
The John Jay College of Criminal Justice (John Jay) is a senior college of the City University of New York in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.
John Winston Ono Lennon (9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
John Paul Vann (July 2, 1924 – June 9, 1972) was a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army, later retired, who became well known for his role in the Vietnam War.
Marion Mitchell Morrison (born Marion Robert Morrison; May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed "The Duke", was an American actor and filmmaker.
Joseph Buttinger (30 April 1906, Reichersbeuern, Germany – 4 March 1992, Queens, New York) was an Austrian politician and, after his immigration to the United States, an expert on East Asia.
The Journal of Peace Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews in the fields of peace and conflict studies, conflict resolution, and international security.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Kate Webb (24 March 1943 – 13 May 2007) was a New Zealand-born Australian war correspondent for UPI and Agence France-Presse.
Kaysone Phomvihane (ໄກສອນ ພົມວິຫານ) (13 December 1920 – 21 November 1992) was the leader of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party from 1955 until his death in 1992.
The Kent State shootings (also known as the May 4 massacre or the Kent State massacre)"These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre.
Kent State University (KSU) is a large, primarily residential, public research university in Kent, Ohio, United States.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Khieu Samphan (ខៀវ សំផន; born 27 July 1931) is a former Cambodian communist politician who was the chairman of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979.
The Khmer Krom (ខ្មែរក្រោម, Khơ Me Crộm) are ethnically Khmer people living in the south western part of Vietnam, where they are recognized as one of Vietnam's fifty-three ethnic minorities.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
The Khmer Republic (Khmer: សាធារណរដ្ឋខ្មែរ, République khmère) was the pro–United States military-led republican government of Cambodia that was formally declared on 9 October 1970.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
In military tactics, the kill zone, also known as killing zone, is an area entirely covered by direct and effective fire, an element of ambush within which an approaching enemy force is trapped and destroyed.
The Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Royaume du Cambodge), informally known as the first Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជាទី ១) and the Sangkum Reastr Niyum era (សម័យសង្គមរាស្ត្រនិយម "People's Socialist Community"; Communauté socialiste populaire), referred to Norodom Sihanouk's first administration of Cambodia from 1953 to 1970, an especially significant time in the country's history.
The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953.
The Kit Carson Scouts belonged to a special program initially created by the U.S. Marine Corps during the Vietnam War involving the use of former Viet Cong combatants as intelligence scouts for American infantry units.
Kon Tum is the capital city of Kon Tum Province in Vietnam.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Éditions L'Harmattan, usually known simply as L'Harmattan, is one of the largest French book publishers.
The term Lai Dai Han (or sometimes Lai Daihan/Lai Tai Han) (lai Đại Hàn in Vietnamese:; 라이따이한) is a Vietnamese term for a mixed ancestry person born to a South Korean father and a Vietnamese mother, including the victims of sexual assault by Korean soldiers, during the Vietnam War.
The Lao are a Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, who speak the eponymous language of the Tai–Kadai group.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The Laotian Civil War (1959–75) was fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government, with both sides receiving heavy external support in a proxy war between the global Cold War superpowers.
A last stand is a military situation in which a body of troops holds a defensive position in the face of overwhelming odds.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lê Đức Anh (born 1 December 1920) is a Vietnamese politician and general who served as President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1992 to 1997.
Lê Đức Thọ (14 October 1911 – 13 October 1990), born Phan Đình Khải in Nam Dinh Province, was a Vietnamese revolutionary, general, diplomat, and politician.
Lê Duẩn (7 April 1907 – 10 July 1986) was a Vietnamese communist politician.
Lê Minh Đảo (born c. 1933) is a former South Vietnamese major general who led the 18th Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), nicknamed "The Super Men", at Xuân Lộc, the last major battle of the Vietnam War.
Lê Minh Khuê (born 6 December 1949, in Tĩnh Gia) is a Vietnamese writer.
Colonel Lê Quang Tung (1923 – 1 November 1963) was the commander of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces under the command of Ngô Đình Nhu.
General Lê Trọng Tấn (3 October 1914 – 5 December 1986) was an officer of the Vietnam People's Army during 1945 to 1986.
The Leaders of the Vietnam War listed below comprise the important political and military figures of the Vietnam War.
Leslie Howard "Les" Gelb (born March 4, 1937) is a former correspondent and columnist for The New York Times, a former senior Defense and State Department official, and currently President Emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.
A light tank is a tank variant initially designed for rapid movement, and now primarily employed in the reconnaissance role, or in support of expeditionary forces where main battle tanks cannot be made available.
During the Vietnam War, thousands of U.S. aircraft were lost to antiaircraft artillery (AAA), surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), and fighter interceptors (MiG)s.
This is a list of wars and conflicts in Asia, particularly East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Russia.
This list of genocides by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by genocide.
The Medal of Honor was created during the American Civil War and is the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces.
List of United States servicemembers and civilians missing in action during the Vietnam War (1968–69)
This article is a list of U.S. MIAs of the Vietnam War in the period 1968–69.
This is a list of wars and conflicts involving Vietnam.
The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict between the forces of the Khmer Rouge and the royal forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia from 1967 to 1970, then between the National United Front of Kampuchea and the Khmer Republic from 1970 to 1975.
Protests against the Vietnam War took place in the 1960s and 1970s.
The Lockheed AC-130 gunship is a heavily armed, long-endurance ground-attack variant of the C-130 Hercules transport fixed-wing aircraft.
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed (now Lockheed Martin).
Marshal Lon Nol (លន់ នល់, also លន់ ណុល; November 13, 1913 – November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister of Cambodia twice (1966–67; 1969–71), as well as serving repeatedly as Defense Minister.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
The M1 GarandOfficially designated as U.S. rifle, caliber.30, M1, later simply called Rifle, Caliber.30, M1, also called US Rifle, Cal.
The M102 was a light-towed 105 mm howitzer used by the United States Army in the Vietnam War, the First Gulf War, and the Iraq War.
The M14 rifle, officially the United States Rifle, 7.62 mm, M14, is an American automatic rifle that fires 7.62×51mm NATO (.308 in) ammunition.
The M16 rifle, officially designated Rifle, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16, is a United States military adaptation of the ArmaLite AR-15 rifle.Kern, Danford Allan (2006).. m-14parts.com. A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE, Military History. Fort Leavenworth, KansasKokalis, Peter G.. Nodakspud.com The original M16 was a selective fire 5.56mm rifle with a 20-round magazine. In 1964, the M16 entered U.S. military service and the following year was deployed for jungle warfare operations during the Vietnam War. In 1969, the M16A1 replaced the M14 rifle to become the U.S. military's standard service rifle.Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Stackpole Books. pp. 46–47..Urdang, p. 801. The M16A1 improvements include a bolt-assist, chrome plated bore and a new 30-round magazine. In 1983, the U.S. Marine Corps adopted the M16A2 rifle and the U.S. Army adopted it in 1986. The M16A2 fires the improved 5.56×45mm NATO (M855/SS109) cartridge and has a new adjustable rear sight, case deflector, heavy barrel, improved handguard, pistol grip and buttstock, as well as a semi-auto and three-round burst only fire selector. Adopted in 1998, the M16A4 is the fourth generation of the M16 series.Weapons of the Modern Marines, by Michael Green, MBI Publishing Company, 2004, page 16 It is equipped with a removable carrying handle and Picatinny rail for mounting optics and other ancillary devices. The M16 has also been widely adopted by other militaries around the world. Total worldwide production of M16s has been approximately 8 million, making it the most-produced firearm of its 5.56 mm caliber. The U.S. Military has largely replaced the M16 in combat units with a shorter and lighter version named the M4 carbine.
The M18A1 Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine developed for the United States Armed Forces.
The M48 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) that was designed in the United States.
The M60, officially the United States Machine Gun, Caliber 7.62 mm, M60, is a family of American general-purpose machine guns firing 7.62×51mm NATO or modified 7.62×54mmR cartridges from a disintegrating belt of M13 links.
The M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate (typically 6,000 rounds per minute).
A machine pistol is typically a handgun-style machine gun, capable of fully automatic or burst fire, and chambered for pistol cartridges.
Madam, or, as French, madame or, is a polite form of address for women, often contracted to ma'am.
Trần Lệ Xuân (22 August 1924 – 24 April 2011), more popularly known in English as Madame Nhu, was the de facto First Lady of South Vietnam from 1955 to 1963.
The madman theory is a political theory commonly associated with U.S. President Richard Nixon's foreign policy.
The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
The Many Flags campaign was an initiative by United States President Lyndon Johnson to get U.S. allies in Asia and the Pacific to participate in the Vietnam War in support of South Vietnam.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Mashable is a digital media website founded by Pete Cashmore in 2005.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
The Huế Massacre (Thảm sát tại Huế Tết Mậu Thân, or Thảm sát Tết Mậu Thân ở Huế, lit. translation: "Tết Offensive Massacre in Huế") is the name given to the summary executions and mass killings perpetrated by the Việt Cộng (VC) and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) during their capture, occupation and later withdrawal from the city of Huế during the Tết Offensive, considered one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
General Maxwell Davenport "Max" Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer and diplomat of the mid-20th century.
PHASE II of the Tet Offensive of 1968 (also known as the May Offensive, "Little Tet", and "Mini-Tet") was launched by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and Viet Cong (VC) against targets throughout South Vietnam, including Saigon from 29 April to 30 May 1968.
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.
McGeorge "Mac" Bundy (March 30, 1919 – September 16, 1996) was an American expert in foreign and defense policy, serving as United States National Security Advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson from 1961 through 1966.
The McNamara Line was an operational strategy employed by the United States in 1966–1968 during the Vietnam War to prevent infiltration of South Vietnam by NVA forces from North Vietnam and Laos.
The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.
Melbourne University Publishing (MUP) is the book publishing arm of the University of Melbourne.
Melvyn Paul Leffler (born May 31, 1945 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American historian and educator, currently Edward Stettinius Professor of History at the University of Virginia.
Memot District (ស្រុកមេមត់) is a district (srok) located in Tboung Khmum Province, Cambodia.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Michael Cimino (February 3, 1939 – July 2, 2016) was an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and author.
Major General Michael D. Healy (June 13, 1926 – April 14, 2018) was a general officer in the United States Army who spent 35 years serving in the military, completing tours in Korea and Vietnam.
Michael Otterman is a freelance journalist and documentary filmmaker based in New York City and Sydney.
Military advisors, or combat advisors, are soldiers sent to foreign nations to aid that nation with its military training, organization, and other various military tasks.
Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) is a designation for United States military advisers sent to other countries to assist in the training of conventional armed forces and facilitate military aid.
Military Assistance Command, Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG) was a highly classified, multi-service United States special operations unit which conducted covert unconventional warfare operations prior to and during the Vietnam War.
A military helicopter is a helicopter that is either specifically built or converted for use by military forces.
Military necessity, along with distinction, and proportionality, are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
The Ministry of Defence (Bộ Quốc phòng) is the governmental ministry of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam that manages, coordinates and supervises military affairs, including all military units, paramilitary units, and similar agencies in the country.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Kementerian Luar Negeri), abbreviated KLN, is a ministry of the Government of Malaysia that is responsible for foreign affairs, Malaysian diaspora, foreigners in Malaysia, diplomacy, foreign relations, counter terrorism, bilateral affairs, multilateral affairs, ASEAN, international protocol, consular services, maritime affairs, chemical weapons.
Ministry of Public Security (Bộ Công an) was the ministry of the interior of Vietnam (Bộ Nội vụ).
Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
A monstrous birth, variously defined in history, is a birth in which a defect of some sort renders the animal or human child monstrous.
Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.
The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam was a massive demonstration and teach-in across the United States against the United States involvement in the Vietnam War.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
The Mỹ Lai Massacre (Thảm sát Mỹ Lai) was the Vietnam War mass murder of unarmed Vietnamese civilians by U.S. troops in South Vietnam on 16 March 1968.
Napalm is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The national debt of the United States is the public debt carried by the federal government of the United States, which is measured as the face value of the currently outstanding Treasury securities that have been issued by the Treasury and other federal government agencies.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Press Club is a professional organization and business center for journalists and communications professionals.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Neil Percival Young, (born November 12, 1945), is a Canadian singer-songwriter, musician, producer, director and screenwriter.
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
NESTOR was a family of compatible, tactical, wideband secure voice systems developed by the U.S. National Security Agency and widely deployed during the Vietnam War.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development.
The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world who campaigned for a broad range of social issues such as civil and political rights, feminism, gay rights, abortion rights, gender roles and drug policy reforms.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Ngô Đình Nhu (7 October 1910 – 2 November 1963) was a Vietnamese archivist and politician.
Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục (6 October 1897 – 13 December 1984) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Huế, Vietnam and a member of the Ngô family who ruled South Vietnam in the years leading up to the Vietnam War.
Ngô Quang Trưởng (13 December 1929 — 22 January 2007) was an officer in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).
Ngô Đình Diệm (3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a South Vietnamese politician.
Ngô Đình Diệm, the President of South Vietnam, made a state visit to the United States, the main ally of his government, in 1957.
Nguyễn Cao Kỳ (8 September 1930 – 23 July 2011) served as the chief of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force in the 1960s, before leading the nation as the prime minister of South Vietnam in a military junta from 1965 to 1967.
Nguyễn Chánh Thi (23 February 1923 – 23 June 2007) was an officer in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).
Nguyễn Chí Thanh (1 January 1914 - 6 July 1967) was a Vietnamese General in the Vietnam People's Army and former Vietnamese politician.
Nguyễn Hữu An (October 1, 1926 – April 9, 1995) was a general in the People's Army of Vietnam.
Nguyễn Hữu Thọ (10 July 1910 – 24 December 1996) was a Vietnamese revolutionary and Chairman of Consultative Council of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam from 6 June 1969 to 2 July 1976, and the Chairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam from 4 July 1981 to 18 June 1987.
Nguyễn Khánh (November 8, 1927 – January 11, 2013) was a South Vietnamese military officer and Army of the Republic of Vietnam general who served in various capacities as head of state and prime minister of South Vietnam while at the head of a military junta from January 1964 until February 1965.
Madame Nguyễn Thị Định (15 March 1920 – 26 August 1992) was the first female general of Vietnam People's Army during the Vietnam War.
Nguyễn Thị Bình (born Nguyễn Châu Sa; 26 May 1927) is a Vietnamese communist leader and politician who negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference on behalf of the Viet Cong, or National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam.
Major General Nguyễn Văn Hiếu (23 June 1929, Tientsin, China – 8 April 1975, Biên Hòa, Vietnam) was a general in the South Vietnamese army.
Nguyễn Văn Linh (1 July 1915 – 27 April 1998) was a Vietnamese revolutionary and politician.
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (5 April 1923 – 29 September 2001) was the president of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1975.
Nha Trang is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
Nick Turse (born 1975) is an American investigative journalist, historian, and author.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nina Simone (born Eunice Kathleen Waymon; February 21, 1933 – April 21, 2003) was an American singer, songwriter, pianist, arranger, and activist in the Civil Rights Movement.
The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth during a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by US President Richard Nixon and later formalized in his speech on Vietnamization on November 3, 1969.
NLF and PAVN battle tactics comprised a flexible mix of guerrilla and conventional warfare battle tactics used by the Main Force of the People's Liberation Armed Forces (known as the National Liberation Front or Viet Cong in the West) and the NVA (People's Army-Vietnam) to defeat their U.S. and South Vietnamese (GVN/ARVN) opponents during the Vietnam War.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
A non-belligerent is a person, a state, or other organization that does not fight in a given conflict.
Norman Morrison (December 29, 1933 – November 2, 1965) was a Baltimore Quaker best known for his act of self-immolation at age 31 to protest United States involvement in the Vietnam War.
Norodom Sihanouk (នរោត្តម សីហនុ; 31 October 192215 October 2012) was a Cambodian royal politician and the King of Cambodia.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
The North–South divide is broadly considered a socio-economic and political divide.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
Nuon Chea (នួន ជា; born Lau Kim Korn, 7 July 1926), also known as Long Bunruot (ឡុង ប៊ុនរត្ន) or Rungloet Laodi (รุ่งเลิศ เหล่าดี), is a Cambodian former communist politician who was the chief ideologist of the Khmer Rouge.
Odd Arne Westad FBA (born 5 January 1960) is a Norwegian historian specializing in the Cold War and contemporary East Asian history.
The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is a headquarters-level staff of the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.
William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946) is an American writer and filmmaker.
During Operation Arc Light (Arc Light, and sometimes Arclight) from 1965 to 1973, the United States deployed B-52F Stratofortresses from bases in the US to Guam to provide close air support to ground combat operations in Vietnam.
Operation Attleboro was a Vietnam War search and destroy operation by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade with the objective to discover the location(s) of the North Vietnamese or Viet Cong base areas and force them to fight.
Operation Barrel Roll was a covert, Top Secret, U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division (later the Seventh Air Force) and U.S. Navy Task Force 77, interdiction and close air support campaign conducted in the Kingdom of Laos between 14 December 1964 and 29 March 1973 concurrent with the Vietnam War.
Operation Cedar Falls was a military operation in 1967 of the Vietnam War conducted primarily by US forces.
Operation Chenla II or Chenla Two was a major military operation conducted by the Khmer National Armed Forces (FANK) during the Cambodian Civil War from 20 August until 3 December 1971.
Operation Eagle Pull was the United States military evacuation by air of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, on 12 April 1975.
Operation Flaming Dart was a U.S. and (South) Republic of Vietnam Air Force military operation, conducted in two parts, during the Vietnam War.
Operation Freedom Deal was a United States Seventh Air Force interdiction and close air support campaign waged in Cambodia between 19 May 1970 and 15 August 1973, as an expansion of the Vietnam War, as well as the Cambodian Civil War.
Operation Frequent Wind was the final phase in the evacuation of American civilians and "at-risk" Vietnamese from Saigon, South Vietnam prior to the takeover of the city by the North Vietnamese Army (PAVN) in the Fall of Saigon.
Operation Giant Lance was a secret military operation by the United States that simulated a nuclear attack on the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Operation Junction City was an 82-day military operation conducted by United States and Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam) forces begun on 22 February 1967 during the Vietnam War.
Operation Lam Son 719 or 9th Route - Southern Laos Campaign (Chiến dịch Lam Sơn 719 or Chiến dịch đường 9 – Nam Lào) was a limited-objective offensive campaign conducted in the southeastern portion of the Kingdom of Laos.
Operation Linebacker was the codename of a U.S. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 air interdiction campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 9 May to 23 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.
Operation Linebacker II was a US Seventh Air Force and US Navy Task Force 77 aerial bombing campaign, conducted against targets in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) during the final period of US involvement in the Vietnam War.
Operation Masher (24 January—6 March 1966) was in early 1966 the largest search and destroy mission that had been carried out in the Vietnam War up until that time.
Operation Menu was the codename of a covert United States Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970 as part of both the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War.
Operation Pierce Arrow was a U.S. bombing campaign at the beginning of the Vietnam War.
Operation Ranch Hand was a U.S. military operation during the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971.
Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained aerial bombardment campaign conducted by the U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
Operation Speedy Express was a controversial U.S. Army 9th U.S. Infantry Division operation of the Vietnam War conducted in the Mekong Delta provinces Kiến Hòa and Vĩnh Bình.
Operation Wheeler/Wallowa was a U.S. offensive operation during the Vietnam War, launched on 11 September 1967 and concluding in February 1968.
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U.S. military in the Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
The Paris Peace Accords, officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War.
Park Chung-hee (or; 14 November 1917 – 26 October 1979) was a South Korean politician, general, who served as the President of South Korea from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, assuming that office after first ruling the country as head of a military junta installed by the May 16 coup in 1961.
The Pathet Lao (Lao: ປະເທດລາວ, "Lao Nation") was a communist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid-20th century.
Patrol Craft Fast (PCF), also known as Swift Boats, were all-aluminum, long, shallow-draft vessels operated by the United States Navy, initially to patrol the coastal areas and later for work in the interior waterways as part of the brown-water navy to interdict Vietcong movement of arms and munitions, transport Vietnamese forces and insert SEAL teams for counterinsurgency (COIN) operations during the Vietnam War.
Paul Donal Harkins (May 15, 1904 – August 21, 1984) was a career officer in the United States Army and attained the rank of general.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Margaret "Peggy" Seeger (born June 17, 1935) is an American folksinger.
The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.
The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF), or Viet Cong's army, was the official army of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Peter Seeger (May 3, 1919 – January 27, 2014) was an American folk singer and social activist.
Peter Gregg Arnett, ONZM (born 13 November 1934) is a New Zealand-born journalist holding both New Zealand and US citizenship.
Phase III of the Tet Offensive of 1968 (also known as the August Offensive or Third Offensive) was launched by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and Viet Cong (VC) from 17 August to 27 September 1968.
Phạm Văn Đồng (1 March 1906 – 29 April 2000) was a Vietnamese politician who served as Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1955 to 1976 and, following unification, as Prime Minister of Vietnam from 1976 until he retired in 1987 under the rule of Lê Duẩn and Nguyễn Văn Linh.
Bình Long provinces in map of South Vietnam Phước Long is a former province of Southeast region of Vietnam.
Phước Tuy Province was a province of the former South Vietnam.
Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940 – April 9, 1976) was an American protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer) and songwriter who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and distinctive voice.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phnom Penh (or; ភ្នំពេញ phnum pɨñ), formerly known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul (ក្រុងចតុមុខសិរិមង្គល), is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia.
The Phoenix Program (Chiến dịch Phụng Hoàng, a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) was a program designed, coordinated, and executed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), United States special operations forces, U.S. Army intelligence collection units from the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV—the joint-service command that provided command and control for all U.S. advisory and assistance efforts in Vietnam), special forces operatives from the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV), and the Republic of Vietnam's (South Vietnam) security apparatus during the Vietnam War.
The Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre (퐁니·퐁넛 양민학살 사건, Vietnamese: Thảm sát Phong Nhất và Phong Nhị) was a massacre reported to have been conducted by the 2nd Marine Division of the South Korean Marine Corps on 12 February 1968 of unarmed citizens in Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất village, Điện Bàn District of Quảng Nam Province in South Vietnam.
Major General Phoumi Nosavan (27 January 1920 – 1985)Stuart-Fox, pp.
Phoumi Vongvichit (6 April 1909 – 7 January 1994) was a leading figure of the Pathet Lao and an elder statesman of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
Pierre Isaac Isidore Mendès-France (11 January 1907 – 18 October 1982), known as PMF, was a French politician who served as President of the Council of MinistersEquivalent in the French Fourth Republic to Prime Minister for eight months from 1954 to 1955.
Platoon is a 1986 American anti-war film written and directed by Oliver Stone, starring Tom Berenger, Willem Dafoe, and Charlie Sheen.
Pleiku is a city in central Vietnam, located in that nation's central highland region.
Pol Pot (ប៉ុល ពត; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976 to 1979.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
A political midlife crisis is a turning point or watershed moment in the fortunes of a governance entity such as an empire, nation, faction, political party, or international alliance.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
PolitiFact.com is a blog operated by the editorial board of theTampa Bay Times, in which reporters and editors from the Times and affiliated media seek to fact-check statements by members of Congress, the White House, lobbyists, and interest groups.
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins, are a group of polyhalogenated organic compounds that are significant environmental pollutants.
Population and Development Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Population Council.
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is the most common subtype of porphyria.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
A precision-guided munition (PGM, smart weapon, smart munition, smart bomb) is a guided munition intended to precisely hit a specific target, to minimize collateral damage and increase lethality against intended targets.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
A presidential proclamation is a statement issued by a President on an issue of public policy, and is a kind of Presidential directive.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Project GAMMA was the name given in 1968 to Detachment B-57, Company E (Special Operations), 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, U.S. Army in Vietnam from 1967 to 1970.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against military and bureaucratic elites, who responded with an escalation of political repression.
The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, or PRG, was formed on June 8, 1969, as an underground government opposed to the government of the Republic of Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
The PT-76 is a Soviet amphibious light tank that was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armed forces.
PublicAffairs (or PublicAffairs Books) is an imprint of the Perseus Books Group, an American book publishing company located in New York City.
Quảng Nam is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Quảng Ngãi is a city in central Vietnam.
Quảng Trị is a city in Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Quảng Trị is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, north of the former imperial capital of Huế.
The Rainbow Herbicides are a group of "tactical use" chemicals used by the United States military in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official title given to the prison camps operated by the Communist government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Regime change is the replacement of one government regime with another.
In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.
The Republic of Korea Army (ROKA; 대한민국 육군; Hanja: 大韓民國 陸軍; Revised Romanization: Daehanminguk Yuk-gun), also known as the ROK Army, is the army of South Korea, responsible for ground-based warfare.
The Republic of Korea Marine Corps (ROKMC; 대한민국 해병대; Hanja: 大韓民國海兵隊; Revised Romanization: Daehanminguk Haebyeongdae), also known as the ROK Marine Corps, or the ROK Marines, is the marine corps of South Korea.
The Vietnamese Airborne Division was one of the earliest components of the Republic of Vietnam Military Forces (Vietnamese: Quân lực Việt Nam Cộng hòa – QLVNCH).
Rescue Dawn is a 2006 American epic war drama film written and directed by Werner Herzog, based on an adapted screenplay written from his 1997 documentary film Little Dieter Needs to Fly.
The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) are a group of college and university-based officer training programs for training commissioned officers of the United States Armed Forces.
Reunification Day (Ngày Thống nhất), Victory Day (Ngày Chiến thắng) or Liberation Day (Ngày Giải phóng or Ngày Giải phóng miền Nam) or the official name of Day of liberating the South for national reunification (Giải phóng miền Nam, thống nhất đất nước) is a public holiday in Vietnam that marks the event when Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) on April 30, 1975.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
Technical Sergeant Richard Bernard Fitzgibbon Jr. (June 21, 1920 – June 8, 1956), USAF, was the first American to lose his life in the conflict that would later be known as the Vietnam War.
Richard Charles Albert Holbrooke (April 24, 1941 – December 13, 2010) was an American diplomat, magazine editor, author, professor, Peace Corps official, and investment banker.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, and as a U.S. Senator for New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968.
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
The role of the United States in the Vietnam War began after World War II and escalated into full commitment during the Vietnam War from 1955 to 1975.
Ronald H. Spector is a military historian, who contributes to scholarly journals and also teaches history.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (Khmer: កងយុទ្ធពលខេមរភូមិន្ទ, KangYuthipol Khemarak Phumin) (RCAF) is the national military forces of Cambodia.
The Royal Thai Army Expeditionary Division, or the Black Panthers was a unit of the Royal Thai Army which served in the Vietnam War, replacing the Royal Thai Volunteer Regiment (Queen's Cobras) in 1968.
The Royal Thai Volunteer Regiment, or the Queen's Cobras was a unit of the military of Thailand which served in the Vietnam War.
The RPG-2 (Russian: РПГ-2, Ручной противотанковый гранатомёт, Ruchnoy Protivotankovy Granatomyot; English: "hand-held antitank grenade launcher") was a man-portable, shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon designed in the Soviet Union.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Search and Destroy, Seek and Destroy, or even simply S&D, refers to a military strategy that became a large component of the Malayan Emergency and the Vietnam War.
Secure voice (alternatively secure speech or ciphony) is a term in cryptography for the encryption of voice communication over a range of communication types such as radio, telephone or IP.
Self-immolation is an act of killing oneself as a sacrifice.
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
The Sihanouk Trail was a logistical supply system in Cambodia used by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and its National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF, or Viet Cong) allies during the Vietnam War (1960–1975).
The silent majority is an unspecified large group of people in a country or group who do not express their opinions publicly.
Sino-Soviet relations (Советско-китайские отношения, Sovetsko-kitayskiye otnosheniya) refers to the diplomatic relationship between the Chinese Republic and the various forms of Soviet Power which emerged from the Russian Revolution of 1917 to 1991, when the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
The Sino-Vietnamese War (Chiến tranh biên giới Việt-Trung), also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief border war fought between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in early 1979.
Sisowath Sirik Matak (ស៊ីសុវត្ថិ សិរិមតះ; January 22, 1914April 21, 1975) was a member of the Cambodian royal family, under the House of Sisowath.
Small unit tactics is the application of army military doctrine for the combat deployment of platoons and smaller units in a particular strategic and logistic environment.
A soft-tissue sarcoma is a form of sarcoma that develops in connective tissue, though the term is sometimes applied to elements of the soft tissue that are not currently considered connective tissue.
The Son Thang Massacre was a massacre conducted by the United States Marine Corps during Operation Imperial Lake on 19 February 1970, in which five women and 11 children were killed.
Prince Souphanouvong (13 July 1909 – 9 January 1995) was, along with his half-brother Prince Souvanna Phouma and Prince Boun Oum of Champasak, one of the “Three Princes” who represented respectively the communist (pro-Vietnam), neutralist and royalist political factions in Laos.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
During the Vietnam War, the South Vietnamese Popular Force (nghĩa quân) (sometimes abbreviated RF/PF or PF) consisted of local militias that protected their home villages from attacks by first Viet Cong forces and later by People's Army of Vietnam units.
During the Vietnam War, the South Vietnamese Regional Forces were Army of the Republic of Vietnam militia.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
Prince Souvanna Phouma (7 October 1901 – 10 January 1984) was the leader of the neutralist faction and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Laos several times (1951–1954, 1956–1958, 1960, and 1962–1975).
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.
Major General Spurgeon Neel, MD, (September 24, 1919 - June 6, 2003) was a United States Army physician who pioneered the development of aeromedical evacuation of battlefield casualties.
Stanley Abram Karnow (February 4, 1925 – January 27, 2013) was an American journalist and historian.
Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of that country's head of state, with the latter also acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
Stephen Spiro (1939–2007) was a political activist known for his opposition against the Vietnam War and his advocacy of a consistent life ethic.
A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, or film, whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition.
Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy).
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
The Strategic Hamlet Program (SHP; Ấp Chiến lược) was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the communist insurgency by pacifying the countryside and reducing the influence of the communists among the rural population.
A strategic initiative is an endeavor intended to achieve three interrelated outcomes.
In military science, suppressive fire (commonly called covering fire) is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill its mission".
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
A tactical nuclear weapon (TNW) or non-strategic nuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon, generally smaller in its explosive power, which is designed to be used on a battlefield in military situations, mostly with friendly forces in proximity and perhaps even on contested friendly territory.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
A task force (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity.
Tôn Đức Thắng (August 20, 1888 – March 30, 1980) was the second and last president of North Vietnam and the first president of the reunified Vietnam under the leadership of General Secretary Lê Duẩn.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Tet Offensive (Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968), or officially called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Tết Mậu Thân 1968) by North Vietnam and the NLF (National Liberation Front), was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies.
Thích Quảng Đức (189711 June 1963, born Lâm Văn Túc), was a Vietnamese Mahayana Buddhist monk who burned himself to death at a busy Saigon road intersection on 11 June 1963.
"I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die Rag" is a song by the American psychedelic rock band Country Joe and the Fish, written by Country Joe McDonald, and first released as the opening track on the extended play Rag Baby Talking Issue No.
The Abandoned Field: Free Fire Zone (Cánh đồng hoang) is a 1979 Vietnamese drama film directed by.
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period.
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing population in labor camps and artificially created famines.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.
The Critics Group, also known as The London Critics Group, was a group of people who met to explore 'how best to apply the techniques of folk-music and drama to the folk revival' under the direction of Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger, with some participation from Bert Lloyd and Charles Parker.
The Deer Hunter is a 1978 American epic war drama film co-written and directed by Michael Cimino about a trio of Russian American steelworkers whose lives are changed forever after they fought in the Vietnam War.
The Diary of a Young Girl, also known as The Diary of Anne Frank, is a book of the writings from the Dutch language diary kept by Anne Frank while she was in hiding for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.
The Dong-A Ilbo (literally East Asia Daily) is a newspaper in Korea since 1920 with daily circulation of more than 1.2 million and opinion leaders as its main readers.
The Green Berets is a 1968 American war film set in Vietnam featuring John Wayne, Jim Hutton, David Janssen, Aldo Ray, Patrick Wayne, and Jack Soo, based on the 1965 book by Robin Moore.
The Hankyoreh (literally "The Korean Nation" or "One Nation") is a daily newspaper in South Korea.
The Hill Fights (also known as the First Battle of Khe Sanh) was a battle during the Vietnam War between the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) 325C Division and United States Marines on several hill masses north of the Khe Sanh Combat Base in the I Corps Tactical Zone.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Sixties Unplugged: A Kaleidoscopic History of a Disorderly Decade is a 2008 book by Gerard DeGroot.
The Vietnam War is a 10-part, 17-and-a-quarter-hour American television documentary series about the Vietnam War written by Geoffrey C. Ward and directed by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick.
The Walrus is a Canadian general interest magazine which publishes long-form journalism on Canadian and international affairs, along with fiction and poetry by Canadian writers.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties.
The Third Indochina War was a series of interconnected armed conflicts, mainly among the various communist factions over strategic influence in Indochina after peace between the United States and North Vietnam had been concluded in January 1973.
The Thompson submachine gun is an American submachine gun, invented by John T. Thompson in 1918, that became infamous during the Prohibition era, becoming a signature weapon of various organized crime syndicates in the United States.
The Thuy Bo massacre was purportedly conducted by US Marines from 31 January to 1 February 1967, during the Vietnam War in Thủy Bồ village (approximately) in Điện Bàn District, Quảng Nam Province 15km southwest of Đà Nẵng, in an area close to the foothills of the Central Highlands and situated near the Bo Bo Hills.
Tiger Force was the nickname of a long-range reconnaissance patrol unit of the 1st Battalion (Airborne), 327th Infantry Regiment, 1st Brigade (Separate), 101st Airborne Division, Night stalkers unit which fought in the Vietnam War and had committed numerous war crimes.
Thomas Richard Paxton (born October 31, 1937) is an American folk singer-songwriter who has had a music career spanning more than fifty years.
For military soldiers, a tour of duty is usually a period of time spent in combat or in a hostile environment.
General Trần Thiện Khiêm (chữ Hán: 陳善謙; born 15 December 1925) was one of only two, South Vietnamese 4 star Army Generals in the history of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
Trần Văn Hương (1 December 1903 – 27 January 1982) was a South Vietnamese politician.
Nguyễn Chấn, known as Trần Văn Trà (1918 – April 20, 1996) was a Vietnamese general.
Trường Chinh (9 February 1907, Xuân Trường District, Nam Định Province – 30 September 1988, Hanoi) was a Vietnamese communist political leader and theoretician.
A turboshaft engine is a form of gas turbine that is optimized to produce shaft power rather than jet thrust.
Tuy Hòa is the capital city of Phú Yên Province in south-central Vietnam.
The Type 59 (industrial designation: WZ-120) main battle tank is a Chinese-produced version of the Soviet T-54A tank, the earliest model of the ubiquitous T-54/55 series.
The Norinco Type 62 is a Chinese light Tank developed in the early 1960s and is based on the Chinese Type 59 with a reduced main gun calibre, lighter armour and a smaller suite of electronics and other equipment to help reduce weight.
Ulysses Simpson Grant Sharp Jr. (April 2, 1906 – December 12, 2001) was a United States Navy four star admiral who served as Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT) from 1963 to 1964; and Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Command (CINCPAC) from 1964 to 1968.
Naval Base Subic Bay was a major ship-repair, supply, and rest and recreation facility of the Spanish Navy and subsequently the United States Navy located in Zambales, Philippines.
Unexploded ordnance (UXO, sometimes abbreviated as UO), unexploded bombs (UXBs), or explosive remnants of war (ERW) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, land mines, naval mines, cluster munition, etc.) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded.
Unilateralism is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action.
The United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races (FULRO, Front Unifié de Lutte des Races Opprimées, Mặt trận Thống nhất Đấu tranh của các Sắc tộc bị Áp bức) was an organization within Vietnam, whose objective was autonomy for the Degar (Montagnard) tribes.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations Security Council "veto power" refers to the power of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States) to veto any "substantive" resolution.
The United States Air Force (USAF) deployed combat aircraft to Thailand from 1961 to 1975 during the Vietnam War.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Army Nurse Corps (AN or ANC) was formally established by the U.S. Congress in 1901.
Members of the U.S. Army Special Forces will emphatically assert that the "Green Beret" is a hat and not the man who wears it.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country; several non-healthcare benefits including disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loans, and life insurance; and provides burial and memorial benefits to eligible veterans and family members at 135 national cemeteries.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York (in case citations, E.D.N.Y.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the entirety of Long Island (including the portion in New York City) and Staten Island.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.
The role of the media in the perception of the Vietnam War has been widely noted.
The election of President and Vice President of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors.
The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960.
The United States presidential election of 1968 was the 46th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968.
The United States presidential election of 1972, the 47th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Seventh Fleet is a numbered fleet (a military formation) of the United States Navy.
United States war crimes are the violations of the laws and customs of war of which the United States Armed Forces are accused of committing since the signing of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.
The University of Malaya (UM; Universiti Malaya) is a public research university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The University of Massachusetts Boston, also known as UMass Boston, is an urban public research university and the third-largest campus in the five-campus University of Massachusetts system.
The University of Texas System (UT System) encompasses 14 educational institutions in the U.S. state of Texas, of which eight are academic universities and six are health institutions.
University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.
USA.gov is the official web portal of the United States federal government.
Vang Pao (Hmong: Vaj Pov; 8 December 1929 – 6 January 2011) was a major general in the Royal Lao Army.
Võ Chí Công (born Võ Toàn; 7 August 1912 – 8 September 2011) was a Vietnamese Communist politician, and the Chairman of the Council of State of Vietnam (Alternatively: President of Vietnam) between 1987 and 1992.
Võ Nguyên Giáp (25 August 1911 – 4 October 2013) was a Vietnamese general in the Vietnam People's Army and a politician.
Võ Văn Kiệt (23 November 1922 – 11 June 2008, AFP, June 11, 2008.) was a Vietnamese politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1991 to 1997.
Văn Tiến Dũng (2 May 1917 – 17 March 2002), born Co Nhue commune, Từ Liêm District, Hanoi, was a Vietnamese general in the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), PAVN chief of staff (1954–74); PAVN commander in chief (1974–80); member of the Central Military–Party Committee (CMPC) (1984-1986) and Socialist Republic of Vietnam defense minister (1980–86).
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
Vesak (Pali: Vesākha, Vaiśākha), also known as Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia and the Philippines and in China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
Victor Harold Krulak (January 7, 1913 – December 29, 2008) was a decorated United States Marine Corps officer who saw action in World War II, Korea and Vietnam.
The Vienna summit was a summit meeting held on June 4, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, between President John F. Kennedy of the United States and Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam People's Air Force (Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam) is the air force of Vietnam.
Vietnam Syndrome, in US politics, is a term used to refer to public aversion to American overseas military involvements, following the domestic controversy over the Vietnam War, which ended in 1975.
Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is an American tax-exempt non-profit organization and corporation founded in 1967 to oppose the United States policy and participation in the Vietnam War.
Estimates of casualties of the Vietnam War vary widely.
The Vietnam War Crimes Working Group (VWCWG) was a Pentagon task force set up in the wake of the My Lai Massacre and its media disclosure, to attempt to ascertain the veracity of emerging claims of war crimes by U.S. armed forces in Vietnam, during the Vietnam War period.
The Vietnam War POW/MIA issue concerns the fate of United States servicemen who were reported as missing in action (MIA) during the Vietnam War and associated theaters of operation in Southeast Asia.
Vietnamese boat people (Thuyền nhân Việt Nam), also known simply as boat people, were refugees who fled Vietnam by boat and ship following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The Vietnamese Rangers, properly known in Vietnamese as the Biệt Động Quân, more commonly known as the ARVN Rangers, were the light infantry of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam.
Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnamese forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops." Brought on by the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive, the policy referred to U.S. combat troops specifically in the ground combat role, but did not reject combat by the U.S. Air Force, as well as the support to South Vietnam, consistent with the policies of U.S. foreign military assistance organizations.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.
William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic politician, businessman, and diplomat.
Wallace Houston Terry, II (April 21, 1938 – May 29, 2003) was an African-American journalist and oral historian, best known for his book about black soldiers in Vietnam, Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War (1984), which served as a basis for the 1995 crime thriller Dead Presidents.
Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 – February 13, 2003) was an American economist and political theorist who served as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to US President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1969.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A War Hawk, or simply hawk, is a term used in politics for someone favouring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.
We Were Soldiers is a 2002 American war film that dramatizes the Battle of Ia Drang on November 14, 1965.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Office of the Press Secretary, or the Press Office, is responsible for gathering and disseminating information to three principal groups: the President, the White House staff, and the media.
White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination, and incendiary munitions.
whitehouse.gov is the official website of the White House and is owned by the United States government.
A wildcat strike action, often referred to as a wildcat strike, is a strike action undertaken by unionized workers without union leadership's authorization, support, or approval; this is sometimes termed an unofficial industrial.
William Robert Anderson (June 17, 1921 – February 25, 2007) was an officer in the United States Navy, and a U.S. Representative from Tennessee from 1965 to 1973.
William Childs Westmoreland (March 26, 1914 – July 18, 2005) was a United States Army general, who most notably commanded U.S. forces during the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1968.
Winning hearts and minds is a concept occasionally expressed in the resolution of war, insurgency, and other conflicts, in which one side seeks to prevail not by the use of superior force, but by making emotional or intellectual appeals to sway supporters of the other side.
The "Winter Soldier Investigation" was a media event sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) from January 31, 1971, to February 2, 1971.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) is the founding and ruling political party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the largest party represented in the Supreme People's Assembly.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Xá Lợi Pagoda raids were a series of synchronized attacks on various Buddhist pagodas in the major cities of South Vietnam shortly after midnight on 21 August 1963.
The Yakovlev Yak-3 (Russian: Я́ковлев Як-3) was a World War II Soviet fighter aircraft.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Zhenbao Island or Damansky Island (о́стров Дама́нский, ostrov Damanskiy) is a small island measuring.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
The Zlin Trener is a family of aircraft that was based on a basic training aircraft, the Z-26.
The 17th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 17 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.
The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held August 26–29 at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1975 Spring Offensive (Chiến dịch Mùa Xuân 1975) or officially known as The General Offensive and Uprising of the Spring 1975 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Mùa Xuân 1975) was the final North Vietnamese campaign in the Vietnam War that led to the capitulation of South Vietnam.
The 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) was a brigade-sized formation which commanded Australian and New Zealand Army units deployed to South Vietnam between 1966 and 1972.
The 1st Cavalry Division ("First Team") is a combined arms division and is one of the most decorated combat divisions of the United States Army.
The 1st Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN)—the army of the nation state of South Vietnam that existed from 1955 to 1975—was part of the I Corps that oversaw the northernmost region of South Vietnam, the centre of Vietnam.
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3.
The 2nd Marine Division (제2해병사단; Hanja: 第2海兵師團), also known as Blue Dragon (청룡; Hanja: 青龍), is an infantry division of the Republic of Korea Marine Corps.
The 5th Special Forces Group (5th SFG(A)) is one of the most decorated active duty United States Army Special Forces groups in the U.S. armed forces.
The 9K32 Strela-2 (Cтрела, "arrow"; NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system (MANPADS) with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance.
The 9M14 Malyutka (Малютка; "Little one", NATO reporting name: AT-3 Sagger) is a manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) wire-guided anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) system developed in the Soviet Union.
The 9th Infantry Division, also known as White Horse after the victory of Battle of White Horse, is an infantry division of the Republic of Korea Army.
'Nam, 'nam, 2nd Indochina War, Aftermath of the Vietnam War, Allied war crimes during the Vietnam War, American War in Vietnam, American invasion of South Vietnam, American invasion of Vietnam, American war crimes in Vietnam, Background to the Vietnam War, Chien tranh Viet Nam, Chiến tranh Việt Nam, Foreign Involvement in the Vietnam War, Nam (war), Operation POW, Resistance War Against America, Second Indo-Chinese War, Second Indochina War, Second Indochinese War, The American War, The Vietnam War, The War in Vietnam, The war of Vietnam, US War in Vietnam, US war on Vietnam, United States invasion of Vietnam, United States war crimes in Vietnam, Veitnam war, Vientam War, Viet Nam War, Viet-Nam War, VietNam War, Vietnam (war), Vietnam Conflict, Vietnam War operations and battles, Vietnam War, 1961-1975, Vietnam Wars, Vietnam conflict, Vietnam war, Vietnam-American War, Vietnamese War, Vietnamese war, Vietnamese-American War, Vietnamese–American War, Vietnamwar, War Against the Americans to Save the Nation, War crimes during the Vietnam War, War in Vietnam, War in vietnam, War of vietnam.