108 relations: A, Acute accent, Alexandre de Rhodes, ASCII, Â, Ê, Ă, Ơ, Ư, B, B with flourish, Back vowel, Buddhism, C, Central vowel, Chữ Nôm, Chinese characters, Circumflex, Classical Chinese, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Combining character, Creaky voice, D, D with stroke, Diacritic, Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Dot (diacritic), E, Egyptian hieroglyphs, English language, Free software, Front vowel, G, Glottal stop, Glottalization, Grave accent, Greek alphabet, H, Hard and soft C, Hồ dynasty, Hà Tĩnh, Hippocrene Books, Hook above, Horn (diacritic), I, International Phonetic Alphabet, Italian orthography, ..., K, Khải Định, L, Latin script, Literary Chinese in Vietnam, M, Mid vowel, Missionary, Murmured voice, N, Nghệ An Province, Nguyen, O, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Orthographic transcription, P, Personal name, Phoenician alphabet, Phonemic orthography, Pluto, Portuguese orthography, Precomposed character, Proper noun, Proto-Sinaitic script, Q, R, Romance languages, S, Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, Society of Jesus, Spelling pronunciation, Syllable, T, Telex (input method), Tilde, Tone (linguistics), Tonkin Free School, U, Unicode, UniKey (software), Upsilon, UTF-8, V, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Vietnamese Braille, Vietnamese calligraphy, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese people, Vietnamese phonology, Vietnamese Quoted-Readable, VISCII, VNI, Windows-1258, X, Y, Yama (Buddhism). Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
Alexandre de Rhodes, S.J. (15 March 1591 – 5 November 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Â, â (a-circumflex) is a letter of the Inari Sami, Romanian, and Vietnamese alphabets.
Ê, ê (e-circumflex) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, found in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Friulian, Kurdish, Portuguese, Vietnamese, and Welsh.
Ă (upper case) or ă (lower case), usually referred to in English as A-breve, is a letter used in standard Romanian language, Vietnamese language and Chuvash language orthographies.
Ơ is one of the 12 Vietnamese language vowels.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
B with flourish (Ꞗ, ꞗ) is the modern name for the third letter of the Middle Vietnamese alphabet, sorted between B and C. The B with flourish has a rounded hook that starts halfway up the stem (where the top of the bowl meets the ascender) and curves about 180 degrees counterclockwise, ending below the bottom-left corner.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Chữ Nôm (literally "Southern characters"), in earlier times also called quốc âm or chữ nam, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Đ (lowercase: đ, Latin alphabet), known as crossed D or dyet, is a letter formed from the base character D/d overlaid with a crossbar.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum (known in Vietnamese as Từ điển Việt-Bồ-La) is a trilingual Vietnamese-Portuguese-Latin dictionary written by the French Jesuit lexicographer Alexandre de Rhodes after 12 years in Vietnam.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.
The Hồ dynasty (Nhà Hồ, 胡朝, Hồ triều) was a short-lived six-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400–01 and his second son, Hồ Hán Thương, who reigned from 1401 to 1406.
Hà Tĩnh is a city in Vietnam.
Hippocrene Books is an independent US publishing press located at 171 Madison Avenue, New York City, NY 10016.
In typesetting, the hook above (dấu hỏi) is a diacritic mark placed on top of vowels in the Vietnamese alphabet.
The horn (dấu móc or dấu râu) is a diacritic mark attached to the top right corner of the letters o and u in the Vietnamese alphabet to give ơ and ư, unrounded variants of the vowel represented by the basic letter.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Khải Định (chữ Hán: 啓定; born Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo; 8 October 1885 – 6 November 1925) was the 12th Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam, reigning from 1916 to 1925.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Literary Chinese (Vietnamese: cổ văn 古文 or văn ngôn 文言) was the medium of all formal writing in Vietnam for almost all of the history of the country up to the early 20th century, when it was replaced by vernacular writing using the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Nghệ An is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese family name.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Orthographic transcription is a transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
A precomposed character (alternatively composite character or decomposable character) is a Unicode entity that can also be defined as a sequence of one or more other characters.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary (Từ Hán Việt, Chữ Nôm:, literally "Sino-Vietnamese words") are words and morphemes of the Vietnamese language borrowed from Chinese.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Telex (lit), is a convention for encoding Vietnamese text in plain ASCII characters.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
The Tonkin Free School (Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục) was a short-lived but historically significant educational institution in Hanoi that aimed to reform Vietnamese society under French colonialism during the beginning of the 20th century.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
UniKey is an open-source Vietnamese input method editor for Microsoft Windows developed by Phạm Kim Long.
Upsilon (or; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; ύψιλον ýpsilon) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vietnamese Braille is the braille alphabet used for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese calligraphy (Vietnamese Quốc Ngữ: thư pháp Việt Nam, Hán Nôm: 書法越南) refers to the calligraphic traditions of Vietnam.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
Vietnamese Quoted-Readable (usually abbreviated VIQR), also known as Vietnet, is a convention for writing Vietnamese using ASCII characters.
VISCII is a character encoding for using the Vietnamese language with computers.
VNI Software Company is the Westminster, California–based, family-owned developer of various education, entertainment, office, and utility software packages.
Windows-1258 is a code page used in Microsoft Windows to represent Vietnamese texts.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In East Asian and Buddhist mythology, Yama (sometimes known as the King of Hell, King Yan or Yanluo) is a dharmapala (wrathful god) said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas ("Hells" or "Purgatories") and the cycle of afterlife saṃsāra.
Chu Quoc Ngu, Chu Quoc-Ngu, Chu quoc ngu, Chữ Quốc Ngữ, Chữ Quốc ngữ, Chữ quốc ngữ, Quoc Ngu, Quoc ngu, Quoc-Ngu, Quoc-ngu, Quocngu, Quóc ngu, Quôc ngu, Quốc Ngữ, Quốc ngữ, Quốc-Ngữ, Quốc-ngữ, Quốcngữ, Viet Alphabet, Vietnamese orthography, Vietnamese script, Vietnamese spelling, Ẻ, Ố, Ồ, Ổ, Ỗ, Ộ.