222 relations: Acute accent, Affricate consonant, Alexandre de Rhodes, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal fricative, Analytic language, Annam (French protectorate), Apex (diacritic), Approximant consonant, ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, École française d'Extrême-Orient, B with flourish, Back vowel, Baiyue, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu Province, Bình Định Province, Biên Hòa, Brill Publishers, California State Library, Calque, Cambodia, Catholic Church in Vietnam, Central vowel, Champa, Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, Chữ Nôm, China, Chinese characters, Chinese domination of Vietnam, Chinese language, Chut language, Classical Chinese, Classification schemes for Southeast Asian languages, Classifier (linguistics), Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Cochinchina, Code page, Consonant cluster, Creaky voice, Cuoi language, Czech Republic, Da Nang, Dental consonant, Dental fricative, ..., Diacritic, Dialect, Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Dot (diacritic), English orthography, Finite verb, First language, French Indochina, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Function word, Gérard Diffloth, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Gin people, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Glottalic consonant, Glottalization, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical modifier, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical tense, Grave accent, Great Vowel Shift, Guangxi, Haiphong, Hanoi, Harsh voice, Hashimoto Mantaro, Hồ dynasty, Hồ Xuân Hương, Hà Tĩnh Province, Head-directionality parameter, Henri Maspero, Ho Chi Minh City, Hook above, Huế, Implosive consonant, Inflection, Interdental consonant, Interlinear gloss, Intervocalic consonant, Khasi language, Khmer language, Khmer people, Labial consonant, Labial–velar nasal, Language game, Lao people, Latin script, Lâm Đồng Province, Lenition, Lexicon, List of ethnic groups in Vietnam, Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Mekong Delta, Mid vowel, Middle Chinese, Minor syllable, Minority group, Monophthong, Morphology (linguistics), Munda languages, Muong language, Murmured voice, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, National language, Near-open vowel, Nghệ An Province, Nguồn language, Nguyễn Du, Nguyễn Trường Tộ, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình Province, Nonfinite verb, North Vietnam, Northeast (Vietnam), Northern Illinois University, Northwest (Vietnam), Official language, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Operation Passage to Freedom, Overseas Vietnamese, Palatal consonant, Palate, Palato-alveolar consonant, Phú Yên Province, Phonation, Pig Latin, Pitch contour, Portuguese discoveries, Portuguese language, Pro-drop language, Quảng Bình Province, Quảng Nam Province, Quảng Ngãi Province, Quảng Trị Province, Red River (Asia), Red River Delta, Regional language, Register (phonology), Retroflex consonant, Romanization, Roundedness, SAGE Publications, Second language, Semivowel, Serial verb construction, Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, Society of Jesus, Sociolinguistics, Spelling pronunciation, Stiff voice, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Syllable, Tai languages, Tây Sơn dynasty, Tenuis consonant, Thanh Hóa Province, Thavung language, Thừa Thiên-Huế Province, The Tale of Kieu, Thou, Tilde, Tone (linguistics), Tonkin, Triphthong, Tsat language, Unicode, Vũng Tàu, Velar consonant, Video lesson, Vietic languages, Vietnam, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese Americans, Vietnamese Braille, Vietnamese Cambodians, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese literature, Vietnamese Nôm Preservation Foundation, Vietnamese people, Vietnamese people in France, Vietnamese people in Germany, Vietnamese people in Laos, Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic, Vietnamese pronouns, Vietnamese Quoted-Readable, Vietnamese studies, Voice (phonetics), Voiced alveolar implosive, Voiced bilabial fricative, Voiced bilabial implosive, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless uvular stop, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel diagram, VSCII, Wh-movement, Windows-1258, Word order, Yue Chinese, 1954 Geneva Conference. Expand index (172 more) » « Shrink index
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alexandre de Rhodes, S.J. (15 March 1591 – 5 November 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Alveolo-palatal fricative is a class of consonants in some oral languages.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
In written Latin, the apex (plural "apices") is a mark with roughly the shape of an acute accent (´) which is placed over vowels to indicate that they are long.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
The École française d'Extrême-Orient (French School of the Far East), abbreviated EFEO, is an associated college of PSL University dedicated to the study of Asian societies.
B with flourish (Ꞗ, ꞗ) is the modern name for the third letter of the Middle Vietnamese alphabet, sorted between B and C. The B with flourish has a rounded hook that starts halfway up the stem (where the top of the bowl meets the ascender) and curves about 180 degrees counterclockwise, ending below the bottom-left corner.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu (Hanoi accent:, Saigon accent) is a province of Vietnam.
Bình Định is a province of Vietnam.
Biên Hòa (Northern accent:, Southern accent) is a city in Đồng Nai Province, Vietnam, about east of Hồ Chí Minh City (formerly Saigon), to which Biên Hòa is linked by Vietnam Highway 1.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The California State Library collects, preserves, generates and disseminates a wide array of information.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Catholic Church in Vietnam is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of Bishops in Vietnam who are in communion with the Pope in Rome.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms (Listina základních práv a svobod, Listina základných práv a slobôd) is a document enacted in 1991 by the Czechoslovak Federative Republic, and continued as part of the constitutional systems of both the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic.
Chữ Nôm (literally "Southern characters"), in earlier times also called quốc âm or chữ nam, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese domination of Vietnam (Bắc thuộc, 北屬, "Belonging to the North (China)") began in 111 BC, and is usually considered to have ended in 938 AD.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chut (Chứt, Cheut) or Ruc-Sach is a dialect cluster spoken by the Chứt people of Vietnam, with a smaller population of some 450 speakers in neighbouring Laos (in Khammouane Province).
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
There have been various classification schemes for Southeast Asian languages (see the articles for the respective language families).
A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ; ''Kausangsin''.; Cochinchine) is a region encompassing the southern third of current Vietnam whose principal city is Saigon or Prey Nokor in Khmer.
In computing, a code page is a table of values that describes the character set used for encoding a particular set of characters, usually combined with a number of control characters.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
Cuói, known as Thổ in Vietnam and as Hung in Laos, is a dialect cluster spoken by around 70,000 Thổ people in Vietnam and a couple thousand in Laos, mainly in the provinces of Bolikhamsai and Khammouane.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Da Nang (Đà Nẵng) is the fourth largest city in Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Hanoi and Haiphong in terms of urbanization and economy.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The dental fricative or interdental fricative is a fricative consonant pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum (known in Vietnamese as Từ điển Việt-Bồ-La) is a trilingual Vietnamese-Portuguese-Latin dictionary written by the French Jesuit lexicographer Alexandre de Rhodes after 12 years in Vietnam.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.
Gérard Diffloth (born in Châteauroux, France, 1939) is a retired linguistics professor, formerly of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, and Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
The Gin or Jing people (Yale: Gīng juhk; Vietnamese: Kinh tộc or người Kinh) are an ethnic minority group that live in southeastern China, who are descendants of ethnic Vietnamese.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
A glottalic consonant is a consonant produced with some important contribution (a movement, a closure) of the glottis (the opening that leads from the nose and mouth cavities into the larynx and the lungs).
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Haiphong (Hải Phòng) is a major industrial city, the second largest city in the northern part of Vietnam, and third largest city overall in Vietnam.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Harsh voice, also called ventricular voice or (in some high-tone registers) pressed voice, is the production of speech sounds (typically vowels) with a constricted laryngeal cavity, which generally involves epiglottal co-articulation.
was a Japanese-born sinologist who published many books on Sinitic languages, phonology, the Hakka language, lexicology, Taiwanese Hokkien, and the influence of Altaic languages on Mandarin Chinese.
The Hồ dynasty (Nhà Hồ, 胡朝, Hồ triều) was a short-lived six-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400–01 and his second son, Hồ Hán Thương, who reigned from 1401 to 1406.
Hồ Xuân Hương (胡春香; 1772–1822) was a Vietnamese poet born at the end of the Lê dynasty.
Hà Tĩnh is a province on the North Central Coast of Vietnam.
In linguistics, the head directionality is a proposed parameter that classifies languages according to whether they are head-initial (the head of a phrase precedes its complements) or head-final (the head follows its complements).
Henri Paul Gaston Maspero (15 December 188317 March 1945) was a French sinologist and professor who contributed to a variety of topics relating to East Asia.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
In typesetting, the hook above (dấu hỏi) is a diacritic mark placed on top of vowels in the Vietnamese alphabet.
Huế (is a city in central Vietnam that was the seat of Nguyễn Dynasty emperors from 1802 to 1945, and capital of the protectorate of Annam. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
In linguistics and pedagogy, an interlinear gloss is a gloss (series of brief explanations, such as definitions or pronunciations) placed between lines (inter- + linear), such as between a line of original text and its translation into another language.
In phonetics and phonology, an intervocalic consonant is a consonant that occurs in the middle of a word, between two vowels.
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
The labial–velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A language game (also called secret language, ludling, or argot) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear.
The Lao are a Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, who speak the eponymous language of the Tai–Kadai group.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lâm Đồng is a province located in the Central Highlands (Tây Nguyên) region of Vietnam.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Vietnam is a multiethnic country with over fifty distinct groups (54 are recognized by the Vietnamese government), each with its own language, lifestyle, and cultural heritage (Ethnic groups in Vietnam).
The Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) linguistic area is a linguistic area that stretches from Thailand to China and is home to speakers of languages of the Sino-Tibetan, Hmong–Mien (or Miao–Yao), Kra–Dai, Austronesian (represented by Chamic) and Austroasiatic families.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Minor syllable is a term used primarily in the description of Mon-Khmer languages, where a word typically consists of a reduced (minor) syllable followed by a full tonic or stressed syllable.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.
Muong (thiểng Mường) is a group of dialects spoken by the Mường people of Vietnam.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
A near-open vowel or a near-low vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Nghệ An is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Nguồn (also Năm Nguyên) is a Vietic language spoken by the Nguồn people in the Trường Sơn mountains in Vietnam's North Central Coast region as well as in nearby regions of Laos.
Nguyễn Du (3 January 1765 – 16 September 1820), pen names Tố Như and Thanh Hiên, is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in chữ nôm, the ancient writing script of Vietnam.
Nguyễn Trường Tộ (chữ Hán:,; 1830–1871) was a Roman Catholic scholar and reformer during the reign of Tự Đức of the Nguyễn Dynasty, the last sovereign Emperor of Vietnam under which the French colonial forces colonized the country.
Nha Trang is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
Ninh Bình is a province of Vietnam, in the Red River Delta region of the northern part of the country.
A nonfinite verb is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot perform action as the root of an independent clause.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
The Northeast (Đông Bắc) is the region to the north of the Red River Delta in Vietnam.
Northern Illinois University (NIU) is a public research university in DeKalb, Illinois, United States, with satellite centers in Chicago, Hoffman Estates, Naperville, Rockford, and Oregon.
Tây Bắc (literally "Northwest") is one of the regions of Vietnam, located in the mountainous northwestern part of the country.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Operation Passage to Freedom was a term used by the United States Navy to describe its assistance in transporting in 1954–55 310,000 Vietnamese civilians, soldiers and non-Vietnamese members of the French Army from communist North Vietnam (the Democratic Republic of Vietnam) to South Vietnam (the State of Vietnam, later to become the Republic of Vietnam).
Overseas Vietnamese (Người Việt hải ngoại, which literally means "Overseas Vietnamese", or Việt Kiều, a Sino-Vietnamese word (越僑) literally translating to "Vietnamese sojourner") refers to Vietnamese people living outside Vietnam in a diaspora, by far the largest community of which live in the United States.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
Phú Yên is a coastal province in the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
Pig Latin is a language game or argot in which words in English are altered, usually by adding a fabricated suffix or by moving the onset or initial consonant or consonant cluster of a word to the end of the word and adding a vocalic syllable to create such a suffix.
In linguistics, speech synthesis, and music, the pitch contour of a sound is a function or curve that tracks the perceived pitch of the sound over time.
Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese: Descobrimentos portugueses) are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).
Quảng Bình, formerly Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of the Lê Dynasty (this province was renamed Quảng Bình in 1604), is a province along Vietnam's north-central coast.
Quảng Nam is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Quảng Ngãi is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam, on the coast of East Sea.
Quảng Trị is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, north of the former imperial capital of Huế.
The Red River (Sông Hồng), also known as the and (lit. "Mother River") in Vietnamese and the in Chinese, is a river that flows from Yunnan in Southwest China through northern Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin.
The Red River Delta (Đồng Bằng Sông Hồng, or Châu Thổ Sông Hồng) is the flat low-lying plain formed by the Red River and its distributaries merging with the Thái Binh River in northern Vietnam.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
In phonology, a register, or pitch register, is a prosodic feature of syllables in certain languages in which tone, vowel phonation, glottalization or similar features depend upon one another.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
The serial verb construction, also known as (verb) serialization or verb stacking, is a syntactic phenomenon in which two or more verbs or verb phrases are strung together in a single clause.
Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary (Từ Hán Việt, Chữ Nôm:, literally "Sino-Vietnamese words") are words and morphemes of the Vietnamese language borrowed from Chinese.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants or vowels with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal folds stiffer, than occurs in modal voice.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or) are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.
The name Tây Sơn (Hán Việt: 西山朝) is used in Vietnamese history in various ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Lê dynasty in 1770 and the beginning of the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
Thanh Hóa is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Thavưng or Aheu is a language spoken by the Phon Sung people in Laos and Thailand.
Thừa Thiên-Huế is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, approximately in the centre of the country.
The Tale of Kiều is an epic poem in Vietnamese written by Nguyễn Du (1766–1820), and is widely regarded as the most significant work of Vietnamese literature.
The word thou is a second person singular pronoun in English.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
Tsat, also known as Utsat, Utset, Hainan Cham, or Huíhuī, is a language spoken by 4,500 Utsul people in Yanglan and Huixin villages near Sanya, Hainan, China.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Vũng Tàu (Hanoi accent:, Saigon accent) is the largest city and former capital of Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province in Vietnam.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A video lesson or lecture is a video which presents educational material for a topic which is to be learned.
The Vietic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese Americans (Người Mỹ gốc Việt) are Americans of Vietnamese descent.
Vietnamese Braille is the braille alphabet used for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese Cambodians refer to ethnic Vietnamese living in Cambodia.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Vietnamese literature (Văn học Việt Nam) is the literature, both oral and written, created largely by Vietnamese-speaking people.
The Vietnamese Nôm Preservation Foundation (Hội Bảo Tồn Di Sản Chữ Nôm; Hán Nôm), shortened as the Nôm Foundation and abbreviated as VNPF, is an American nonprofit agency for language preservation headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, with an office in Hanoi, Vietnam.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
The Vietnamese people in France (Vietnamese: Người Pháp gốc Việt, French: Diaspora vietnamienne en France) consists of people of Vietnamese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to France.
Vietnamese people in Germany form the country's third largest group of resident foreigners from Asia, with Federal Statistical Office figures showing 83,446 Vietnamese nationals residing in Germany at the end of 2005.
There is a large community of Vietnamese people in Laos.
Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic, including residents and citizens, form the largest immigrant community in the country, as well as the third largest ethnic minority overall (after Slovaks and Ukrainians), numbering more than 83,000 people according to 2011 census.
In general, a Vietnamese pronoun can serve as a noun phrase.
Vietnamese Quoted-Readable (usually abbreviated VIQR), also known as Vietnet, is a convention for writing Vietnamese using ASCII characters.
Vietnamese studies (Việt Nam học) in general is the study of Vietnam and things related to Vietnam.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
A vowel diagram or vowel chart is a schematic arrangement of the vowels.
VSCII, also known as TCVN 5712:1993, ISO-IR-180, and Vietnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange is a set of three Vietnamese national standard character encodings for using the Vietnamese language with computers.
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.
Windows-1258 is a code page used in Microsoft Windows to represent Vietnamese texts.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.
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