341 relations: -wich town, Aarhus, Abbey, Aberdeenshire, Age of Enlightenment, Al-Andalus, Alcuin, Alexander III of Scotland, Alfred the Great, Altes Lager (Menzlin), Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Annals of Ulster, Archaeology of Northern Europe, Arklow, Arno, Atlantic Ocean, Áed mac Boanta, Óengus I, Bagsecg, Baltic Sea, Baptism, Bardy-Świelubie, Battle of Ashdown, Battle of Buttington, Battle of Clontarf, Battle of Hastings, Battle of Largs, Battle of Norditi, Battle of Stamford Bridge, Battle of Stiklestad, Bay of Wismar, Benjamin Hudson, Bergen, Bernhard Maier, Birka, Bjarni Herjólfsson, Björn Ironside, Black Sea, Bordeaux, Bretons, Brian Boru, British Isles, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine silk, Caithness, Cape Arkona, Carolingian dynasty, Caspian Sea, Cádiz, Charlemagne, ..., Charles II of England, Charles the Bald, Charles the Simple, Christian I of Denmark, Christian mission, Christianization of Scandinavia, Christopher Columbus, Clinker (boat building), Cnut the Great, Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, Constantinople, Cork (city), Cotentin Peninsula, Courland, Cowry, Cruden Bay, Crusades, Cuerdale Hoard, Culdees, Cumbria, Curonians, Cuthbert, Danegeld, Danelaw, Danes (Germanic tribe), Dál Riata, Dierkow, Diocese of Sodor and Man, Dorset, Dubhghall mac Ruaidhrí, Dublin, Duchy of Normandy, Dudo of Saint-Quentin, Earl, Earl of Orkney, Early Scandinavian Dublin, East Frisia, Eastern Settlement, Eóganan mac Óengusa, Ecgberht I of Northumbria, Edgar Ætheling, Edgar, King of Scotland, Edmund Ironside, England, Eric Bloodaxe, Erik the Red, Estuary, Examples of feudalism, Eystein II of Norway, Faroe Islands, Fealty, Female infanticide, Fennoscandia, Fiesole, Florence, Fortriu, Francia, Franks, French denier, Frisians, Gaels, Galicia (Spain), Galloway, Garðaríki, Gascony, Germany, Gnezdovo, Godred Crovan, Gotland, Gower Peninsula, Great Heathen Army, Greenland, Grobiņa, Guthrum, Haakon IV of Norway, Halfdan Ragnarsson, Harald Fairhair, Harald Hardrada, Harald Maddadsson, Harold Godwinson, Hastein, Haverfordwest, Hebrides, Hedeby, Hersir, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of Europe, History of Greenland, History of Scandinavia, History of the Faroe Islands, History of Waterford, Iceland, Iceland spar, Inner Hebrides, Iona, Ireland, Isle of Man, Isle of Portland, Isle of Sheppey, Italy runestones, Ivar the Boneless, Ivittuut, James III of Scotland, Jomsborg, Jomsvikings, Jumièges, Jutland, Kaupang, Kenneth MacAlpin, Kent, Ketill Flatnose, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Asturias, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of Strathclyde, Kingdom of the Isles, Kintyre, Knarr, Kołobrzeg, Kvenland, L'Anse aux Meadows, Langobardia Minor, Leidang, Leif Erikson, Limerick, Lindisfarne, Lisbon, List of English words of Old Norse origin, Little Ice Age, Loire, Longphort, Longship, Lord of the Isles, Louis the Pious, Ludvig Holberg, Luni, Italy, Magnús Óláfsson, Magnus Barefoot, Magnus VI of Norway, Mainland, Mecklenburg, Medieval Greek, Medieval Warm Period, Mercenary, Microclimate, Minho (river), Mokhovoye, Kaliningrad Oblast, Monastery, Mongol invasion of Rus', Naddodd, Natur & Kultur, Navigation, Netherlands, Newfoundland (island), Nordic countries, Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest of southern Italy, Norman language, Normandy, Normans in Ireland, Norse colonization of North America, Norse–Gaels, Norsemen, North America, North Germanic languages, North Sea, Northern Europe, Northern Isles, Northumberland, Norway, Norwegian language, Novgorod Republic, Numismatics, Nuup Kangerlua, Obotrites, Ohthere of Hålogaland, Olaf II of Norway, Olaus Rudbeck, Old East Slavic, Old English, Old Norse, Old Saxony, Ole Worm, Olof Skötkonung, Olof von Dalin, Orkney, Outer Hebrides, Paris, Peene, Persian Gulf, Picts, Piracy, Pisa, Pomerania, Primary Chronicle, Primary source, Prussia (region), Ralswiek, Rügen, Red Sea, Reric, Ribe, Richard A. 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A "-wich town" is a settlement in Anglo-Saxon England characterised by extensive artisanal activity and tradean "emporium".
Aarhus (officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 31 December 2010) is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality.
An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.
Aberdeenshire (Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
Alexander III (Medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Alasdair) (4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286) was King of Scots from 1249 to his death.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
Altes Lager (German for "Old Camp") is a site south of the village of Menzlin near Anklam, Western Pomerania, Germany.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Annals of Ulster (Annála Uladh) are annals of medieval Ireland.
The archaeology of Northern Europe studies the prehistory of Scandinavia and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland and the Netherlands.
Arklow is a town in County Wicklow on the east coast of Ireland, overlooked by Arklow Hill.
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Áed mac Boanta (died 839) is believed to have been a king of Dál Riata.
Óengus son of Fergus (*Onuist map Urguist; Old Irish: Óengus mac Fergusso, "Angus mac Fergus"), was king of the Picts from 732 until his death in 761.
Bagsecg (died 8 January 871), also known as Bacgsecg, was a ninth-century Viking, and one of the first to be recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Bardy-Świelubie or Bartin-Zwillipp near modern Kolobrzeg (West Pomeranian Voivodship) was a Viking Age Slavic-Scandinavian settlement on the southern Baltic coast.
The Battle of Ashdown, in Berkshire (possibly the part now in Oxfordshire), took place on 8 January 871.
The Battle of Buttington was fought in 893 between a Viking army and an alliance of Anglo-Saxons and Welsh.
The Battle of Clontarf (Cath Chluain Tarbh) was a battle that took place on 23 April 1014 at Clontarf, near Dublin, on the east coast of Ireland.
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
The Battle of Largs (2 October 1263) was an indecisive engagement between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland.
The Battle of Norditi (Schlacht bei Norditi), Battle of Nordendi (Schlacht von Nordendi) or Battle of Hilgenried Bay (Schlacht an der Hilgenrieder Bucht) was a battle between a Frisian army under Archbishop Rimbert of Bremen-Hamburg and an army of Danish Vikings in 884, which resulted in the complete withdrawal of the Vikings from East Frisia.
The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson.
The Battle of Stiklestad (Slaget ved Stiklestad, Old Norse: Stiklarstaðir) in 1030 is one of the most famous battles in the history of Norway.
The Bay of Wismar or more commonly Wismar Bay or Wismarbucht is a well sheltered multi-sectioned bay in the southwestern Baltic Sea, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, and is considered the south-central part of the much larger arm of the Baltic known as the Mecklenburg Bay (or Mecklenburg Bight, for its long narrow bent shape)—a long fingerlike gulf oriented to the west-southwest (WSW) from the (central) Baltic proper.
Benjamin T. Hudson is an American medievalist based at Pennsylvania State University in State College, Pennsylvania.
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
Bernhard Maier (born 1963 in Oberkirch (Baden)) is a German professor of religious studies, who publishes mainly on Celtic culture and religion.
Birka (Birca in medieval sources), on the island of Björkö (literally: "Birch Island") in present-day Sweden, was an important Viking Age trading center which handled goods from Scandinavia and Finland as well as Central and Eastern Europe and the Orient.
Bjarni Herjólfsson (fl. 10th century) was a Norse-Icelandic explorer who is believed to be the first known European discoverer of the mainland of the Americas, which he sighted in 986.
Björn Ironside (Old Norse: Bjǫrn Járnsíða, Icelandic: Björn Járnsíða, Swedish: Björn Järnsida, Danish: Bjørn Jernside; Medieval Latin: Bier Costae ferreae) was a legendary king of Sweden who lived sometime in the 9th century.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brian Boru (Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig; Brian Bóruma; modern Brian Bóramha; c. 94123 April 1014) was an Irish king who ended the domination of the High Kingship of Ireland by the Uí Néill.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Caithness (Gallaibh, Caitnes; Katanes) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.
Cape Arkona is a 45-metre-high cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23.
Christian I (February 1426 – 21 May 1481) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Clinker built (also known as lapstrake) is a method of boat building where the edges of hull planks overlap each other, called a "land" or "landing." In craft of any size shorter planks can be joined end to end into a longer strake or hull plank.
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib ("The War of the Irish with the Foreigners") is a medieval Irish text that tells of the depredations of the Vikings and Uí Ímair dynasty in Ireland and the Irish king Brian Boru's great war against them, beginning with the Battle of Sulcoit in 967 and culminating in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, in which Brian was slain but his forces were victorious.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
Cowry or cowrie, plural cowries, is the common name for a group of small to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.
Cruden Bay is a small village in Scotland, on the north coast of the Bay of Cruden in Aberdeenshire, north of Aberdeen.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The Cuerdale Hoard is a hoard of more than 8,600 items, including silver coins, English and Carolingian jewellery, hacksilver and ingots.
The Culdees (Céilí Dé, "Companions of God") were members of ascetic Christian monastic and eremitical communities of Ireland, Scotland, and England in the Middle Ages.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687) is a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition.
The Danegeld ("Danish tax", literally "Dane tribute") was a tax raised to pay tribute to the Viking raiders to save a land from being ravaged.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
Dierkow near Rostock, Mecklenburg, was a Viking Age Slavic-Scandinavian settlement at the southern Baltic coast in the late 8th and early 9th century.
The Diocese of Sodor and Man is a diocese of the Church of England.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
Dubhghall mac Ruaidhrí (died 1268) was a leading figure in the thirteenth-century Kingdom of the Isles.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
Dudo, or Dudon, was a Norman historian, and dean of Saint-Quentin, where he was born about 965.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
The Earl of Orkney was originally a Norse jarl ruling the Norðreyjar (the islands of Orkney and Shetland).
The First Viking Age in Ireland began in 795, when Vikings began carrying out hit-and-run raids on Gaelic Irish coastal settlements.
East Frisia or Eastern Friesland (Ostfriesland; East Frisian Low Saxon: Oostfreesland; Oost-Friesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
The Eastern Settlement (Eystribyggð) was the first and largest of the three areas of Norse Greenland, settled c. AD 985 by Norsemen from Iceland.
Uuen (Wen) or Eogán in Gaelic (commonly referred to by the hypocoristic Eóganán) was king of the Picts 837-839.
Ecgberht (died 873) was king of Northumbria in the middle of the 9th century.
Edgar Ætheling (also spelt Æþeling, Aetheling, Atheling or Etheling) or Edgar II (c. 1051 – c. 1126) was the last male member of the royal house of Cerdic of Wessex (see House of Wessex family tree).
Edgar or Étgar mac Maíl Choluim (Modern Gaelic: Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim), nicknamed Probus, "the Valiant" (c. 1074 – 8 January 1107), was King of Scotland from 1097 to 1107.
Edmund Ironside (c.990 – 30 November 1016), also known as Edmund II, was King of England from 23 April to 30 November 1016.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Eric Haraldsson (Old Norse: Eiríkr Haraldsson, Eirik Haraldsson; c. 885 – 954), nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe (Old Norse: Eiríkr blóðøx, Eirik Blodøks), was a 10th-century Norwegian ruler.
Erik Thorvaldsson (Eiríkr Þorvaldsson; 950 – c. 1003), known as Erik the Red (Eiríkr hinn rauði) was a Norse explorer, remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first settlement in Greenland.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Examples of feudalism are helpful to fully understand feudalism and feudal society.
Eystein Haraldsson (Old Norse: Eysteinn Haraldsson, Norwegian: Øystein Haraldsson); c.1125–1157) was king of Norway from 1142 to 1157. He ruled as co-ruler with his brothers, Inge Haraldsson and Sigurd Munn. He was killed in the power-struggle against his brother, Inge, in an early stage of the civil war era in Norway.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
An oath of fealty, from the Latin fidelitas (faithfulness), is a pledge of allegiance of one person to another.
Female infanticide is the deliberate killing of newborn female children.
Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.
Fiesole is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany, on a scenic height above Florence, northeast of that city.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Fortriu or the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for a Pictish kingdom recorded between the 4th and 10th centuries, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The denier (denarius;. d.) or penny was a medieval coin which takes its name from the Frankish coin first issued in the late seventh century; in English it is sometimes referred to as a silver penny.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
Garðaríki (anglicized Gardariki or Gardarike) or Garðaveldi is the Old Norse term used in medieval times for the states of Kievan Rus'.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gnezdovo or Gnyozdovo (Гнёздово) is an archeological site located near the village of Gnyozdovo in Smolensky District, Smolensk Oblast, Russia.
Godred Crovan (died 1095), known in Gaelic as Gofraid Crobán, Gofraid Meránach, and Gofraid Méránach, was a Norse-Gaelic ruler of the kingdoms of Dublin and the Isles.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
Gower (Gŵyr) or the Gower Peninsula (Penrhyn Gŵyr) is in South Wales.
The Great Viking Army, known by the Anglo-Saxons as the Great Heathen Army (OE: mycel hæþen here), was a coalition of Norse warriors, originating from primarily Denmark, Sweden and Norway, who came together under a unified command to invade the four Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that constituted England in AD 865.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Grobiņa (Grobin) is a town in western Latvia, eleven kilometers east of Liepāja.
Guthrum or Guðrum (died c. 890), christened Æthelstan on his conversion to Christianity in 878, was King of the Danish Vikings in the Danelaw.
Haakon Haakonsson (c. March/April 1204 – 16 December 1263) (Old Norse: Hákon Hákonarson; Norwegian: Håkon Håkonsson), sometimes called Haakon the Old in contrast to his son with the same name, and known in modern regnal lists as Haakon IV, was the King of Norway from 1217 to 1263.
Halfdan Ragnarsson (Hálfdan; Halfdene or Healfdene; Albann; died 877) was a Viking leader and a commander of the Great Heathen Army which invaded the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England, starting in 865.
Harald Fairhair (Old Norse: Haraldr Hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald Hårfagre, (literally "Harald Hair-pleasant"); 850 – 932) is remembered by medieval historians as the first King of Norway.
Harald Sigurdsson (– 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (harðráði, modern Norwegian: Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was King of Norway (as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066.
Harald Maddadsson (Old Norse: Haraldr Maddaðarson, Gaelic: Aralt mac Mataid) (c. 1134 – 1206) was Earl of Orkney and Mormaer of Caithness from 1139 until 1206.
Harold Godwinson (– 14 October 1066), often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
Hastein (Icelandic: Hásteinn) (also recorded as Anstign, Haesten, Hæsten, Hæstenn or Hæsting and alias AlstingJones, Aled (2003). Transactions of the Royal Historical Society: Sixth Series Cambridge University Press p24) was a notable Viking chieftain of the late 9th century who made several raiding voyages.
Haverfordwest (Hwlffordd) is the county town of Pembrokeshire, Wales, and the most populous urban area in Pembrokeshire with a population of 13,367 in 2001, though its community boundaries made it the second-most populous settlement in the county, with 10,812 people.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
Hedeby (Old Norse Heiðabýr, German Haithabu) was an important Viking Age (8th to the 11th centuries) trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
A Hersir was a local Viking military commander of a ''hundred'' (a county subdivision) of about 100 men and owed allegiance to a jarl or king.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
The history of Greenland is a history of life under extreme Arctic conditions: currently, an ice cap covers about 80 percent of the island, restricting human activity largely to the coasts.
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples.
The early details of the history of the Faroe Islands are unclear.
Waterford city is situated in south eastern Ireland, on the river Suir about seventeen miles (27 km) from where the river enters the sea.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Iceland spar, formerly known as Iceland crystal (silfurberg; lit. silver-rock), is a transparent variety of calcite, or crystallized calcium carbonate, originally brought from Iceland, and used in demonstrating the polarization of light (see polarimetry).
The Inner Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan a-staigh, "the inner isles") is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides.
Iona (Ì Chaluim Chille) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Isle of Portland is a limestone tied island, long by wide, in the English Channel.
The Isle of Sheppey is an island off the northern coast of Kent, England in the Thames Estuary, some to the east of London.
The Italy Runestones are three or four Varangian Runestones from 11th-century Sweden that tell of warriors who died in Langbarðaland ("Land of the Lombards"), the Old Norse name for Italy.
Ivar the Boneless (Ívarr hinn Beinlausi; Hyngwar) (also known as Ivar Ragnarsson) was a Viking leader and a commander who invaded what is now England.
Ivittuut, formerly Ivigtût (Kalaallisut: "Grassy Place") is an abandoned mining town near Cape Desolation in southwestern Greenland, in the modern Sermersooq municipality on the ruins of the former Norse Middle Settlement.
James III (10 July 1451/May 1452 – 11 June 1488) was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488.
Jomsborg or Jómsborg (Jomsburg) was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea (medieval Wendland, modern Pomerania), that existed between the 960s and 1043.
The Jomsvikings were a semi-legendary order of Viking mercenaries or brigands of the 10th century and 11th century.
Jumièges is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France.
Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.
Kaupang was a Norse term for market-place.
Kenneth MacAlpin (Medieval Gaelic: Cináed mac Ailpin, Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein; 810 – 13 February 858), known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I, was a king of the Picts who, according to national myth, was the first king of Scots.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Ketill Björnsson, nicknamed Flatnose (Old Norse: Flatnefr), was a Norse King of the Isles of the 9th century.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo).
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Ystrad Clud or Alclud (and Strath-Clota in Anglo-Saxon), was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in Hen Ogledd ("the Old North"), the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England.
The Kingdom of the Isles comprised the Hebrides, the islands of the Firth of Clyde and the Isle of Man from the 9th to the 13th centuries AD.
Kintyre (Cinn Tìre) is a peninsula in western Scotland, in the southwest of Argyll and Bute.
A knarr is a type of Norse merchant ship used by the Vikings.
Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) is a city in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in north-western Poland with about 47,000 inhabitants.
Kvenland, known as Cwenland, Qwenland, Kænland or similar terms in medieval sources, is an ancient name for an area in Fennoscandia and Scandinavia.
L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove"), is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Langobardia Minor was the name that, in early Middle Ages, was given to the Lombard dominion in central-southern Italy, corresponding to the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento.
The institution known as leiðangr (Old Norse), leidang (Norwegian), leding (Danish), ledung (Swedish), expeditio (Latin) or sometimes lething (English), was a form of conscription to organise coastal fleets for seasonal excursions and in defence of the realm typical for medieval Scandinavians and, later, a public levy of free farmers.
Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson (970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer from Iceland.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Words of Old Norse origin have entered the English language, primarily from the contact between Old Norse and Old English during colonisation of eastern and northern England between the mid 9th to the 11th centuries (see also Danelaw).
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
A longphort (Ir. plur. longphuirt) is a term used in Ireland for a Viking ship enclosureConnolly S.J (1998).
Longships were a type of ship invented and used by the Norsemen (commonly known as the Vikings) for commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age.
The Lord of the Isles (Triath nan Eilean or Rìgh Innse Gall) is a title of Scottish nobility with historical roots that go back beyond the Kingdom of Scotland.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
Ludvig Holberg, Baron of Holberg (3 December 1684 – 28 January 1754) was a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright born in Bergen, Norway, during the time of the Dano-Norwegian dual monarchy.
Luni is a comune (municipality) in the province of La Spezia, in the easternmost end of the Liguria region of northern Italy.
Magnús Óláfsson (died 24 November 1265) was a King of Mann and the Isles.
Magnus Olafsson (Old Norse: Magnús Óláfsson, Norwegian: Magnus Olavsson; 1073 – 24 August 1103), better known as Magnus Barefoot (Old Norse: Magnús berfœttr, Norwegian: Magnus Berrføtt), was King of Norway (as Magnus III) from 1093 until his death in 1103.
Magnus Haakonsson (Old Norse: Magnús Hákonarson, Norwegian: Magnus Håkonsson; 1 May 1238 – 9 May 1280) was King of Norway (as Magnus VI) from 1263 to 1280 (junior king from 1257).
Mainland is a contiguous landmass that is larger and often politically, economically and/or demographically more significant than politically associated remote territories, such as exclaves or oceanic islands situated outside the continental shelf.
Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region that may have been related to other warming events in other regions during that time, including China and other areas, lasting from to.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Minho (Miniu) or Miño is the longest river in Galicia, sharing the border with Portugal, with a length of.
Mokhovoye (Моховое; Wiskiauten; Viskiautai) is a rural locality (a settlement) in Zelenogradsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the southwestern corner of the Curonian Lagoon.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Naddod (Naddoðr or Naddaðr, Naddoður, Naddoddur, literally "studded") was a Norse-Faroese Viking who is credited with the discovery of Iceland.
Natur & Kultur is a Swedish publishing foundation with head office in Stockholm known for an extensive series of teaching materials.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans in Ireland, or Hiberno-Normans, were a group of Normans who invaded the various realms of Gaelic Ireland.
The Norse exploration of North America began in the late 10th century AD when Norsemen explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America.
The Norse–Gaels (Gall-Goídil; Irish: Gall-Ghaeil; Gall-Ghàidheil, 'foreigner-Gaels') were a people of mixed Gaelic and Norse ancestry and culture.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Northern Isles (Northren Isles; Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; Norðreyjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
Nuup Kangerlua is a long fjord in the Sermersooq municipality in southwestern Greenland.
The Obotrites (Obotriti) or Obodrites (Obodrzyce meaning: at the waters), also spelled Abodrites (Abodriten), were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg and Holstein in northern Germany (see Polabian Slavs).
Ohthere of Hålogaland (Ottar fra Hålogaland) was a Viking Age Norwegian seafarer known only from an account of his travels that he gave to King Alfred (r. 871–99) of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex in about 890 AD.
Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – 29 July 1030), later known as St.
Olaus Rudbeck (also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, and occasionally with the surname Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius) (12 December 1630 – 17 September 1702) was a Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Saxony is the original homeland of the Saxons in the northwest corner of modern Germany and roughly corresponds today to the modern German state of Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Nordalbingia (Holstein, southern part of Schleswig-Holstein) and western Saxony-Anhalt.
Ole Worm (13 May 1588 – 31 August 1654), who often went by the Latinized form of his name Olaus Wormius, was a Danish physician, natural historian and antiquary.
Olof Skötkonung (c. 980–1022) was King of Sweden, son of Eric the Victorious and, according to Icelandic sources, Sigrid the Haughty.
Olof von Dalin (29 August 1708 – 12 August 1763) was a Swedish nobleman, poet, historian and courtier.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
The Outer Hebrides, also known as the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan Siar or Na h-Eileanan an Iar), Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle or the Long Island (An t-Eilean Fada), is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Peene is a river in Germany.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.
Ralswiek is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Rügen district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Rügen (also lat. Rugia; Ruegen) is Germany's largest island by area.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Reric or Rerik was one of the Viking Age multi-ethnic Slavic-Scandinavian emporia on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, located near Wismar in the present-day German state of Mecklenburg-VorpommernOle Harck, Christian Lübke, Zwischen Reric und Bornhöved: Die Beziehungen zwischen den Dänen und ihren slawischen Nachbarn vom 9.
Ribe (Ripen) is a Danish town in south-west Jutland, with a population of 8,168 (1 January 2014).
Richard Alexander Fletcher (born York 28 March 1944: died Nunnington 28 February 2005) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period.
Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, The family name ‘de Clare’ was also rendered ‘of Clare’ in contemporary sources.
Saint Rimbert (or Rembert) (Flanders, 830 – 11 June 888 in Bremen) was archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg from 865 until his death.
The River Earn (Uisge Èireann) in Scotland leaves Loch Earn at St Fillans and runs east through Strathearn, then east and south, joining the River Tay near Abernethy.
The River Liffey (Irish: An Life) is a river in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin.
The River Tay (Tatha) is the longest river in Scotland and the seventh-longest in the United Kingdom.
Rollo or Gaange Rolf (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; Rollon; 846 – 930 AD) was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Roncesvalles (Orreaga, Ronzesbals, Roncevaux) is a small village and municipality in Navarre, northern Spain.
Ross (Ros in Scottish Gaelic) is a region of Scotland, a former earldom and, under the name Ross and Cromarty, a county.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Rudolf Simek (born 21 February 1954 in Eisenstadt, Burgenland) is an Austrian Germanist and philologist.
Rurik (also Riurik; Old Church Slavonic Рюрикъ Rjurikŭ, from Old Norse Hrøríkʀ; 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
The Rus' Khaganate is the name applied by some modern historians to a hypothetical polity postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe, roughly the late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Sagas of Icelanders (Íslendingasögur), also known as family sagas, are prose narratives mostly based on historical events that mostly took place in Iceland in the 9th, 10th, and early 11th centuries, during the so-called Saga Age.
Saint David (Dewi Sant; Davidus; 500 589) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids) during the 6th century; he was later regarded as a saint.
Salomon (Salaün) (died 874) was Count of Rennes and Nantes from 852 and Duke of Brittany from 857 until his death by assassination.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Saxo Grammaticus (1160 – 1220), also known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian, theologian and author.
The Saxon Wars, also called the Saxon War or Saxon Uprising (not to be confused with the Saxon Rebellion of 1073-75), were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed.
The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.
Scandinavian Scotland refers to the period from the 8th to the 15th centuries during which Vikings and Norse settlers, mainly Norwegians and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, and their descendents colonised parts of what is now the periphery of modern Scotland.
Scandinavian York (also referred to as Jórvík) or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria (modern day Yorkshire) during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, used to refer to the city (York) controlled by these kings.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
In scholarship, a secondary source"".
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
In Old Norse sources, such as sagas and runestones, Særkland or Serkland was the name of the Abbasid Caliphate and probably some neighbouring Muslim regions.
The age of settlement of Iceland (Icelandic: landnámsöld) is generally believed to have begun in the second half of the 9th century, when Norse settlers migrated across the North Atlantic.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
Sigurd Eysteinsson or Sigurd the Mighty (reigned c. 875–892Ashley, pp. 440–441) was the second Earl of Orkney – a title bequeathed to Sigurd by his brother Rognvald Eysteinsson.
Sineus and Truvor, according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, were the brothers of Rurik of the Varangian Rus tribe.
Skiringssal (Old Norse Skíringssalr) was the name of a Viking Age hall which stood at a site now known as Huseby, about 0.73 miles (1.2 km) south-west of Tjølling, a settlement a little over east of Larvik, in the south of the Norwegian county of Vestfold.
Skye, or the Isle of Skye (An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or Eilean a' Cheò), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Somerled (died 1164), known in Middle Irish as Somairle, Somhairle, and Somhairlidh, and in Old Norse as Sumarliði, was a mid-12th-century warlord who, through marital alliance and military conquest, rose in prominence and seized control of the Kingdom of the Isles.
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.
Staraya Ladoga (p); Vanha Laatokka; Aldeigjuborg) is a rural locality (a selo) in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Volkhov River near Lake Ladoga, north of the town of Volkhov, the administrative center of the district. It used to be a prosperous trading outpost in the 8th and 9th centuries. A multi-ethnic settlement, it was dominated by Scandinavians who were called by the name of Rus'. For that reason, it is sometimes called the first capital of Russia.
The sunstone (sólarsteinn) is a type of mineral attested in several 13th–14th century written sources in Iceland, one of which describes its use to locate the sun in a completely overcast sky.
Sutherland is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in the Highlands of Scotland.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.
The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Thanet is a local government district in Kent, England.
Thomas Bartholin (Latinized: Thomas Bartholinus; 20 October 1616 – 4 December 1680) was a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian.
Thorfinn Karlsefni Þórðarson (Old Norse: Þorfinnr karlsefni Þórðarson, Icelandic: Þorfinnur karlsefni Þórðarson) was an Icelandic explorer.
Thormodus Torfæus (Thormodr Torfason, Thormod Torfæus, or Þormóður Torfason) (1636—1719) was an Icelandic historian, born 27 May 1636 at Engey, Iceland and educated at the University of Copenhagen.
Thorstein the Red or Thorstein Olafsson was a viking chieftain who flourished in late ninth-century Scotland.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Shlyakh' z varahaw u hreki, Shlyakh iz varyahiv u hreky, Put' iz varjag v greki, Εμπορική οδός Βαράγγων–Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Compiègne of 10 June 1624 was a peace treaty between France and the Netherlands.
The Treaty of Perth, signed 2 July 1266, ended military conflict between Magnus VI of Norway and Alexander III of Scotland over the sovereignty of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man.
The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, between Charles the Simple (King Charles III of France) and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, was signed in autumn 911.
Truso, situated on Lake Drużno, was an Old Prussian (Pomesanian) town near the Baltic Sea just east of the Vistula River.
Tui is a municipality in the province of Pontevedra in the autonomous community of Galicia, in Spain.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ubba was a ninth-century Viking, and one of the commanders of the Great Army that invaded Anglo-Saxon England in the 860s.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Upper Normandy (Haute-Normandie,; Ĥâote-Normaundie) is a former administrative region of France.
The Vale of York Hoard, also known as the Harrogate Hoard and the Vale of York Viking Hoard, is a 10th-century Viking hoard of 617 silver coins and 65 other items.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vineta (sometimes Wineta) is the name of a mythical city at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Vinland, Vineland or Winland (Vínland) is the name for North American land explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.
The Visby lenses are a collection of lens-shaped manufactured objects made of rock crystal (quartz) found in several Viking graves on the island of Gotland, Sweden, and dating from the 11th or 12th century.
In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River.
The Volkhov (Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia.
Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western Settlement (Vestribyggð) was a group of farms and communities established by Norsemen from Iceland around 985 in medieval Greenland.
Wexford (Yola: Weiseforth) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland.
Weymouth Bay is a sheltered bay on the south coast of England, in Dorset.
Wicklow is the county town of County Wicklow and the capital of the Mid-East Region in Ireland.
William I of Hauteville (before 1010 – 1046), known as William Iron Arm, was a Norman adventurer who was the founder of the fortunes of the Hauteville family.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric (i.e. William, son of Henry); Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
Wolin (Wollin,, Pomeranian Wòlin) is the name both of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea, just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island.
Wolin (Wollin) is a town situated on the southern tip of the Wolin island off the Baltic coast of Poland.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
The 1669 Act of Annexation was a Parliamentary Act passed during 1669 by the Parliament of Scotland to establish Orkney and Shetland's status as Crown Dependencies following a legal dispute with William, Earl of Morton, who held the estates of Orkney and Shetland.
Age of the Vikings, Viking Era, Viking Period, Viking age, Viking era, Viking invasion of England, Viking invasions of Brittany, Viking invasions of England, Viking invasions of Wales, Viking invasions of england, Viking period, Епоха вікінгів.