497 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abbey, Achillea millefolium, Adam of Bremen, Agrostemma, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Ahmad ibn Rustah, Alby, Öland, Alcuin, Amanita muscaria, Amber, Amber Road, Angelica archangelica, Angles, Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Scandinavian, Antler, Aquitaine, Arabs, Archaeology, Archbishopric of Bremen, Aristocracy (class), Atlantic Ocean, Austur-Húnavatnssýsla, Avengers Assemble (TV series), Åhus, Öland, Baghdad, Baltic Sea, Barbarian, Barley, Basalt, Bath, Somerset, Battle of Maldon, Baugrygr, BBC, Bear, Beaver, Beer, Beitass, Belarus, Berserker, Bilberry, Birka, Birka female Viking warrior, Black Grave, Black grouse, Black pepper, Blackberry, Bohuslän, ..., Borre mound cemetery, Boxing, Brassica, Brattahlíð, British Isles, Brooch, Bullion, Buttermilk, By-law, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greeks, Byzantium, Canberra Raiders, Capital Region (Iceland), Caraway, Carolingian Empire, Catholic Church, Celts, Central Asia, Cesspit, Charente (river), Charlemagne, Chess, Christian culture, Christianization, Christianization of Scandinavia, Cinnamon, Clan Donald, Classical antiquity, Climate change, Cnut the Great, Cod, Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, Coin, Coriander, Crataegus monogyna, Cremation, Curing (food preservation), Danelaw, Danes (Germanic tribe), Danevirke, Danish Americans, Danish hen, Danish landrace goose, Danish language, Deer, Der Ring des Nibelungen, Digital Commons, Dill, Dnieper, Dnieper Rapids, Down feather, Drinking horn, Duchy of Normandy, Eaters of the Dead, Edda, Egilsay, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eric Northman, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Erik the Red, Erik the Viking, Esaias Tegnér, Etymology, European pine marten, Experimental archaeology, Falconry, Faroe Islanders, Faroe Islands, Faroese language, Feudalism, Fiddle, Filmjölk, Finno-Ugric languages, Flax, Foteviken Museum, Fowling, Fox, Fragaria, France in the Middle Ages, Francia, Franks, Frans G. 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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.
Achillea millefolium, commonly known as yarrow or common yarrow, is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae.
Adam of Bremen (Adamus Bremensis; Adam von Bremen) was a German medieval chronicler.
Agrostemma is a genus of annual plants in the Caryophyllaceae family, containing the species known as corncockles.
Ibn Fadlan (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, 921–22) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, known as his Risala ("account" or "journal") His account is most notable for providing a detailed description of the Volga Vikings, including an eyewitness account of a ship burial.
Ahmad ibn Rustah Isfahani (احمد ابن رسته اصفهانی Aḥmad ibn Rusta Iṣfahānī), more commonly known as Ibn Rustah (ابن رسته, also spelled Ibn Rusta and Ibn Ruste), was a 10th-century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta district, Isfahan, Persia.
Alby is a village on the Baltic Sea in the Hulterstad district at the western fringe of the Stora Alvaret.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Angelica archangelica, commonly known as garden angelica, wild celery, and Norwegian angelica, is a biennial plant from the Apiaceae family, a subspecies of which is cultivated for its sweetly scented edible stems and roots.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Anglo-Scandinavian is an academic term referring to the archaeological and historical periods during the 8th to 13th centuries in which there was migration to - and occupation of - the British Isles by Scandinavian peoples generally known as Vikings.
Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the deer family.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Archdiocese of Bremen (also Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, Erzbistum Bremen, not to be confused with the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994) is a historical Roman Catholic diocese (787–1566/1648) and formed from 1180 to 1648 an ecclesiastical state (continued under other names until 1823), named Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen) within the Holy Roman Empire.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Austur-Húnavatnssýsla was a county of Iceland located in the Northwestern Region of the country.
Avengers Assemble is an American animated television series based on the fictional Marvel Comics superhero team known as the Avengers.
Åhus is the second largest locality in Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 9,423 inhabitants in 2010, but the number triples during the summer due to tourists who come seeking the beaches and nature of the Helgeå and Hanöbukten area.
Öland (known in Latin as Oelandia, and sometimes written Øland in other Scandinavian languages, and Oland internationally) is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.
The Battle of Maldon took place on 11 August 991 CE near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Æthelred the Unready.
Baugrygr or Ringkvinna was the term for an unmarried woman who had inherited the position of head of the family, usually from her father or brother, with all the tasks and rights associated with the position.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
A beitass, or a stretching pole, is a wooden spar used on Viking ships that was fitted into a pocket at the lower corner of the sail.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
"Berserkers" (or "berserks") were champion Norse warriors who are primarily reported in Icelandic sagas to have fought in a trance-like fury, a characteristic which later gave rise to the English word "berserk." These champions would often go into battle without mail coats.
Bilberries are any of several primarily Eurasian species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae), bearing edible, nearly black berries.
Birka (Birca in medieval sources), on the island of Björkö (literally: "Birch Island") in present-day Sweden, was an important Viking Age trading center which handled goods from Scandinavia and Finland as well as Central and Eastern Europe and the Orient.
The Birka female Viking warrior was a woman buried with the accoutrements of an elite professional Viking warrior in a 10th century chamber-grave in Birka, Sweden.
The Black Grave (translit) is the largest burial mound (kurgan) in Chernihiv, Ukraine.
The black grouse or blackgame or blackcock (Tetrao tetrix) is a large game bird in the grouse family.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, and hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus.
Bohuslän is a Swedish province in Götaland, on the northernmost part of the country's west coast.
Borre mound cemetery (Norwegian: Borrehaugene from the Old Norse words borró and haugr meaning mound) forms part of the at Horten in Vestfold, Norway.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).
Brattahlíð, often anglicised as Brattahlid, was Erik the Red's estate in the Eastern Settlement Viking colony he established in south-western Greenland toward the end of the 10th century.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.
Bullion is gold, silver, or other precious metals in the form of bars or ingots.
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.
A by-law (bylaw) is a rule or law established by an organization or community to regulate itself, as allowed or provided for by some higher authority.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
The Canberra Raiders are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in the national capital city of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
Greater Reykjavík (Höfuðborgarsvæðið, meaning "The Capital Region") is a region in southwestern Iceland that comprises the national capital Reykjavík and six municipalities around it.
Caraway, also known as meridian fennel, and Persian cumin, (Carum carvi) is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,USDA Plants native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A cesspit, or cesspool, is a term with various meanings: it is used to describe either an underground holding tank (sealed at the bottom) or a soak pit (not sealed at the bottom).
The Charente (Charanta) is a long river in southwestern France.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Christian culture is the cultural practices common to Christianity.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Clan Donald, also known as Clan MacDonald (Clann Dòmhnaill), is a Highland Scottish clan and one of the largest Scottish clans.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib ("The War of the Irish with the Foreigners") is a medieval Irish text that tells of the depredations of the Vikings and Uí Ímair dynasty in Ireland and the Irish king Brian Boru's great war against them, beginning with the Battle of Sulcoit in 967 and culminating in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, in which Brian was slain but his forces were victorious.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.
Crataegus monogyna, known as common hawthorn or single-seeded hawthorn, is a species of hawthorn native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
Curing is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of combinations of salt, nitrates, nitrites,.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.
The Danevirke (modern Danish spelling: Dannevirke; in Old Norse; Danavirki, in German; Danewerk, literally meaning earthwork of the Danes) is a system of Danish fortifications in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Danish Americans (Dansk-amerikanere) are Americans who have ancestral roots originated fully or partially from Denmark.
The Danish hen (Danish: Dansk landhøne) is a chicken landrace native to Denmark.
Danish landrace goose or Danish goose (Danish language: dansk landgås) is a landrace variety of goose native to Denmark.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
(The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner.
Digital Commons is a hosted institutional repository platform.
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dnieper Rapids (Дніпрові пороги, Dniprovi porohy) are the historic rapids on the Dnieper river composed of outcrops of granites, gneisses and other basement rocks of the Ukrainian Shield.
The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers.
A drinking horn is the horn of a bovid used as a drinking vessel.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
Eaters of the Dead: The Manuscript of Ibn Fadlan Relating His Experiences with the Northmen in AD 922 (later republished as The 13th Warrior to correspond with the film adaptation of the novel) is a 1976 novel by Michael Crichton.
"Edda" (Old Norse Edda, plural Eddur) is an Old Norse term that has been attributed by modern scholars to the collective of two Medieval Icelandic literary works: what is now known as the Prose Edda and an older collection of poems without an original title now known as the Poetic Edda.
Egilsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, the Island of Egilsay is lying east of Rousay.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Eric Northman is a fictional character in The Southern Vampire Mysteries, a series of thirteen books written by New York Times bestselling author Charlaine Harris.
Erik Gustaf Geijer (12 January 1783 – 23 April 1847) was a Swedish writer, historian, poet, philosopher, and composer.
Erik Thorvaldsson (Eiríkr Þorvaldsson; 950 – c. 1003), known as Erik the Red (Eiríkr hinn rauði) was a Norse explorer, remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first settlement in Greenland.
Erik the Viking is a 1989 British comedy-fantasy film written and directed by Terry Jones.
Esaias Tegnér (Värmland –, Växjö, Småland), was a Swedish writer, professor of Greek language, and bishop.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine, and weasel.
Experimental archaeology (also called experiment archaeology and experiential archaeology) is a field of study which attempts to generate and test archaeological hypotheses, usually by replicating or approximating the feasibility of ancient cultures performing various tasks or feats.
Falconry is the hunting of wild animals in their natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey.
Faroese people (føroyingar) are an ethnic group and nation native to the Faroe Islands.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
Filmjölk, also known as fil, is a traditional fermented milk product from Sweden, and a common dairy product within the Nordic countries.
Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
The Foteviken Museum (Fotevikens Museum) is an archaeological open-air museum on the Höllviken peninsula in southern Skåne, Sweden.
Fowling is the catching of birds for meat, feathers or any other part with commercial value.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
Fragaria is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frans Gunnar Bengtsson (4 October 1894 – 19 December 1954) was a Swedish novelist, essayist, poet and biographer.
Fraxinus excelsior, known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash, is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae.
Frithiof's Saga (Friðþjófs saga hins frœkna) is a legendary saga from Iceland which in its present form is from ca.
The Frostating was an early Norwegian court.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala) is a parish and a village outside Uppsala in Sweden.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
The Geatish Society (Götiska Förbundet, also Gothic Union, Gothic League) was created by a number of Swedish poets and authors in 1811, as a social club for literary studies among academics in Sweden, with a view to raising the moral tone of society through contemplating Scandinavian antiquity.
The Geats (gēatas; gautar; götar), sometimes called Goths, were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited italic ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gettlinge is a village in the southwest portion of the island of Öland, Sweden.
The Gjermundbu helmet is a Viking Age helmet.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glíma is the Old Norse word that covers several types of Scandinavian folk wrestling: Brokartök, Hryggspenna, and Lausatök.
Gnezdovo or Gnyozdovo (Гнёздово) is an archeological site located near the village of Gnyozdovo in Smolensky District, Smolensk Oblast, Russia.
The Gokstad Mound (Norwegian: Gokstadhaugen) is a large burial mound at Gokstad Farm in Sandefjord (formerly Sandar municipality) in Vestfold County, Norway.
The Gokstad ship is a 9th-century Viking ship found in a burial mound at Gokstad in Sandar, Sandefjord, Vestfold, Norway.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gorm the Old (Gorm den Gamle, Gormr gamli, Gormus Senex), also called Gorm the Languid (Gorm Løge, Gorm den Dvaske), was the first historically recognized ruler of Denmark, reigning from to his death.
The Gutes or the Gotlanders (in Swedish gutar) are the population of the island of Gotland.
The Gray (Grey) Goose Laws (Grágás) are a collection of laws from the Icelandic Commonwealth period.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Grobiņa (Grobin) is a town in western Latvia, eleven kilometers east of Liepāja.
Gudfred was a ninth century Danish king who is held to have reigned from about 804 to about 810.
Gulating (Gulaþing) is the name of both one of the first Norwegian legislative assemblies or things and one of the present-day law courts of western Norway.
Gutasaga (Gutasagan) is a saga regarding the history of Gotland before its Christianization.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Haplogroup I-M253, also known as I1, is a Y chromosome haplogroup.
Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson (Haraldr Gormsson, Harald Blåtand Gormsen, died c. 985/86) was a king of Denmark and Norway.
Harald Sigurdsson (– 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (harðráði, modern Norwegian: Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was King of Norway (as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Harold Godwinson (– 14 October 1066), often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
Havhingsten fra Glendalough ("The Sea Stallion from Glendalough" or just "Sea Stallion") is a reconstruction of Skuldelev 2, one of the Skuldelev ships and the second-largest Viking longship ever to be found.
The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.
Hägar the Horrible is the title and main character of an American comic strip created by cartoonist Dik Browne, and syndicated by King Features Syndicate.
Hærvejen (Danish, literally: the army road, Ochsenweg, literally: oxen way, Ossenpadd, literally: oxen path), sometimes referred to in English as the Ox Road, is the name given to an ancient trackway in Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein.
Head cheese or brawn is a cold cut that originated in Europe.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Hedeby (Old Norse Heiðabýr, German Haithabu) was an important Viking Age (8th to the 11th centuries) trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
The Heidschnucke is a group of three types of moorland sheep from northern Germany.
In Norse mythology, Heimdallr is a god who possesses the resounding horn Gjallarhorn, owns the golden-maned horse Gulltoppr, has gold teeth, and is the son of Nine Mothers (who may represent personified waves).
In Norse mythology, Hel is a being who presides over a realm of the same name, where she receives a portion of the dead.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
Historical reenactment (or re-enactment) is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples.
The history of the British Isles has witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Ireland, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the smaller adjacent islands, which together make up the British Isles.
Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbage).
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
In medieval Scandinavia, husmän (húskarlar, singular húskarl; also anglicised as housecarl huscarl (Old English form) and sometimes spelled huscarle or houscarl) were either non-servile manservants or household troops in personal service of someone, equivalent to a bodyguard to Scandinavian lords and kings.
Hov (Hove) is a village located on Suduroy's east coast, in the Faroe Islands; it is frequently mentioned in the country's history.
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.
Ice skating is the act of motion by wearer of the ice skates to propel the participant across a sheet of ice.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Icelanders (Íslendingar) are a Germanic ethnic group and nation, native to Iceland, mostly speaking the Germanic language Icelandic.
Icelandic cattle are a breed of cattle native to Iceland.
The Icelandic horse is a breed of horse developed in Iceland.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
The Ingvar Runestones (Ingvarstenarna) is the name of c. 26 Varangian Runestones that were raised in commemoration of those who died in the Swedish Virginia g expedition to the Caspian Sea of Ingvar the Far-Travelled.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Iron Age Scandinavia (or Nordic Iron Age) refers to the Iron Age, as it unfolded in Scandinavia.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Jack Kirby (born Jacob Kurtzberg; August 28, 1917 – February 6, 1994) was an American comic book artist, writer, and editor, widely regarded as one of the medium's major innovators and one of its most prolific and influential creators.
Jan Terje Faarlund (born 3 May 1943) is a Norwegian linguist and professor emeritus of North Germanic languages at the University of Oslo.
Jelling is a village in Denmark with a population of 3,431 (1 January 2016), located in Jelling Parish approx.
The Jelling stones (Jellingstenene) are massive carved runestones from the 10th century, found at the town of Jelling in Denmark.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jorvik Viking Centre is a museum and visitor attraction in York, England, containing lifelike mannequins and life-size dioramas depicting Viking life in the city.
Juglans regia, the Persian walnut, English walnut, Circassian walnut, or especially in Great Britain, common walnut, is an Old World walnut tree species native to the region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China.
A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers.
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.
Kaupang was a Norse term for market-place.
Kaupanger is a village situated along the northern shore of the Sognefjorden in the municipality of Sogndal in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of the East Angles (Ēast Engla Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Anglorum), today known as the Kingdom of East Anglia, was a small independent kingdom of the Angles comprising what are now the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
A knarr is a type of Norse merchant ship used by the Vikings.
Knattleikr (English: 'ball-game') was an ancient ball game played by the Vikings of Iceland.
Knife juggling is a variant of toss juggling using special knives as props which are thrown and caught.
Krákumál or the Lay of Kraka is a skaldic poem, consisting of a monologue in which Ragnar Lodbrok is dying in Ælla's snake pit and looks back at a life full of heroic deeds.
L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove"), is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.
The Ladby ship is a major ship burial, of the type also represented by the boat chamber grave of Hedeby and the ship burials of Oseberg, Borre, Gokstad and Tune in South Norway, all of which date back to the 9th and 10th centuries.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
The Land of Legends, Centre for Historical-Archaeological Research and Communication (in Danish "Sagnlandet Lejre" and formerly known as Lejre Experimental Centre) is a 106-acre (43 hectare) archaeological open-air museum situated in the Lejre Municipality, few kilometres west of Roskilde (Denmark).
Lawrence D. Lieber (born October 26, 1931) (Scroll down) is an American comic book artist and writer best known as co-creator of the Marvel Comics superheroes Iron Man, Thor, and Ant-Man; for his long stint both writing and drawing the Marvel Western Rawhide Kid; and for illustrating the newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man for many years and continuing as of December 2017.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The institution known as leiðangr (Old Norse), leidang (Norwegian), leding (Danish), ledung (Swedish), expeditio (Latin) or sometimes lething (English), was a form of conscription to organise coastal fleets for seasonal excursions and in defence of the realm typical for medieval Scandinavians and, later, a public levy of free farmers.
Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson (970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer from Iceland.
Lepidium is a genus of plants in the mustard/cabbage family, Brassicaceae.
Lindholm Høje (Lindholm Hills, from Old Norse haugr, hill or mound) is a major Viking burial site and former settlement situated to the north of and overlooking the city of Aalborg in Denmark.
The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
The Lingsberg Runestones are two 11th century runestones, listed as U 240 and U 241 in the Rundata catalog, and one fragment, U 242, that are engraved in Old Norse using the younger futhark and located at the farm at Lingsberg, which is about east of Vallentuna (halfway to Kusta), which is about north of the center of Stockholm, Stockholm County, Sweden, which was part of the former province of Uppland.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Words of Old Norse origin have entered the English language, primarily from the contact between Old Norse and Old English during colonisation of eastern and northern England between the mid 9th to the 11th centuries (see also Danelaw).
This is a list of haplogroups of historic people.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Lofotr Viking Museum (Lofotr Vikingmuseum) is a historical museum based on a reconstruction and archaeological excavation of a Viking chieftain's village on the island of Vestvågøya in the Lofoten archipelago in Nordland county, Norway.
Longships were a type of ship invented and used by the Norsemen (commonly known as the Vikings) for commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age.
Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
Maldon (locally) is a town on the Blackwater estuary in Essex, England.
Malus is a genus of about 30–55 species of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated orchard apple (M. pumila syn. M. domestica) – also known as the eating apple, cooking apple, or culinary apple.
Mammen is a village in Viborg Municipality, Denmark 7 km north of Bjerringbro.
The Manx runestones were made by the Norse population on the Isle of Man during the Viking Age, mostly in the 10th century.
Marvel Comics is the common name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc., formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media.
Marvel Studios, LLC (originally known as Marvel Films from 1993 to 1996) is an American motion picture studio based at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California and is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, itself a wholly owned division of The Walt Disney Company, with film producer Kevin Feige serving as president.
The Mälaren Valley (Mälardalen), occasionally referred to as Stockholm-Mälaren Region (Stockholm-mälarregionen), is the easternmost part of Svealand, the catchment area of Lake Mälaren and the surrounding municipalities.
Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.
Throughout Western Europe in the Middle Ages, humans hunted wild animals.
Medieval Scandinavian law, a subset of Germanic law, was originally memorized by lawspeakers, but after the end of the Viking Age they were committed to writing, mostly by Christian monks after the Christianization of Scandinavia.
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region that may have been related to other warming events in other regions during that time, including China and other areas, lasting from to.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meols (sometimes known as Great Meols) is a village on the northern coast of the Wirral Peninsula, England.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.
A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
The Minnesota Vikings are a professional American football team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Mosfellsbær is a town in south-west Iceland, some east of the country's capital, Reykjavík.
Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants.
Myrica gale is a species of flowering plant in the genus Myrica, native to northern and western Europe and parts of northern North America.
Nasjonal Samling (NS; literally "National Union") was a Norwegian far-right party active from 1933 to 1945.
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Saint Nestor the Chronicler (1056 – c. 1114, in Kyiv, modern-day Ukraine) was the reputed author of the Primary Chronicle, (the earliest East Slavic chronicle), Life of the Venerable Theodosius of the Kyiv Caves, and Account about the Life and Martyrdom of the Blessed Passion Bearers Boris and Gleb. In 1073, Nestor became a monk of the Monastery of the Caves in Kyiv.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.
The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age, or Scandinavian Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Place-names in Normandy have a variety of origins.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
The Norse–Gaels (Gall-Goídil; Irish: Gall-Ghaeil; Gall-Ghàidheil, 'foreigner-Gaels') were a people of mixed Gaelic and Norse ancestry and culture.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
Norstead: A Viking Village and Port of Trade is a reconstruction of a Viking Age settlement.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northern European short-tailed sheep are a group of sheep breeds and landraces from the British Isles (including the English Channel), Scandinavia, Greenland and the area around the Baltic.
The Northern Isles (Northren Isles; Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; Norðreyjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The Norwegian Sea (Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
The Obotrites (Obotriti) or Obodrites (Obodrzyce meaning: at the waters), also spelled Abodrites (Abodriten), were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg and Holstein in northern Germany (see Polabian Slavs).
Nazism and occultism describes a range of theories, speculation and research into the origins of Nazism and its possible relation to various occult traditions.
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark.
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
Olaf Tryggvason (960s – 9 September 1000) was King of Norway from 995 to 1000.
Olaus Rudbeck (also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, and occasionally with the surname Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius) (12 December 1630 – 17 September 1702) was a Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Norse literature refers to the vernacular literature of the Scandinavian peoples up to c. 1350.
Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.
Old Saxony is the original homeland of the Saxons in the northwest corner of modern Germany and roughly corresponds today to the modern German state of Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Nordalbingia (Holstein, southern part of Schleswig-Holstein) and western Saxony-Anhalt.
Ole Worm (13 May 1588 – 31 August 1654), who often went by the Latinized form of his name Olaus Wormius, was a Danish physician, natural historian and antiquary.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Ormskirk is a market town in West Lancashire, England, north of Liverpool, northwest of St Helens, southeast of Southport and southwest of Preston.
The Oseberg ship (Norwegian: Osebergskipet) is a well-preserved Viking ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
The parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) is a root vegetable closely related to the carrot and parsley.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.
Photios I (Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr.
A pig's trotter, also known as a pettitoe, is the foot of a pig.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Pluvialis is a genus of plovers, a group of wading birds comprising four species that breed in the temperate or Arctic Northern Hemisphere.
A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, typically expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson.
Poitou-Charentes is a former administrative region in south-western France.
The Port an Eilean Mhòir ship burial is a Viking boat burial site in Ardnamurchan, Scotland, the most westerly point on the island of Great Britain.
Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926 – July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author who began his career in the 1940s and continued to write into the 21st century.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Proto-Norse (also called Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic and a variety of other names) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Quern-stones are stone tools for hand-grinding a wide variety of materials.
Raiding, also known as depredation, is a military tactic or operational warfare mission which has a specific purpose and is not normally intended to capture and hold a location but instead finish with the raiding force quickly retreating to a previous defended position prior to enemy forces being able to respond in a coordinated manner or formulate a counter-attack.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.
Ravenscar is a coastal village in the Scarborough district of North Yorkshire, England, approximately north of Scarborough.
Rígsþula or Rígsmál ("Lay of Ríg") is an Eddic poem, preserved in the manuscript (AM 242 fol, the Codex Wormianus), in which a Norse god named Ríg or Rígr, described as "old and wise, mighty and strong", fathers the classes of mankind.
Regia Anglorum (A term used by early writers in Latin texts, meaning Kingdoms of the English), or simply Regia, is a Medieval reenactment organisation reenacting the life and times of the peoples who lived in and around the Islands of Britain from the time of Alfred the Great to Richard the Lionheart.
Reric or Rerik was one of the Viking Age multi-ethnic Slavic-Scandinavian emporia on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, located near Wismar in the present-day German state of Mecklenburg-VorpommernOle Harck, Christian Lübke, Zwischen Reric und Bornhöved: Die Beziehungen zwischen den Dänen und ihren slawischen Nachbarn vom 9.
Ribe (Ripen) is a Danish town in south-west Jutland, with a population of 8,168 (1 January 2014).
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The rose hip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit of the rose plant.
Roskilde, located west of Copenhagen on the Danish island of Zealand, is the main city in Roskilde Municipality.
Roskilde Fjord is the fjord north of Roskilde, Denmark.
Roslagen is the name of the coastal areas of Uppland province in Sweden, which also constitutes the northern part of the Stockholm archipelago.
The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or trees in the genus Sorbus of the rose family, Rosaceae.
The Scandinavian Runic-text Data Base (Samnordisk runtextdatabas) is a project involving the creation and maintenance of a database of runic inscriptions.
A runemaster or runecarver is a specialist in making runestones.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Ruta graveolens, commonly known as rue, common rue or herb-of-grace, is a species of Ruta grown as an ornamental plant and herb.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
The Salme ships are two clinker-built ships of Scandinavian origin discovered in 2008 and 2010 near Salme village on the island of Saaremaa, Estonia.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sambucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Saxo Grammaticus (1160 – 1220), also known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian, theologian and author.
The Saxon Wars, also called the Saxon War or Saxon Uprising (not to be confused with the Saxon Rebellion of 1073-75), were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Sæmundur Sigfússon (or Sæmundur fróði) (Sæmundur the Learned) (1056–1133) was an Icelandic priest and scholar.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Scandinavian Peninsula became ice-free around 11,000 BC, at the end of the last ice age.
Scandinavian York (also referred to as Jórvík) or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria (modern day Yorkshire) during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, used to refer to the city (York) controlled by these kings.
Scandinavism, also called Scandinavianism, Pan-Scandinavianism,.
The Scar boat burial is a Viking boat burial near the village of Scar, on Sanday, in Orkney, Scotland.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Seax (also sax, sæx, sex; invariant in plural, latinized sachsum) is an Old English word for "knife".
In Old Norse sources, such as sagas and runestones, Særkland or Serkland was the name of the Abbasid Caliphate and probably some neighbouring Muslim regions.
Sharpening stones, water stones or whetstones are used to sharpen the edges of steel tools and implements through grinding and honing.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm.
A shield-maiden (skjaldmær), in Scandinavian folklore and mythology was a female warrior.
Shock troops or assault troops are formations created to lead an attack.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
The Sigurd stones form a group of seven or eight runestones and one picture stone that depict imagery from the legend of Sigurd the dragon slayer.
Sigurd I Magnusson (c. 1090 – 26 March 1130), also known as Sigurd the Crusader (Old Norse: Sigurðr Jórsalafari, Norwegian: Sigurd Jorsalfar), was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse:, later;, meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.
A skerry is a small rocky island, usually too small for human habitation.
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
The Skuldelev ships is a term used for 5 original Viking ships recovered from the waterway of Peberrenden at Skuldelev, c. 20 km north of Roskilde in Denmark.
A skull cup is a drinking vessel or eating bowl made from an inverted human calvaria that has been cut away from the rest of the skull.
Skyr is an Icelandic cultured dairy product.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Smoked meat is a method of preparing red meat (and fish) which originates in prehistory.
Snaefell (snjœ-fjall/snjó-fall - snow mountain) - (Sniaull) is the highest mountain and the only summit higher than on the Isle of Man, at above sea level.
Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.
Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a talc-schist, which is a type of metamorphic rock.
Somerled (died 1164), known in Middle Irish as Somairle, Somhairle, and Somhairlidh, and in Old Norse as Sumarliði, was a mid-12th-century warlord who, through marital alliance and military conquest, rose in prominence and seized control of the Kingdom of the Isles.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber, December 28, 1922) is an American comic-book writer, editor, film executive producer, actor and publisher.
Staraya Ladoga (p); Vanha Laatokka; Aldeigjuborg) is a rural locality (a selo) in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Volkhov River near Lake Ladoga, north of the town of Volkhov, the administrative center of the district. It used to be a prosperous trading outpost in the 8th and 9th centuries. A multi-ethnic settlement, it was dominated by Scandinavians who were called by the name of Rus'. For that reason, it is sometimes called the first capital of Russia.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.
A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero or Super) is a type of heroic stock character, usually possessing supernatural or superhuman powers, who is dedicated to fighting the evil of his/her universe, protecting the public, and usually battling supervillains.
Sven (in Norwegian and Danish, also Svend and also in Norwegian most commonly Svein) is a Scandinavian first name which is also used in Estonia, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, South Africa, Germany, and Austria.
Swansea (Abertawe), is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea (Dinas a Sir Abertawe) in Wales, UK.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedes (svear; Old Norse: svíar / suar (probably from the PIE reflexive pronominal root *s(w)e, "one's own ";Bandle, Oskar. 2002. The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. 2002. P.391 Old English: Sweonas) were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Svealand ("land of the Swedes") in central Sweden and one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Geats and Gutes. The first author who wrote about the tribe is Tacitus, who in his Germania, from 98 CE mentions the Suiones. Jordanes, in the sixth century, mentions Suehans and Suetidi. According to early sources such as the sagas, especially Heimskringla, the Swedes were a powerful tribe whose kings claimed descendence from the god Freyr. During the Viking Age they constituted the basis of the Varangian subset, the Vikings that travelled eastwards (see Rus' people).
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
Taillebourg is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France.
Tórshavn (lit. 'Thor's harbour'; Thorshavn) is the capital and largest town of the Faroe Islands.
The 13th Warrior is a 1999 American historical fiction action film based on the novel Eaters of the Dead by Michael Crichton and is a loose retelling of the tale of Beowulf.
Marvel's The Avengers (classified under the name Marvel Avengers Assemble in the United Kingdom and Ireland), or simply The Avengers, is a 2012 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team of the same name, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.
The Long Ships or Red Orm (original Swedish: Röde Orm meaning Red Serpent or Red Snake) is an adventure novel by the Swedish writer Frans G. Bengtsson.
The Long Ships is a 1964 Anglo–Yugoslav adventure film shot in Technirama directed by Jack Cardiff and stars Richard Widmark, Sidney Poitier and Russ Tamblyn.
The Vikings is a 1958 epic historical fiction swashbuckling film directed by Richard Fleischer and filmed in Technicolor.
"The Vikings" is a British-based society of re-enactors, dedicated to the study and re-enactment of the culture of the Viking Age (790–1066) and the display of authentic Dark Ages living history and combat.
A thing, also known as Alþing, was the governing assembly of a northern Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers.
Thomas Bartholin (Latinized: Thomas Bartholinus; 20 October 1616 – 4 December 1680) was a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
Thor is a 2011 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures.
Thor is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Thor: Ragnarok is a 2017 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Thor, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.
Thor: The Dark World is a 2013 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Thor, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.
Thorp is a Middle English word for a hamlet or small village, from Old English (Anglo-Saxon)/Old Norse þorp (also thorp).
A thrall (Old Norse/Icelandic: þræll, Norwegian: trell, Danish: træl, Swedish: träl) was a slave or serf in Scandinavian lands during the Viking Age.
Thursday is the day of the week between Wednesday and Friday.
Thyme is an aromatic perennial evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses.
Thyra, also known as Thorvi or Thyre, was a Danish queen, spouse of King Gorm the Old of Denmark, the first historically recognized King of Denmark, who reigned from to his death.
Tim Severin (born 25 Sept 1940) is a British explorer, historian and writer.
Direct Holdings Global LLC, through its subsidiaries StarVista Live, Lifestyle Products Group and Time Life, is a creator and direct marketer that is known for selling books, music, video/DVD, and multimedia products.
Tocqueville may refer to.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Shlyakh' z varahaw u hreki, Shlyakh iz varyahiv u hreky, Put' iz varjag v greki, Εμπορική οδός Βαράγγων–Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire.
True Blood is an American dark fantasy horror television series produced and created by Alan Ball and based on The Southern Vampire Mysteries, a series of novels by Charlaine Harris.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Tynwald (Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald (Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court is the legislature of the Isle of Man.
The University of Southern Denmark (Syddansk Universitet, literally South Danish University, abbr. SDU) is a university in Denmark.
The Ushkuiniks (ушкуйники) were medieval Novgorodian pirates who led the Viking-like life of fighting, killing, and robbery.
Valsgärde or Vallsgärde is a farm on the Fyris river, about three kilometres north of Gamla Uppsala, the ancient centre of the Swedish kings and of the pagan faith in Sweden.
The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.
The Varangian Runestones are runestones in Scandinavia that talk of eastward voyages such as the Gardarike runestones, Greece Runestones, Italy Runestones, and inscriptions left by the Varangian Guard.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Veksø is a small town located between Ballerup and Ølstykke-Stenløse in Egedal, some 20 km northwest of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vicky the Viking, known as in Germany and Austria and in Japan, is a German-Austrian-Japanese animated television series which tells the adventures of Vicky, a young Viking boy who uses his wits to help his Viking fellows.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Viken (Old Norse: Vík or Víkin) or Vika, was the historical name for a district in southeastern Norway, including the modern day Swedish province Bohuslän, which consisted of the area surrounding the Oslofjord and Skagerrak, the strait running between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Knowledge about military technology of the Viking Age (end of 8th- to mid-11th-century Europe) is based on relatively sparse archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and laws recorded in the 14th century.
Viking art, also known commonly as Norse art, is a term widely accepted for the art of Scandinavia and Viking settlements further afield—particularly in the British Isles and Iceland—during the Viking Age of the 8th-11th centuries CE.
Viking metal is a style of heavy metal music characterized by a lyrical and thematic focus on Norse mythology, Norse paganism, and the Viking Age.
Vikings were members of tribes, originally from Scandinavia, of Norse ancestry, who gained a reputation for their raids and piracy in many parts of Europe, especially England, Ireland, and Frankish territories.
The Viking revival was a movement of interest and appreciation for Viking history and culture in the 18th and 19th centuries, often with romanticized heroic overtones.
The Viking Ship Museum (Vikingeskibsmuseet) in Roskilde is Denmark's national museum for ships, seafaring and boatbuilding in the prehistoric and medieval period.
Vikingstad is a locality situated in Linköping Municipality, Östergötland County, Sweden with 2,096 inhabitants in 2010.
Vinland, Vineland or Winland (Vínland) is the name for North American land explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.
Walrus tusk ivory comes from two modified upper canines.
Walter William Skeat (21 November 1835 – 6 October 1912), FBA, was the pre-eminent British philologist of his time.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
West Lancashire is a non-metropolitan district with the status of a borough in Lancashire, England.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained.
"Widsith" ("Ƿidsið") is an Old English poem of 143 lines.
William Wyvill Fitzhugh IV is an American archaeologist and anthropologist who directs the Smithsonian’s Arctic Studies Center and is a Senior Scientist at the National Museum of Natural History.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Wirral, also known as The Wirral, is a peninsula in northwest England.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
Zealand (Sjælland), at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper (thus excluding Greenland and Disko Island, which are larger).
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