172 relations: Abram Model, Aivars Gipslis, Alexander Alekhine, Alexander Beliavsky, Amsterdam, Anatoly Karpov, Arthur Bisguier, Arvier, Augusta, Georgia, Austria, Bad Kissingen, Baguio, Bath, Somerset, Batsford, Belgrade, Bilberry, Bobby Fischer, Boris Gulko, Boris Spassky, Boryspil, Brazil, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Buenos Aires, Canada, Candidates Tournament, Córdoba, Argentina, Chess, Chess (musical), Chess endgame, Chess Olympiad, Chess Review, Chess title, Chess.com, ChessBase, Chigorin Memorial, Cold War, Curaçao, Dangerous Moves, David Bronstein, David Levy (chess player), David S. Goodman, Edward Winter (chess historian), Efim Bogoljubov, Efim Geller, Elo rating system, Engineer, English Opening, Estonia, ..., Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Everyman Chess, Evian, Fabiano Caruana, FIDE, FIDE titles, Garry Kasparov, Géza Maróczy, Gedeon Barcza, Georgia (U.S. state), Gibraltar, Grandmaster (chess), Gyula Sax, Gyula, Hungary, Hamburg, Hastings International Chess Congress, Havana, Henrique Mecking, Hjartarson, Hungary, Iceland, Iivo Nei, Interzonal, István Bilek, Italy, Jan Hein Donner, Jan Timman, Jonathan Mestel, Kapfenberg, Kiev, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, Kraków, Lajos Portisch, Larry Christiansen, Leningrad City Chess Championship, Leonard Barden, Lev Polugaevsky, List of Soviet and Eastern Bloc defectors, Magnus Carlsen, Mark Taimanov, Max Euwe, Melitopol, Merano, Michael Stean, Mikhail Botvinnik, Mikhail Tal, Minsk, Miroslav Filip, Montpellier, My Great Predecessors, Netherlands, Oberhausen, Odessa, Oslo, Pasadena, California, Paul Keres, Petrópolis, Philippines, Pirc Defence, Raymond Keene, Riga, Right of asylum, Robert Hübner, Romanization of Russian, Round-robin tournament, Russia (USSR) vs Rest of the World, Saint John, New Brunswick, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Conservatory, Saint Petersburg State University, Samuel Reshevsky, Sicilian Defence, Siege of Leningrad, Simultaneous exhibition, Sochi, Sousse, Soviet Union, Stockholm, Swiss Chess Championship, Switzerland, Tallinn, Tbilisi, Tigran Petrosian, Tony Miles, Tunisia, U.S. Open Chess Championship, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uppsala, USSR Chess Championship, Vadim Milov, Vasily Smyslov, Velden am Wörther See, Vienna, Vilnius, Vladimir Simagin, Vladimir Tukmakov, West Germany, Wijk aan Zee, William Hartston, Wohlen, Aargau, Wolfgang Uhlmann, World Chess Championship, World Chess Championship 1963, World Chess Championship 1969, World Chess Championship 1972, World Chess Championship 1975, World Senior Chess Championship, Yerevan, Yogurt, Yuri Averbakh, Yuri Felshtinsky, Zürich, Zoltán Ribli, Zurich Christmas Open, 14th Chess Olympiad, 17th Chess Olympiad, 18th Chess Olympiad, 1984 Summer Olympics, 19th Chess Olympiad, 20th Chess Olympiad, 21st Chess Olympiad. Expand index (122 more) » « Shrink index
Abram Yakovlevich Model (Абрам Яковлевич Моде́ль; 23 October 1896, Daugavpils – 16 February 1976, Leningrad) was a Russian chess master, although he had his master title taken away by the Soviet chess authorities due to lack of results.
Aivars Gipslis (February 8, 1937 – April 13, 2000) was a Latvian chess FIDE Grandmaster and also an ICCF Grandmaster, and a chess writer and editor.
Alexander Alekhine (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin;; March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion.
Alexander Genrikhovich Beliavsky (also Romanized Belyavsky; born December 17, 1953) is a Soviet, Ukrainian and Slovenian chess grandmaster.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.
Arthur Bernard Bisguier (October 8, 1929April 5, 2017) was an American chess grandmaster, chess promoter, and writer.
Arvier (Valdôtain: Arvì or Arvë; Arviér); is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of northwestern Italy.
Augusta, officially Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U.S. state of Georgia.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Bad Kissingen is a spa town in the Bavarian region of Lower Franconia and seat of the district Bad Kissingen.
, officially the (Ibaloi: Ciudad ne Bagiw; Siudad ti Baguio; Lungsod ng Baguio) and popularly referred to as Baguio City, is a mountain resort city located in Northern Luzon, Philippines.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.
Batsford is a village and civil parish in the Cotswold district of Gloucestershire, England.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Bilberries are any of several primarily Eurasian species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae), bearing edible, nearly black berries.
Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion.
Boris Franzevich Gulko (p; born February 9, 1947) is a Soviet-American International Grandmaster in chess.
Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Boryspil (Бориспіль, translit. Boryspil’, Борисполь; also referred to as Borispol) is a city of regional significance located in the Kiev Oblast (region) in northern (central) Ukraine.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Candidates Tournament is a chess tournament organized by FIDE, chess' international governing body, since 1950, as the final contest to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship.
Córdoba is a city in the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about northwest of the Buenos Aires.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chess is a musical with music by Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus of the pop group ABBA, lyrics by Tim Rice, and a book by Richard Nelson based on an idea by Rice.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.
Chess Review is a U.S. chess magazine that was published from January 1933 until October 1969 (Volume 37 Number 10).
A chess title is a title created by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based on their performance and rank.
Chess.com is an Internet chess server, Internet forum and social networking website; it is also the name of the company that runs the site.
ChessBase GmbH is a German company that markets chess software, maintains a chess news site, and operates servers for online chess.
The Chigorin Memorial is a chess tournament played in honour of Mikhail Chigorin (1850–1908), founder of the Soviet Chess School and one of the leading players of his day.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
Dangerous Moves (La Diagonale du fou) is a 1984 French-language film about chess, directed by Richard Dembo, produced by Arthur Cohn, starring Michel Piccoli, Alexandre Arbatt, as well as Liv Ullmann, Leslie Caron, and Bernhard Wicki in prominent supporting roles.
David Ionovich Bronstein (Дави́д Ио́нович Бронште́йн; February 19, 1924 – December 5, 2006) was a Soviet chess grandmaster, who narrowly missed becoming World Chess Champion in 1951.
David Neil Laurence Levy (born 14 March 1945) is a British International Master of chess, a businessman noted for his involvement with computer chess and artificial intelligence, and the founder of the Computer Olympiads and the Mind Sports Olympiads.
David Simon Charles Goodman (born 25 February 1958 in England) is an International Master of chess, and a chess writer.
Edward Winter (born 1955) is an English chess journalist, archivist, historian, collector and author.
Efim Dmitriyevich Bogolyubov (also Romanized Bogoljubov, Bogoljubow; April 14, 1889 – June 18, 1952) was a Russian-born German chess grandmaster who won numerous events and played two matches against Alexander Alekhine for the world championship.
Efim Petrovich Geller (Ефим Петрович Геллер, Юхим Петрович Геллер; 8 March 1925 – 17 November 1998) was a Soviet chess player and world-class grandmaster at his peak.
The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in zero-sum games such as chess.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
The English Opening is a chess opening that begins with the move: A flank opening, it is the fourth most popular and, according to various databases, anywhere from one of the two most successful to the fourth most successful of White's twenty possible first moves.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
Everyman Chess, formerly known as Cadogan Chess, is a major publisher of books and CDs about chess.
Evian (stylized as evian), is a brand of mineral water coming from several sources near Évian-les-Bains, on the south shore of Lake Geneva.
Fabiano Luigi Caruana (born July 30, 1992) is an Italian-American chess grandmaster.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
The World Chess Federation, FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title.
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Géza Maróczy (3 March 1870 – 29 May 1951) was a Hungarian chess master, one of the leading players in the world in his time.
Gedeon (Gideon) Barcza (August 21, 1911 in Kisújszállás – February 27, 1986 in Budapest) was a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
Gyula Sax (18 June 1951 – 25 January 2014) was a Hungarian chess grandmaster and International Arbiter (1995).
Gyula (Jula, Jula or Giula, Göle) is a town in Békés County, Hungary.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hastings International Chess Congress is an annual chess tournament which takes place in Hastings, England, around the turn of the year.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Henrique Costa Mecking (born 23 January 1952), also known as Mequinho, is a Brazilian chess grandmaster who reached his zenith in the 1970s and is still one of the strongest players in Brazil.
Hjartarson is a surname of Icelandic origin, meaning son of Hjörtur.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Iivo Nei (born 31 October 1931 in Tartu) is an Estonian chess master.
Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by the World Chess Federation FIDE from the 1950s to the 1990s.
István Bilek (11 August 1932 – 20 March 2010) was a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Johannes Hendrikus (Hein) Donner (July 6, 1927 – November 27, 1988) was a Dutch chess grandmaster (GM) and writer.
Jan Timman (born 14 December 1951) is a Dutch chess Grandmaster who was one of the world's leading players from the late 1970s to the early 1990s.
Andrew Jonathan Mestel (born 13 March 1957 in Cambridge, England) is Professor of Applied Mathematics at Imperial College London.
Kapfenberg, with around inhabitants, is the third largest city in Styria, Austria, near Bruck an der Mur.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов; Kalmyk: Үлмҗин Кирсән, Ülmcin Kirsən; born April 5, 1962) is a Kalmyk businessman and politician.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Lajos Portisch (born 4 April 1937) is a Hungarian chess Grandmaster, whose positional style earned him the nickname, the "Hungarian Botvinnik".
Larry M. Christiansen (born June 27, 1956) is a chess Grandmaster who grew up in Riverside, California, United States, and was the U.S. champion in 1980, 1983, and 2002.
The Leningrad City Chess Championship is a chess tournament held officially in the city of Leningrad, Russia starting from 1920.
Leonard William Barden (born 20 August 1929, in Croydon, London) is an English chess master, writer, broadcaster, organizer and promoter.
Lev Abramovich Polugaevsky (Лев Абрамович Полугаевский; 20 November 1934 – 30 August 1995) was an International Grandmaster of chess and frequent contender for the World Championship, although he never achieved that title.
Soon after the formation of the Soviet Union, emigration restrictions were put in place to keep citizens from leaving the various countries of the Soviet Socialist Republics, though some defections still occurred.
Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen (born 30 November 1990) is a Norwegian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion.
Mark Evgenievich Taimanov (Марк Евгеньевич Тайманов; 7 February 1926 – 28 November 2016) was one of the leading Soviet and Russian chess players, among the world's top 20 players from 1946 to 1971.
Machgielis "Max" Euwe, PhD (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author, and chess administrator.
Melitopol (Меліто́поль, translit. Melitópol’, Мелитополь) is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast (region) of southeastern Ukraine.
Merano or Meran is a town and comune in South Tyrol, northern Italy.
Michael Francis Stean (born 4 September 1953) is an English chess grandmaster, an author of chess books and a tax accountant.
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник,; – May 5, 1995) was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963.
Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal (Mihails Tāls; Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Mikhail Nekhem'evich Tal,; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; 9 November 1936 – 28 June 1992) was a Soviet Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion (from 1960 to 1961).
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Miroslav Filip (27 October 1928 – 27 April 2009) was a Czech chess grandmaster.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
My Great Predecessors is a series of chess books written by former World Champion Garry Kasparov et al.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg and Essen. The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.
Paul Keres (January 7, 1916June 5, 1975) was an Estonian chess grandmaster and chess writer.
Petrópolis, also known as The Imperial City, is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil, located northeast of Rio de Janeiro.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Pirc Defence (correctly pronounced "peerts", but often mispronounced "perk"), sometimes known as the Ufimtsev Defence or Yugoslav Defence, is a chess opening characterised by Black responding to 1.e4 with 1...d6 and 2...Nf6, followed by...g6 and...Bg7, while allowing White to establish an impressive-looking centre with pawns on d4 and e4.
Raymond Dennis Keene OBE (born 29 January 1948) is an English chess Grandmaster, a FIDE International Arbiter, a chess organiser, and a journalist and author.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
Robert Hübner (born November 6, 1948) is a German chess Grandmaster, chess writer, and papyrologist.
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.
A round-robin tournament (or all-play-all tournament) is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn.
There have been two chess matches featuring USSR vs.
Saint John is the port city of the Bay of Fundy in the Canadian province of New Brunswick.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov Saint Petersburg State Conservatory (Санкт-Петербургская государственная консерватория имени Н. А. Римского-Корсакова) is a music school in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
Samuel Herman Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski; November 26, 1911 – April 4, 1992) was a Polish chess prodigy and later a leading American chess grandmaster.
The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: The Sicilian is the most popular and best-scoring response to White's first move 1.e4.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
A simultaneous exhibition or simultaneous display is a board game exhibition (commonly chess or Go) in which one player (typically of high rank, such as a grandmaster or dan-level player) plays multiple games at a time with a number of other players.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
Sousse or Soussa (سوسة, Berber: Susa) is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Swiss Chess Championship is held annually during two weeks of July.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian (Тигра́н Варта́нович Петрося́н; Տիգրան Պետրոսյան; June 17, 1929 – August 13, 1984) was a Soviet Armenian Grandmaster, and World Chess Champion from 1963 to 1969.
Anthony John Miles (23 April 1955 – 12 November 2001) was an English chess grandmaster, the first Englishman to earn the Grandmaster title in over-the-board play.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The U.S. Open Championship is an open national chess championship that has been held in the United States annually since 1900.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.
The USSR Chess Championship was played from 1921 to 1991.
Vadim Milov (born 1 August 1972) is a Swiss grandmaster of chess.
Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (Василий Васильевич Смыслов; 24 March 1921 – 27 March 2010) was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, who was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958.
Velden am Wörthersee (Slovene: Vrba na Koroškem) is a market town in Villach-Land District, in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vladimir Simagin (June 21, 1919 in Moscow – September 25, 1968 in Kislovodsk) was a Russian Grandmaster of chess.
Vladimir Borisovich Tukmakov (born March 5, 1946 in Odessa) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Wijk aan Zee is a small town on the coast of the North Sea in the municipality of Beverwijk in the province of North Holland of the Netherlands.
William Roland Hartston (born 12 August 1947) is an English journalist who writes the Beachcomber column in the Daily Express and a chess player who played competitively from 1962 to 1987 with a highest Elo rating of 2485.
Wohlen is a municipality in the district of Bremgarten in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.
Wolfgang Uhlmann (born 29 March 1935) is a prominent German International Grandmaster of chess.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
At the World Chess Championship 1963 Tigran Petrosian narrowly qualified to challenge Mikhail Botvinnik for the World Chess Championship, and then won the match to become the ninth World Chess Champion.
The 1969 World Chess Championship was played between Tigran Petrosian and Boris Spassky in Moscow from April 14 to June 17, 1969.
The World Chess Championship 1972 was a match for the World Chess Championship between challenger Bobby Fischer of the United States and defending champion Boris Spassky of the Soviet Union.
The 1975 World Chess Championship was never played due to a dispute over the match format.
The World Senior Chess Championship is an annual chess tournament established in 1991 by FIDE, the World Chess Federation.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
Yuri Lvovich Averbakh (Ю́рий Льво́вич Аверба́х; born February 8, 1922) is a Soviet and Russian chess player and author.
Yuri Georgievich Felshtinsky (Ю́рий Гео́ргиевич Фельшти́нский, born 7 September 1956 in Moscow) is a Russian American historian.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zoltán Ribli (born September 6, 1951 in Mohács) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster and International Arbiter (1995).
The Zurich Christmas Open (Weihnachtsopen Zürich) is an annual chess tournament that takes place in Zurich, Switzerland.
The 14th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 26 and November 9, 1960, in Leipzig, East Germany.
The 17th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 23 and November 20, 1966, in Havana, Cuba.
The 18th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 17 and November 7, 1968, in Lugano, Switzerland.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The 19th Chess Olympiad, comprising an open team tournament as well as the annual FIDE congress, took place between September 5 and 27, 1970, in Siegen, West Germany.
The 20th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between September 18 and October 13, 1972, in Skopje, Yugoslavia (present-day Macedonia).
The 21st Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between June 6 and June 30, 1974, in Nice, France.