98 relations: Act of Independence of Lithuania, Alexander Kerensky, Antanas Sniečkus, Aušra, Ūkininkas, Bellshill, Bolsheviks, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist International, Communist Party of Lithuania, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Congress Poland, Council of Lithuania, Das Kapital, East Prussia, Encyclopedia Lituanica, Enemy of the people, February Revolution, General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, Georgi Plekhanov, Grand Duchy of Kraków, House of Romanov, January Uprising, Jelgava, Jelgava Gymnasium, Juozas Tumas-Vaižgantas, Karl Kautsky, Karl Marx, Katorga, Kaunas, Kraków, Leon Trotsky, Lithuanian book smugglers, Lithuanian Democratic Party, Lithuanian Land Force, Lithuanian National Revival, Lithuanian press ban, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1918–19), Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lukiškės Prison, Marijampolė, Marijampolė Gymnasium, Marxism, Mensheviks, Moscow, Mykolas Biržiška, Nicholas II of Russia, Nikolai Bukharin, Ober Ost, October Revolution, ..., Pawiak, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Soviet War, Polonization, Povilas Višinskis, Proletarian internationalism, Proletariat, Red Army, Rehabilitation (Soviet), Revolutionary socialism, Russian Empire, Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saint Petersburg, Sejny Priest Seminary, Siberia, Social democracy, Social Democratic Party of Lithuania, Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Soviet Union, Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19, Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty, Suvalkija, Suwałki, Tiesa, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Trotskyism, Tuberculosis, University of Bern, Varpas, Vilkaviškis, Vilkaviškis District Municipality, Vilnius, Vilnius University, Vincas Kudirka, Vladimir Central Prison, Vladimir Lenin, Yakov Sverdlov, Yenisei River, 11th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 12th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 14th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 1905 Russian Revolution, 2nd World Congress of the Comintern, 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks), 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
The Act of Reinstating Independence of Lithuania (Lietuvos Valstybės atkūrimo aktas) or Act of 16 February was signed by the Council of Lithuania on 16 February 1918, proclaiming the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania, governed by democratic principles, with Vilnius as its capital.
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский,; Russian: Александръ Ѳедоровичъ Керенскій; 4 May 1881 – 11 June 1970) was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who was a key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Antanas Sniečkus (– 22 January 1974) was First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party from August 15, 1940 to January 22, 1974.
Aušra or Auszra (literally: dawn) was the first national Lithuanian newspaper.
Ūkininkas or Ukinįkas (literally: The Farmer) was a monthly Lithuanian-language newspaper published during the Lithuanian press ban by the editorial staff of Varpas from 1890 to 1905.
Bellshill (pronounced "Bells hill") is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland, south east of Glasgow city centre and west of Edinburgh.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos komunistų partija, Коммунистическая партия Литвы) was a communist party in Lithuania, established in early October 1918.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
The Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Taryba, Litauischer Staatsrat), after July 11, 1918 the State Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Valstybės Taryba) was convened at the Vilnius Conference that took place between 18 and 23 September 1917.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Encyclopedia Lituanica (likely named after Encyclopædia Britannica or Encyclopedia Americana) is a six-volume (about 3600-page) English language encyclopedia about Lithuania and Lithuania-related topics.
The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia (אַלגעמײַנער ײדישער אַרבעטער בּונד אין ליטע פוילין און רוסלאַנד, Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Litah, Poyln un Rusland), generally called The Bund (בונד, cognate to Bund, meaning federation or union) or the Jewish Labour Bund, was a secular Jewish socialist party in the Russian Empire, active between 1897 and 1920.
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.
The Grand Duchy of Kraków (Großherzogtum Krakau, Wielkie Księstwo Krakowskie) was created after the incorporation of the Free City of Cracow into Austria on 16 November 1846.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Jelgava (Mitau; see also other names) is a city in central Latvia about southwest of Riga with about 63,000 inhabitants.
Jelgava Gymnasium or Academia Petrina is the oldest higher educational establishment in Latvia.
Juozas Tumas, also known by the pen name Vaižgantas (September 20, 1869 – April 29, 1933), was a prominent Lithuanian writer, Roman Catholic priest, social activist, literary historian, and one of the founders of the Party of National Progress.
Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Katorga (p; from medieval and modern Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union (see Katorga labor in the Soviet Union).
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Lithuanian book smugglers (knygnešys, plural: knygnešiai) transported Lithuanian language books printed in the Latin alphabet into Lithuanian-speaking areas of the Russian Empire, defying a ban on such materials in force from 1864 to 1904.
The Lithuanian Democratic Party (Lietuvių demokratų partija, LDP) was a political party in Lithuania The original party was established in 1902.
The Lithuanian Land Forces (LLF) form the backbone of the country's defence force, capable of acting as an integral part of NATO forces.
Lithuanian National Revival, alternatively Lithuanian National Awakening (Lietuvių tautinis atgimimas), was a period of the history of Lithuania in the 19th century at the time when a major part of Lithuanian-inhabited areas belonged to the Russian Empire (the Russian partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth).
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (LSSR) was a short-lived Soviet republic declared on December 16, 1918, by a provisional revolutionary government led by Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas.
The Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR; Lietuvos–Baltarusijos Tarybinė Socialistinė Respublika; Літоўска–Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Литовско–Белорусская ССР; Litewsko–Białoruska Republika Radziecka) or Litbel (Lit-Bel) was a Soviet socialist republic that existed within the territories of modern Belarus and eastern Lithuania for approximately five months during 1919.
Lukiškės Prison (Lukiškių tardymo izoliatorius kalėjimas, in Polish known as Więzienie na Łukiszkach or simply Łukiszki, in Belarusian - Лукішкі) is a prison in the center of Vilnius, Lithuania, near the Lukiškės Square.
Marijampolė (also known by several other names) is an industrial city and the capital of the Marijampolė County in the south of Lithuania, bordering Poland and Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, and Lake Vištytis.
Marijampolė Rygiškių Jonas Gymnasium (Marijampolės Rygiškių Jono gimnazija) is a secondary school in Marijampolė, Lithuania.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mykolas Biržiška (24 August 1882 in Viekšniai – 24 August 1962 in Los Angeles), a Lithuanian editor, historian, professor of literature, diplomat, and politician, was one of the twenty signatories of the Act of Independence of Lithuania.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (– 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory.
Ober Ost is short for Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten, German for "Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East" during World War I. It also has an implied double meaning, as in its own right, "Ober Ost" translates into "Upper East," which describes its geographic region in reference to the German Empire.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Pawiak was a prison built in 1835 in Warsaw, Poland.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Povilas Višinskis (28 June 1875 – 23 April 1906) was a Lithuanian cultural and political activist during the Lithuanian National Revival.
Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Rehabilitation (реабилитация, transliterated in English as reabilitatsiya or academically rendered as reabilitacija) was a term used in the context of the former Soviet Union, and the Post-Soviet states.
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP;, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party in Minsk, Belarus.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Sejny Priest Seminary or Sejny Theological Seminary (Lithuanian: Seinų kunigų seminarija) was a Catholic priest seminary established in Sejny (now Poland) in 1826.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos socialdemokratų partija, LSDP) is a social-democratic political party in Lithuania.
The Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia or Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus (SSRB; Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка Беларусь, Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Социалистическая Советская Республика Белоруссия / ССРБ, Socialističeskaja Sovetskaja Respublika Belorussija / SSRB) was an early republic in the historical territory of Belarus after the collapse of the Russian Empire as a result of the October Revolution.
Sovetsk (Сове́тск), before 1946 known as Tilsit (Tilžė; Tylża) in East Prussia, is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the south bank of the Neman River.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919 was part of the campaign by the proto-Soviet Union into areas abandoned by the Ober Ost garrisons that were being withdrawn to Germany following that country's defeat in World War I. The initially successful offensive against the Republic of Estonia ignited the Estonian War of Independence which ended with the Soviet recognition of Estonia.
The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty, also known as the Moscow Peace Treaty, was signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920.
Suvalkija or Sudovia (Sūduva or Suvalkija or Užnemunė) is the smallest of the five cultural regions of Lithuania.
Suwałki (Suvalkai, סואוואַלק) is a city in northeastern Poland with 69,210 inhabitants (2011).
Tiesa (English: truth) was the official daily newspaper in the Lithuanian SSR.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The University of Bern (Universität Bern, Université de Berne, Universitas Bernensis) is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern and was founded in 1834.
Varpas (literally: The Bell) was a monthly Lithuanian-language newspaper published during the Lithuanian press ban from January 1889 to December 1905.
Vilkaviškis (is a city in southwestern Lithuania. It is located northwest from Marijampolė, on a bank of Šeimena River. The city got its name from the Vilkauja River, a tributary to Šeimena. Initially named Vilkaujiškis the name was later changed to an easier to pronounce form Vilkaviškis. Until 1941 the city had a large Jewish Community which was annihilated by the Nazis and their local collaborators. The whole Jewish population was killed in a single day,(tzom-gedalia), after the entry of the Germans into the city. This is the town from which the Cauliflower Revolution originated.
Vilkaviškis District Municipality is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vilnius University (Vilniaus universitetas; former names exist) is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe.
Vincas Kudirka (&ndash) was a Lithuanian poet and physician, and the author of both the music and lyrics of the Lithuanian National Anthem, Tautiška giesmė.
Vladimir Prison, popularly known as Vladimir Central (Владимирский централ), is a prison in Vladimir, Russia.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (Яков Михайлович Свердлов; 3 June 1885 – 16 March 1919) known by pseudonyms "Andrei", "Mikhalych", "Max", "Smirnov", "Permyakov"; was a Bolshevik party administrator and chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
The 11th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during 27 March - 2 April 1922 in Moscow.
The 12th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 17–25 April 1923 in Moscow.
The 14th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was held during 18–31 December 1925 in Moscow.
The 17th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during 26 January – 10 February 1934.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 2nd World Congress of the Comintern was a gathering of approximately 220 voting and non-voting representatives of Communist and revolutionary socialist political parties from around the world, held in Petrograd and Moscow from July 19 to August 7, 1920.
The 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (bolsheviks) was held during 26 July - 3 August (N.S. 8–16 August 1917) in Petrograd, Russia.
The 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (b) was held in Moscow 18–23 March 1919.