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A Plus (aplus.com) is a digital media company based in New York City.
The Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN, stylized aptn) is a Canadian broadcast and Category A cable television network.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Abortion law permits, prohibits, restricts, or otherwise regulates the availability of abortion.
Abuse during childbirth (or obstetric violence) is the neglect, physical abuse and lack of respect during childbirth.
Abusive power and control (also controlling behavior, coercive control and sharp power) is the way that an abusive person gains and maintains power and control over another person, as a victim, in order to subject that person to psychological, physical, sexual, or financial abuse.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid throwing, also called an acid attack, a vitriol attack or vitriolage, is a form of violent assault defined as the act of throwing acid or a similarly corrosive substance onto the body of another "with the intention to disfigure, maim, torture, or kill".
Addiction is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and other Drugs.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African Journal of Reproductive Health/La Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive is a peer-reviewed public health journal that covers original research on reproductive health in Africa.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al Jazeera America (AJAM) was an American basic cable and satellite news television channel owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Masry Al-Youm (المصرى اليوم,, meaning The Egyptian Today) is an Egyptian privately owned daily newspaper that was first published in June 2004.
Alaska Dispatch is a news organization founded in 2008 and based in Anchorage, Alaska.
Alberto Kenya Fujimori Fujimori (born 26 July 1938 or 4 August 1938) is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000.
The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology.
American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association (AAA), published quarterly by Wiley.
The American Council on Education (ACE) is a U.S. higher education organization established in 1918.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The American Political Science Association (APSA) is a professional association of political science students and scholars in the United States.
The American Political Science Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of political science.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences is an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the New York Academy of Sciences.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
The Association for Women's Rights in Development(AWID), formerly the Association for Women in Development, is an international, feminist, membership organization committed to achieving gender equality, sustainable development and women's human rights established in 1982.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
The Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) is Australia's national research and knowledge centre on crime and criminal justice.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Battery is a criminal offense involving the unlawful physical acting upon a threat, distinct from assault which is the act of creating apprehension of such contact.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
BibleGateway.com is a website designed to allow easy reading, listening, studying, searching, and sharing of the Christian Bible in many different versions and translations, including English, French, Spanish, and other languages (see below).
Big Think, a multimedia web portal, was founded in 2007 with the intent to organize and connect information on the internet.
Birth is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal publishing research covering childbirth and related topics.
Bloomberg BNA, formerly known as The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. and BNA, is a subsidiary of Bloomberg L.P. and a source of legal, tax, regulatory, and business information for professionals.
BMJ (previously BMJ Group, rebranded in 2013), is a provider of journals, clinical decision support, events and medical education.
Bodily integrity is the inviolability of the physical body and emphasizes the importance of personal autonomy and the self-determination of human beings over their own bodies.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Bride burning or bride-burning is a form of domestic violence practiced in countries located on or around the Indian subcontinent.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
The Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development (until 2015: Digital Development) was established in May 2010 as a joint initiative by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to promote Internet access.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
California State University (Cal State or CSU) is a public university system in California.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Campaign against the Lebanese rape-marriage law Article 522, officially known as "A White Dress Doesn't Cover the Rape", was launched by the Lebanese non-governmental organization Abaad MENA in December 2016.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples.
The Canadian Journal of Sociology publishes research and theory by social scientists on Canadian and world culture.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chhaupadi (छाउपडी) is a social tradition associated with the menstrual taboo in the western part of Nepal.
Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A clinician is a health care professional that works as a primary care giver of a patient in a hospital, skilled nursing facility, clinic, or patient's home.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal affiliated with the Cultural Studies Association of Australasia.
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) is a Council of Europe convention against violence against women and domestic violence which was opened for signature on 11 May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) is a nonprofit national association representing more than 2,500 individual members, as well as graduate and undergraduate programs of professional social work education.
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.
Coverture (sometimes spelled couverture) was a legal doctrine whereby, upon marriage, a woman's legal rights and obligations were subsumed by those of her husband, in accordance with the wife's legal status of feme covert.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Crossing Continents is a half-hour BBC Radio 4 documentary strand focusing on foreign affairs issues.
Cyberbullying or cyberharassment is a form of bullying or harassment using electronic means.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Dagens Nyheter (lit. "the day's news"), abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden.
Dating is a stage of romantic relationships in humans whereby two people meet socially with the aim of each assessing the other's suitability as a prospective partner in an intimate relationship or marriage.
Deccan Chronicle is an Indian English-language daily newspaper.
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women was adopted without vote by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Domestic violence in Bolivia is a pervasive and underreported problem.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Dowry deaths are deaths of women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Duke University School of Law (also known as Duke Law School or Duke Law) is the law school and a constituent academic unit of Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
means "compensated dating" and is the Japanese language term for the practice of older men giving money and/or luxury gifts to attractive young women for their companionship or possibly for sexual favors.
Essel Group is an Indian conglomerate company presently headed by Dr.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Institute for Gender Equality is a Vilnius-based agency of the European Union inaugurated in 2007.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eve teasing is a euphemism used throughout South Asia, which includes (but is not limited to) India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal for public sexual harassment or sexual assault of women by men, the name "Eve" alluding to the very first woman, according to the Biblical creation story.
Exploitation of labour is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.
Extramarital sex occurs when a married person engages in sexual activity with someone other than his or her spouse.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
FallujahSometimes also transliterated as Falluja, Fallouja, or Falowja (الفلوجة, Iraqi pronunciation) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
The Feinstein International Center (FIC) is a research and teaching center based at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Female infanticide is the deliberate killing of newborn female children.
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.
Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.
Force-feeding is the practice of feeding a human or other animal against their will.
A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of woman's incapability to give her consent, or where she gives her consent under duress.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Forced pregnancy is the practice of forcing a woman to become pregnant, often as part of a forced marriage, or as part of a programme of breeding slaves, or as part of a programme of genocide.
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
Gang rape occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Gender & Development is a peer-reviewed journal published triannualy by Taylor and Francis and Oxfam to provide "promote, inspire, and support development policy and practice." The editor-in-chief is Caroline Sweetman (Oxfam, GB).
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Genocidal rape is a term used to describe the actions of a group who have carried out acts of mass rape during wartime against their perceived enemy as part of a genocidal campaign.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
GlobalPost is an online US digital journalism company that focuses on international news founded on January 12, 2009 by Philip S. Balboni and Charles M. Sennott.
The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (in French: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement (previously known as Institut (universitaire) de hautes études internationales), abbreviated IHEID (previously HEI, IHEI, or IUHEI) is a post-graduate university located in Geneva, Switzerland. The institution counts one UN secretary-general (Kofi Annan), seven Nobel Prize recipients, one Pulitzer Prize winner, and numerous ambassadors, foreign ministers, and heads of state among its alumni and faculty. Founded by two senior League of Nations officials, the Graduate Institute maintains strong links with that international organisation's successor, the United Nations, and many alumni have gone on to work at UN agencies. The school is a full member of the APSIA. Founded in 1927, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (IHEI or HEI) is continental Europe's oldest school of international relations and was the world's first university dedicated solely to the study of international affairs. It offered one of the first doctoral programmes in international relations in the world. In 2008, the Graduate Institute absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, a smaller post-graduate institution also based in Geneva founded in 1961. The merger resulted in the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. Today the school enrolls about 800 graduate students from over 100 countries. Foreign students make up nearly 80% of the student body and the school is officially a bilingual English-French institution, although the majority of classes are in English.. With Maison de la Paix acting as its primary seat of learning, the Institute's campuses are located blocks from the United Nations Office at Geneva, International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, International Committee of the Red Cross, World Intellectual Property Organization and many other international organizations. It runs joint degree programmes with universities such as Smith College and Yale University, and is Harvard Kennedy School's only partner university to co-deliver double degrees.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Harassment covers a wide range of behaviors of an offensive nature.
The Harvard Law Review is a law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hassi Messaoud (حاسي مسعود) is a town in Ouargla Province, eastern Algeria, located southeast of Ouargla.
Hassi Messaoud controversy (mob attacks against women) (in French: L'affaire des femmes violées de Hassi Messaoud) refers to many especially violent attacks against women living in the city of Hassi Messaoud in Algeria in July 2001 and the continuing court cases associated with it.
A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership (or perceived membership) in a certain social group or race.
Health & Place is a bimonthly peer-reviewed public health journal covering the relationship between geographic location and health.
Health and Human Rights is a biannual peer-reviewed public health journal that was established in 1994.
The word hijab refers to both the head-covering traditionally worn by some Muslim women and Islamic styles of dress in general.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
Homicide Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of homicide.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Human rights defenders or human rights activists are people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell.
I.G. and Others vs.
In These Times is an American politically progressive/democratic socialist monthly magazine of news and opinion published in Chicago, Illinois.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indiana University Maurer School of Law is located on the campus of Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.
Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.
The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt, on 5–13 September 1994.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The United Nations General Assembly has designated November 25 as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women (Resolution 54/134).
The International Feminist Journal of Politics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering international relations and international political economy with a focus on gender issues in global politics.
International human rights instruments are treaties and other international documents relevant to international human rights law and the protection of human rights in general.
The International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID), established in 1986, is a non-profit organization that works to control infectious disease outbreaks and improve the care of patients afflicted with these conditions.
The Internet Sacred Text Archive (ISTA) is a Santa Cruz, California based website dedicated to the preservation of electronic public domain texts, specifically those with significant cultural value.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner.
Intimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury or harm.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The Irish Statute Book, also known as the electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB), is a database produced by the Office of the Attorney General of Ireland.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of research in HIV/AIDS, including basic science, clinical science, and epidemiology.
The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering both child and adolescent psychology and psychiatry.
The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology is a monthly academic journal published by the American Psychological Association.
The Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health is a peer-reviewed public health journal that covers all aspects of epidemiology and public health.
The Journal of Interpersonal Violence is a peer-reviewed, academic journal that publishes papers in the field of criminology, and focuses on the study of victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence.
The Journal of Marriage and Family is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the National Council on Family Relations.
The Journal of Sport & Social Issues is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of sociology.
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.
Justin Pierre James Trudeau (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada since 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2013.
The Khaama Press News Agency (Pashto: خامه پرس خبری آژانس) (Persian: خبرگزاری خامه پرس) is the largest news agency in Afghanistan which was established in October 2010 in Kabul, Afghanistan by Khushnood Nabizada, an Afghan journalist.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
The Kovno ghetto was a ghetto established by Nazi Germany to hold the Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas during the Holocaust.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Leblouh (lə-blūḥ) is the practice of force-feeding girls from as young as five to teenagers, in Mauritania, Western Sahara, and southern Morocco, where obesity was traditionally regarded as desirable.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.
Lisa Olson is an American sports journalist.
This is a list of incidents of violence against women.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lobola in Zulu, Swazi, Xhosa and northern and southern Ndebele (Mahadi in Sesotho, Roora in Shona, and Magadi in Northern Sotho, Lovola in Xitsonga), sometimes referred to as either "bride wealth" or as "bride price", is property in cash or kind, which a prospective husband or head of his family undertakes to give to the head of a prospective wife’s family in consideration of a customary marriage.
Mahmoudiyah (المحمودية) (also transliterated Al-Mahmudiyah, Al-Mahmoudi, or Al-Mahmudiya, prefixed usually with Al-) is a rural city south of Baghdad.
The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, better known as the Maputo Protocol, guarantees comprehensive rights to women including the right to take part in the political process, to social and political equality with men, improved autonomy in their reproductive health decisions, and an end to female genital mutilation.
Marital rape (or spousal rape) is the act of sexual intercourse with one's spouse without the spouse's consent.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology, a section of the American Anthropological Association, by Wiley-Blackwell.
The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) opened in Charleston, South Carolina in 1824 as a small private college for the training of physicians.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
As defined by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, military sexual trauma (MST) refers to experiences of sexual assault, or repeated threatening sexual harassment that occurred while a person was in the United States Armed Forces.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Minister of the Interior (Ministre de l'Intérieur) is an important position in the Government of France.
The Ministry of Human Rights was a cabinet-level ministry within the government of Iraq between 2003 and 2015.
Misogyny can occur in horror films when there is a degrading representation of women.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
N.B. vs Slovakia is the second case concerning forced sterilization of Romani people or Gypsy women from Slovakia decided by the European Court of Human Rights.
The National Advisory Council on Violence Against Women was created in 1995 by Health and Human Services and the Department of Justice.
National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV) is the voice of victims and survivors of domestic violence.
The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally sponsored program that shares publications and other information including grants and funding opportunities and upcoming trainings and conferences from the United States Department of Justice's Office of Justice Programs (OJP) agencies and National Institute of Corrections (NIC).
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice.
The National Union of Students of the United Kingdom (NUS) is a confederation of students' unions in the United Kingdom.
Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.
Nazand Begikhani is a contemporary British writer, poet and academic researcher of Kurdish origin, and an active advocate of human rights.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
The New York City Bar Association (City Bar), founded in 1870, is a voluntary association of lawyers and law students.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Obstetrics & Gynecology is a peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of obstetrics and gynecology.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
The one-child policy, a part of the family planning policy, was a population planning policy of China.
In computer technology and telecommunications, online indicates a state of connectivity, and offline indicates a disconnected state.
Open Medicine is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal.
The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (OP-CEDAW) is an international treaty which establishes complaint and inquiry mechanisms for the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
An orphanage is a residential institution devoted to the care of orphans—children whose biological parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to take care of them.
Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO; originally the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau) is an international public health agency working to improve health and living standards of the people of the Americas.
The Pan American Journal of Public Health (Spanish: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública) is a peer-reviewed open-access public health journal covering research and case studies on issues of public health significance, mainly in areas related to national and local health systems, to improve the health of the peoples of the Americas.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Pathfinder International, based in Watertown, Massachusetts, is a global non-profit organization (NGO 501(c)(3)) that focuses on reproductive health, family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention and care, and maternal health.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Perspectives on Politics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering political science.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
A police station (sometimes called a "station house" in the US) is a building which serves to accommodate police officers and other members of staff.
The Population Council is an international, nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Premarital sex is sexual activity practiced by people before they are married.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol or UN TIP Protocol) is a protocol to the Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.
Psychology of Women Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the fields of psychology and women's studies.
Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.
PsycINFO is a database of abstracts of literature in the field of psychology.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public Health Reports (or PHR) is a peer-reviewed public health journal established in 1878 and published by the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health on behalf of the United States Public Health Service.
The Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting is an American news media organization established in 2006 that sponsors independent reporting on global issues that other media outlets are less willing or able to undertake on their own.
Pardah or pardah is the term used primarily in South Asia, (from پرده, meaning "curtain") to describe in the South Asian context, the global religious and social practice of female seclusion that is associated with Muslim communities.
The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
The Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) is an American, non-profit anti-sexual assault organization, the largest in the United States.
According to Michael First of the DSM-5 working committee the focus of a relational disorder, in contrast to other DSM-IV disorders, "is on the relationship rather than on any one individual in the relationship".
Reproductive coercion (also called coerced reproduction) is threats or acts of violence against a partner's reproductive health or reproductive decision-making and is a collection of behaviors intended to pressure or coerce a partner into initiating or terminating a pregnancy.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
Reproductive Health Matters (RHM) is a non governmental organisation promoting universal sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Review of African Political Economy is a refereed academic journal covering African political economy.
Rhinotomy is mutilation, usually amputation, of the nose.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
Rock Center with Brian Williams was an American weekly television newsmagazine that was broadcast on NBC and hosted by NBC Nightly News anchor Brian Williams.
A roommate is a person with whom one shares a living facility such as a room or dormitory without being family or romantically involved.
Roopkuvarba Kanwar (c. 1969 – 4 September 1987) was a Rajput woman who was immolated at Deorala village of Sikar district in Rajasthan, India.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), "Royal Gendarmerie of Canada"; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as "the Force") is the federal and national police force of Canada.
RTI International (formerly Research Triangle Institute) is a nonprofit organization headquartered in the Research Triangle Park in North Carolina that provides research and technical services.
Rudaw Media Network (تۆڕی میدیایی ڕووداو), also known as Rudaw (Rûdaw ڕووداو), is a KDP-affiliated media group in Iraqi Kurdistan.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saving Face is a 2012 documentary film directed by Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy and Daniel Junge about acid attacks on women in Pakistan.
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.
School-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) can be defined as acts or threats of sexual, physical or psychological violence happening in and around schools.
Scottish Affairs is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering Scottish politics.
Seclusion is the act of secluding, i.e. shutting out or keeping apart from society, or the state of being secluded, or a place that facilitates it (a secluded place).
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The sex industry (also called the sex trade) consists of businesses which either directly or indirectly provide sex-related products and services or adult entertainment.
Sex-selective abortion is the practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the infant.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
There is an ongoing problem with sexual assault in the United States armed forces which has received extensive media coverage in the past several years.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual jihad (جهاد النكاح, jihad al-nikah) refers to the purported practice in which Sunni women sympathetic to Salafi jihadism travel to warzones such as Syria and voluntarily offer themselves to be "married" to jihadist militants, often repeatedly and in temporary marriages, serving sexual comfort roles to help boost the fighters' morale.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
Sexual violence is any sexual act or attempt to obtain a sexual act by violence or coercion, acts to traffic a person or acts directed against a person's sexuality, regardless of the relationship to the victim.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy (شرمین عبید چنائے; born 12 November 1978) is a Pakistani journalist, filmmaker and activist.
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society is a peer-reviewed feminist academic journal.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
The Sinjar Mountains (Çiyayên Şengalê چیای شەنگال/شەنگار; جبل سنجار; also Shingal\Shengar Mountains) are a mountain range that runs east to west, rising above the surrounding alluvial steppe plains in northwestern Iraq to an elevation of.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Slave breeding in the United States includes any practice of slave ownership that aimed to systematically influence the reproduction of slaves in order to increase the wealth of slaveholders.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.
Social Justice is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1974 as Crime and Social Justice.
The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a website devoted to the rapid dissemination of scholarly research in the social sciences and humanities.
The South African Medical Research Council is a para-statal medical research organisation in South Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spiegel Online (SPON) is one of the most widely read German-language news websites.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stalking is unwanted or repeated surveillance by an individual or group towards another person.
The Stanford Law Review (SLR) is a legal journal produced independently by Stanford Law School students.
Stanford Law School (also known as Stanford Law or SLS) is a professional graduate school of Stanford University, located in the Silicon Valley near Palo Alto, California.
Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is a Canadian economist, entrepreneur, and retired politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada, from February 6, 2006, to November 4, 2015.
Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.
Studies in Family Planning is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Population Council.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Susan Brownmiller (born February 15, 1935) is an American feminist journalist, author, and activist best known for her 1975 book Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Terry Gross (born February 14, 1951) is the host and co-executive producer of Fresh Air, an interview-based radio show produced by WHYY-FM in Philadelphia and distributed throughout the United States by NPR.
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, known as "The Chicago School," is a graduate university specializing in psychology.
The Daily Gazette, formerly The Schenectady Gazette, is an independently owned daily newspaper based in Schenectady, New York and mainly covers the counties of Schenectady, Albany, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Fulton, Schoharie, and Montgomery.
The Denver Post is a daily newspaper and website that has been published in the Denver, Colorado area since 1892.
The Dying Rooms is a 1995 television documentary film about Chinese state orphanages.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic medical journal covering medical ethics and medical law.
The Kathmandu Post is a major daily newspaper published in Nepal.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Raw Story (also stylized as RawStory) is an American online news organization founded in 2004 by John Byrne.
The Salt Lake Tribune is a daily newspaper published in the city of Salt Lake City, Utah, with the largest weekday circulation but second largest Sunday circulation behind the Deseret News.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Thieme Medical Publishers is a German medical and science publisher in the Thieme Publishing Group.
Thomson Reuters Foundation is the London-based charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, a Canadian global information and news network.
Thomson Reuters Foundation News, formerly Alertnet, is an award winning global news service available free of charge to hundreds of smaller media outlets and non-government organisations around the world.
Today, also called The Today Show, is an American news and talk morning television show that airs on NBC.
is a private university in Mito, Ibaraki, Japan, established in 1983.
Tostan (meaning "breakthrough" in the West African language of Wolof) is a US-registered 501(c)(3) international nongovernmental organization with current operations in over 450 communities in Senegal, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, The Gambia, Mali, and Mauritania.
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research on trauma, abuse, and violence.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, also known as UN Women, is a United Nations entity working for the empowerment of women.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW or UNCSW) is a functional commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), one of the main UN organs within the United Nations.
The United Nations Development Fund for Women, commonly known as UNIFEM (from the French "Fonds de développement des Nations unies pour la femme") was established in December 1976 originally as the Voluntary Fund for the United Nations Decade for Women in the International Women's Year.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (S/RES/1325), on women, peace, and security, was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on 31 October 2000, after recalling resolutions 1261 (1999), 1265 (1999), 1296 (2000), and 1314 (2000).
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
The University of Calabria (Università della Calabria, UNICAL) is a state-run university in Italy.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
The University of Osnabrück (Universität Osnabrück) is a public research university located in the city of Osnabrück in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus (Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Río Piedras), also referred to as UPR-RP and La IUPI, is a public research university.
The University of South Alabama (USA), officially nicknamed "South", is a public, national research university in Mobile, Alabama, United States.
The University of Virginia School of Law (Virginia Law or UVA Law) was founded in Charlottesville in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson as one of the original subjects taught at his "academical village," the University of Virginia.
V.C. vs Slovakia was the first case in which the European Court for Human Rights ruled in favor of a Romani woman who was a victim of forced sterilization in the state hospital in Slovakia.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Victimisation (or victimization) is the process of being victimised or becoming a victim.
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, also known as VDPA, is a human rights declaration adopted by consensus at the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993 in Vienna, Austria.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people can face violence motivated by hateful attitudes towards their sexuality or gender identity.
Violence against men (VAM), consists of violent acts that are disproportionately or exclusively committed against men.
Violence Against Women is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of women's studies.
The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) is a United States federal law (Title IV, sec. 40001-40703 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act) signed as by President Bill Clinton on September 13, 1994 (codified in part at 42 U.S.C. sections 13701 through 14040).
The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994,, is an Act of Congress dealing with crime and law enforcement; it became law in 1994.
The Virginia Law Review is a law review edited and published by students at University of Virginia School of Law.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment.
Walī (ولي, plural ʾawliyāʾ أولياء) is an Arabic word with a number of meanings, including "custodian", "protector", "helper", "a man close to God", or "holy man", etc.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives.
The Wíčazo Ša Review ("Red Pencil" in Lakota) is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of Native American studies.
Weekend Edition is a set of American radio news magazine programs produced and distributed by National Public Radio (NPR).
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
WHYY-FM (90.9 FM, "91 FM") is a public FM radio station licensed to serve Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Widow inheritance (also known as bride inheritance) is a cultural and social practice whereby a widow is required to marry a male relative of her late husband, often his brother.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
The period of witch trials in Early Modern Europe were a widespread moral panic suggesting that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom during the 16th to 18th centuries.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
A woman is an adult female human being.
The WomanStats Project is a donor-funded research and database project housed at Brigham Young University that "seeks to collect detailed statistical data on the status of women around the world, and to connect that data with data on the security of states."D'Anieri, Paul J. International Politics: Power and Purpose in Global Affairs. Wadsworth Publishing (2009), 104.
Women's Islamic Initiative in Spirituality and Equality, (WISE, or WISE Muslim Women) is a global organization dedicated to promoting women's rights, and social justice which is led by Muslim women.
Women's police stations (also units or offices) – Comisaría de la Mujer, Delegacia da mulher – are police stations specializing in crimes with female victims.
A women's shelter, also known as a women's refuge and battered women's shelter, is a place of temporary protection and support for women escaping domestic violence and intimate partner violence of all forms.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL.
The World Conference on Human Rights was held by the United Nations in Vienna, Austria, on 14 to 25 June 1993.
The Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace was the name given for a conference convened by the United Nations during 4–15 September 1995 in Beijing, China.
The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 194 member states.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The Yale Journal of Law and Feminism is a law review published biannually by Yale Law School.
Yale Law School (often referred to as Yale Law or YLS) is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zee News is an Indian news channel launched in 6 July 1999 and is the flagship property of Zee Media Corporation Limited, company and a subsidiary of Essel Group.The channel is owned by Subhash Chandra, an independent member of the Rajya Sabha.
The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight, as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights.
A coup d'état took place in Mauritania on August 6, 2008 when Mauritanian President Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdallahi was ousted from power by a group of high-ranking generals he had dismissed from office earlier that day.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
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